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On Managing Complexity | The Drucker Exchange | Daily Blog by ...

On Managing Complexity | The Drucker Exchange | Daily Blog by ... | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Drucker on the Dial” chats with participants of the Global Peter Drucker Forum on "Managing Complexity."

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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Papers
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Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks

The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated to different arrangements of the connections; but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence, nor the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.

 

Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks
Luís F Seoane, Ricard Solé

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.06937


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How random are complex networks

Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks---the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain---and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations, and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness.

 

How random are complex networks
Chiara Orsini, Marija Mitrović Dankulov, Almerima Jamakovic, Priya Mahadevan, Pol Colomer-de-Simón, Amin Vahdat, Kevin E. Bassler, Zoltán Toroczkai, Marián Boguñá, Guido Caldarelli, Santo Fortunato, Dmitri Krioukov

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.07503


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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Transcalar Imaginary
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The Mechanical and the Organic by David Abram

The Mechanical and the Organic by David Abram | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Many scientists and theorists claim that the Gaia hypothesis is merely a fancy name for a set of interactions, between organisms and their presumably inorganic environment, that have long been known to science. Every high school student is familiar with the fact that the oxygen content of the atmosphere is dependent on the photosynthetic activity of plants. The Gaia hypothesis, according to such researchers, offers nothing substantive. It is simply a new—and unnecessarily obfuscating—way of speaking of old facts. In the dismissive words of biologist Stephen Jay Gould: "the Gaia Hypothesis says nothing new—it offers no new mechanisms. It just changes the metaphor. But metaphor is not mechanism!"


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Beyond Materialism and Idealism, a Philosophy of Organism?

Beyond Materialism and Idealism, a Philosophy of Organism? | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Levi Bryant offered some ideas about materialism earlier this week over at Larval Subjects. I read and commented on his post while screeching through the BART transbay tube on my commute home from work.

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Bits from Brains for Biologically Inspired Computing

Inspiration for artificial biologically inspired computing is often drawn from neural systems. This article shows how to analyze neural systems using information theory with the aim of obtaining constraints that help to identify the algorithms run by neural systems and the information they represent. Algorithms and representations identified this way may then guide the design of biologically inspired computing systems. The material covered includes the necessary introduction to information theory and to the estimation of information-theoretic quantities from neural recordings. We then show how to analyze the information encoded in a system about its environment, and also discuss recent methodological developments on the question of how much information each agent carries about the environment either uniquely or redundantly or synergistically together with others. Last, we introduce the framework of local information dynamics, where information processing is partitioned into component processes of information storage, transfer, and modification – locally in space and time. We close by discussing example applications of these measures to neural data and other complex systems.

 

Wibral M, Lizier JT and Priesemann V (2015) Bits from brains for biologically inspired computing. Front. Robot. AI 2:5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2015.00005 


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Colbert Sesanker's curator insight, March 27, 5:55 PM

Ironic considering this section from the Walter Pitts article above:

 

Interesting Section:

 

"There was a catch, though: This symbolic abstraction made the world transparent but the brain opaque. Once everything had been reduced to information governed by logic, the actual mechanics ceased to matter—the tradeoff for universal computation was ontology. Von Neumann was the first to see the problem. He expressed his concern to Wiener in a letter that anticipated the coming split between artificial intelligence on one side and neuroscience on the other. “After the great positive contribution of Turing-cum-Pitts-and-McCulloch is assimilated,” he wrote, “the situation is rather worse than better than before. Indeed these authors have demonstrated in absolute and hopeless generality that anything and everything … can be done by an appropriate mechanism, and specifically by a neural mechanism—and that even one, definite mechanism can be ‘universal.’ Inverting the argument: Nothing that we may know or learn about the functioning of the organism can give, without ‘microscopic,’ cytological work any clues regarding the further details of the neural mechanism."

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Anthropocene: The human age

Anthropocene: The human age | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Momentum is building to establish a new geological epoch that recognizes humanity's impact on the planet. But there is fierce debate behind the scenes.

 

http://www.nature.com/news/anthropocene-the-human-age-1.17085


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ASundberg's curator insight, March 29, 9:30 AM

Brief historicization of the anthropocene discussion. 

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Soul Spelunker » Hermes, God of the Winged Caduceus

Soul Spelunker » Hermes, God of the Winged Caduceus | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
The story is told by Roman writer, Hyginus, that, one day, while Hermes was traveling through Arcadia, he witnessed two serpents engaged in a fierce battle. When Hermes placed his caduceus between them, they wrapped themselves around it and were at peace with one another. Thus, Hermes’ caduceus, to this day, has been associated with healing and a state of peace.

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The Secrets of the Odyssey (13): Journeying on Snakelike Wet Paths

The Secrets of the Odyssey (13): Journeying on Snakelike Wet Paths | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
While reading Hermes Guide of Souls: The Mythologem of the Masculine Source of Life by Karl Kerènyi I came across the following passage describing the nature of Odysseus’s journeying and the special patronage of Hermes over Odysseus: “We previously...

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Schelling and Kant (pt 1)

Schelling and Kant (pt 1) | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Despite the fact that Schelling is a German Idealist or, more broadly, a post-Kantian thinker, there is not (to my knowledge) anything resembling a consensus regarding Schelling’s relation to Kant.

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Jung at heart by Aviva Lori

Jung at heart by Aviva Lori | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Official launch ofThe Jung-Neumann LettersAn International Conference in Celebration of a Creative Relationship Kibbutz Shefayim, April 24-26, 2015, Conference Website Trailer