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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Self-organizing and Systems Mapping
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Collective action problem in heterogeneous groups

Collective action problem in heterogeneous groups | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

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António F Fonseca's curator insight, November 4, 2015 4:54 AM

A very good review paper about collective action. Applying Mancur Olson's insights to Biology and groups.

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RebilderU - Accelerated Learning using the Art of Memory

RebilderU - Accelerated Learning using the Art of Memory | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
RebilderU Accelerated Learning courses enable anyone to learn foreign languages in days, programming in hours, & entire degree programs in just weeks.
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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity & Systems
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Why Systems Thinking is Not a Natural Act

Competence in systems thinking is implicitly assumed among the population of engineers and managers — in fact, most technical people claim to be systems ...


Via Ides De Vos, Jürgen Kanz, Bernard Ryefield
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FOCUS: Complexity and the failure of quantitative social science

FOCUS: Complexity and the failure of quantitative social science | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Photo: Walter Baxter - licensed for reuse CC BY-SA 2.0 Brian Castellani (Kent State University)   When I attended university in 1984 as a psychology undergraduate in the States, the pathway to...

Via Christophe Bredillet, Bernard Ryefield
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Christophe Bredillet's curator insight, July 26, 2015 11:21 AM

I love this map (this one and previous versions) and use(d) it quite often

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The Hidden Power Laws of Ecosystems - Issue 29: Scaling - Nautilus

The Hidden Power Laws of Ecosystems - Issue 29: Scaling - Nautilus | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Here’s how to cause a ruckus: Ask a bunch of naturalists to simplify the world. We usually think in terms of a web of complicated…

Via Bernard Ryefield
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Gary Bamford's curator insight, November 1, 2015 3:52 PM

The complexity of complexity!

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Giordano Bruno's Memory System - Art of Memory

Giordano Bruno's Memory System - Art of Memory | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Here is a fascinating webpage about Giordano Bruno’s memory system. Frances Yates reconstructed Bruno’s mnemonic wheel based on his book De Umbris Idearum. De Umbris Idearum can be downloaded here.

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Alfred North Whitehead: The Cosmology of Life

Alfred North Whitehead: The Cosmology of Life | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Whitehead would conceive his work in Process and Reality as that of a cosmographer: it would make explicit the cosmology of our times as compared to the two main cosmologies that have dominated the...

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Classics for the people – why we should all learn from the ancient Greeks

Classics for the people – why we should all learn from the ancient Greeks | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
The dazzling thought-world of the Greeks gave us our ideas of democracy and happiness. Yet learning classics tends to be restricted to the privileged few. It’s time for ‘elitist dinosaurs’ to embrace a citizens’ classics for all

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Life’s Quantum Crystal Ball

Life’s Quantum Crystal Ball | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Does the ability to predict the future—perhaps with quantum help—define the fundamental difference between living and inanimate matter?


Via Bernard Ryefield
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Emergence, self-organization and network efficiency in gigantic termite-nest-networks build using simple rules

Termites, like many social insects, build nests of complex architecture. These constructions have been proposed to optimize different structural features. Here we describe the nest network of the termite Nasutitermes ephratae, which is among the largest nest-network reported for termites and show that it optimizes diverse parameters defining the network architecture. The network structure avoids multiple crossing of galleries and minimizes the overlap of foraging territories. Thus, these termites are able to minimize the number of galleries they build, while maximizing the foraging area available at the nest mounds. We present a simple computer algorithm that reproduces the basics characteristics of this termite nest network, showing that simple rules can produce complex architectural designs efficiently.

 

Emergence, self-organization and network efficiency in gigantic termite-nest-networks build using simple rules
Diego Griffon, Carmen Andara, Klaus Jaffe

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.01487 ;


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Eli Levine's curator insight, June 5, 2015 1:53 PM

Confucius observed that when humans follow a particular, internalized code and logic, the need for the top-down command and control forms of social organization disappear, allowing for much more effective and efficient bottom-up systems of organization to arise.  In other words, laws from on high levels of government should be simple, basic, and in accordance with the present natural laws and conditions of bottom-up organization.  Imagine a border collie moving sheep in a particular direction.  It guides the system by moving them in the general direction that the farmer needs while simply correcting and focusing on those sheep who stray from the flock or begin to pull the flock in undesirable directions.  Each society probably uses different strategies depending upon their own internal logic and "state of propriety".

 

In the United States, it seems that we get extremely focused on the details and what was past rather than consider the general principles behind the laws, which are reflective of our actual values and stable desires as a nation.  We need to refer back to the principles and deeper meaning of the Constitution and not get so hung up about what is or isn't actually written in the Constitution.  It's this intuitive base level of understanding where the logic of our society is and how we are doing that is relative to that common direction we all share as Americans that is more likely to help us.  The details of which sheep are going where is insignificant relative to the big picture of what direction are the sheep as a flock headed and which ones are pulling us in those unhealthy directions.  Sadly, Americans prefer to look at the sheep rather than the flock at their own expense.  That's probably how we got so many highly detailed laws and rules that are contradictory or counter to our base principles and values.  Silly society.  Silly people.

A. J. Alvarez-Socorro's curator insight, June 23, 2015 2:07 AM

Interesting

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Bacterial Ventures into Multicellularity: Collectivism through Individuality

Bacterial Ventures into Multicellularity: Collectivism through Individuality | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Multicellular eukaryotes can perform functions that exceed the possibilities of an individual cell. These functions emerge through interactions between differentiated cells that are precisely arranged in space. Bacteria also form multicellular collectives that consist of differentiated but genetically identical cells. How does the functionality of these collectives depend on the spatial arrangement of the differentiated bacteria? In a previous issue of PLOS Biology, van Gestel and colleagues reported an elegant example of how the spatial arrangement of differentiated cells gives rise to collective behavior in Bacillus subtilus colonies, further demonstrating the similarity of bacterial collectives to higher multicellular organisms.

 

van Vliet S, Ackermann M (2015) Bacterial Ventures into Multicellularity: Collectivism through Individuality. PLoS Biol 13(6): e1002162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002162 ;


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Five Things We Still Don’t Know About Water

Five Things We Still Don’t Know About Water | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

1. How Many Kinds of Ice Are There?

2. Are There Two Kinds of Liquid Water?

3. How Does Water Evaporate?

4. Is the Surface of Liquid Water Acidic or Basic?

5. Is Nanoconfined Water Different?

 

http://nautil.us/issue/25/water/five-things-we-still-dont-know-about-water ;


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Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks

The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated to different arrangements of the connections; but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence, nor the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.

 

Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks
Luís F Seoane, Ricard Solé

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.06937


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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity in Education
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In social networks, group boundaries promote the spread of ideas, study finds

In social networks, group boundaries promote the spread of ideas, study finds | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Social networks affect every aspect of our lives, from the jobs we get and the technologies we adopt to the partners we choose and the healthiness of our lifestyles. But where do they come from?

Via Keith Hamon
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Keith Hamon's curator insight, July 3, 2015 5:34 PM

Boundaries are critical for the movement of information. They enable the flow of information.

 

Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity & Systems
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Life’s Quantum Crystal Ball

Life’s Quantum Crystal Ball | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Does the ability to predict the future—perhaps with quantum help—define the fundamental difference between living and inanimate matter?


Via Bernard Ryefield
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Using Chaos Theory to Predict and Prevent Catastrophic 'Dragon King' Events

Using Chaos Theory to Predict and Prevent Catastrophic 'Dragon King' Events | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Stop a stock trade and avoid a catastrophic global financial crash. Seal a microscopic crack and prevent a rocket explosion. Push a button to avert a citywide blackout.

Though such situations are mostly fantasies, a new analysis suggests that certain types of extreme events occurring in complex systems – known as dragon king events – can be predicted and prevented.


Via Claudia Mihai, Complexity Digest, Bill Aukett, Jürgen Kanz, Bernard Ryefield
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Ali Anani's curator insight, November 9, 2013 3:54 AM

Can we control  the uncontrollable? 

Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity & Systems
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Sociology and Complexity Science blog: New 2015 Version of Map of the Complexity Sciences

Sociology and Complexity Science blog: New 2015 Version of Map of the Complexity Sciences | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Via Bernard Ryefield
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The Hidden Power Laws of Ecosystems - Issue 29: Scaling - Nautilus

The Hidden Power Laws of Ecosystems - Issue 29: Scaling - Nautilus | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Here’s how to cause a ruckus: Ask a bunch of naturalists to simplify the world. We usually think in terms of a web of complicated…

Via Bernard Ryefield
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Gary Bamford's curator insight, November 1, 2015 3:52 PM

The complexity of complexity!

Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Image of the World
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Mind and Matter: No Separation

Mind and Matter: No Separation | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Many of our most detrimental misconceptions about human nature stem from the erroneous belief that mind and matter are separate.

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Temple Medicine, Oracles and the Making of Modernity: The Ancient Greek Occult in Anthropology and Psychology

Temple Medicine, Oracles and the Making of Modernity: The Ancient Greek Occult in Anthropology and Psychology | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Among the key figures in the hidden history of the human sciences are the Munich philosopher Carl du Prel (1839-1899) and the Cambridge classicist and psychologist Frederic W. H. Myers (1843-1901).

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Part I - Mind, Memory, and Archetype Morphic Resonance and the Collective Unconscious

Part I - Mind, Memory, and Archetype Morphic Resonance and the Collective Unconscious | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
http://t.co/lEXfPv7ZNY

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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Papers
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An Information-Theoretic Perspective on Coarse-Graining, Including the Transition from Micro to Macro

An information-theoretic perspective on coarse-graining is presented. It starts with an information characterization of configurations at the micro-level using a local information quantity that has a spatial average equal to a microscopic entropy. With a reversible micro dynamics, this entropy is conserved. In the micro-macro transition, it is shown how this local information quantity is transformed into a macroscopic entropy, as the local states are aggregated into macroscopic concentration variables. The information loss in this transition is identified, and the connection to the irreversibility of the macro dynamics and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. This is then connected to a process of further coarse-graining towards higher characteristic length scales in the context of chemical reaction-diffusion dynamics capable of pattern formation. On these higher levels of coarse-graining, information flows across length scales and across space are defined. These flows obey a continuity equation for information, and they are connected to the thermodynamic constraints of the system, via an outflow of information from macroscopic to microscopic levels in the form of entropy production, as well as an inflow of information, from an external free energy source, if a spatial chemical pattern is to be maintained.

 

An Information-Theoretic Perspective on Coarse-Graining, Including the Transition from Micro to Macro
Kristian Lindgren

Entropy 2015, 17(5), 3332-3351; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e17053332 ;


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Generalized communities in networks

A substantial volume of research has been devoted to studies of community structure in networks, but communities are not the only possible form of large-scale network structure. Here we describe a broad extension of community structure that encompasses traditional communities but includes a wide range of generalized structural patterns as well. We describe a principled method for detecting this generalized structure in empirical network data and demonstrate with real-world examples how it can be used to learn new things about the shape and meaning of networks.

 

Generalized communities in networks
M. E. J. Newman, Tiago P. Peixoto

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.07478


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A. J. Alvarez-Socorro's curator insight, June 23, 2015 2:08 AM

Generalized communities in networks

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Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

Common decision-making models arise from firm axiomatic foundations but do not account for a variety of empirically observed choice patterns such as risk attitudes in the face of high-impact events. Here, we argue that one reason for this mismatch between theory and data lies in the neglect of basic biological principles such as metabolic homeostasis. We use Bayesian model comparison to show that models based on homeostatic considerations explain human decisions better than classic economic models—both in a novel virtual foraging task and in standard economic gambles. Specifically, we show that in line with the principle of homeostasis human choice minimizes the probability of reaching a lower bound. Our results highlight that predictions from biological principles provide simple, testable, and ecologically rational explanations for apparent biases in decision-making.

 

Korn CW, Bach DR (2015) Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making. PLoS Comput Biol 11(5): e1004301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004301


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Emergence, self-organization and network efficiency in gigantic termite-nest-networks build using simple rules

Termites, like many social insects, build nests of complex architecture. These constructions have been proposed to optimize different structural features. Here we describe the nest network of the termite Nasutitermes ephratae, which is among the largest nest-network reported for termites and show that it optimizes diverse parameters defining the network architecture. The network structure avoids multiple crossing of galleries and minimizes the overlap of foraging territories. Thus, these termites are able to minimize the number of galleries they build, while maximizing the foraging area available at the nest mounds. We present a simple computer algorithm that reproduces the basics characteristics of this termite nest network, showing that simple rules can produce complex architectural designs efficiently.


Emergence, self-organization and network efficiency in gigantic termite-nest-networks build using simple rules
Diego Griffon, Carmen Andara, Klaus Jaffe

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.01487 ;


Via Complexity Digest
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Eli Levine's curator insight, June 5, 2015 1:53 PM

Confucius observed that when humans follow a particular, internalized code and logic, the need for the top-down command and control forms of social organization disappear, allowing for much more effective and efficient bottom-up systems of organization to arise.  In other words, laws from on high levels of government should be simple, basic, and in accordance with the present natural laws and conditions of bottom-up organization.  Imagine a border collie moving sheep in a particular direction.  It guides the system by moving them in the general direction that the farmer needs while simply correcting and focusing on those sheep who stray from the flock or begin to pull the flock in undesirable directions.  Each society probably uses different strategies depending upon their own internal logic and "state of propriety".

 

In the United States, it seems that we get extremely focused on the details and what was past rather than consider the general principles behind the laws, which are reflective of our actual values and stable desires as a nation.  We need to refer back to the principles and deeper meaning of the Constitution and not get so hung up about what is or isn't actually written in the Constitution.  It's this intuitive base level of understanding where the logic of our society is and how we are doing that is relative to that common direction we all share as Americans that is more likely to help us.  The details of which sheep are going where is insignificant relative to the big picture of what direction are the sheep as a flock headed and which ones are pulling us in those unhealthy directions.  Sadly, Americans prefer to look at the sheep rather than the flock at their own expense.  That's probably how we got so many highly detailed laws and rules that are contradictory or counter to our base principles and values.  Silly society.  Silly people.

A. J. Alvarez-Socorro's curator insight, June 23, 2015 2:07 AM

Interesting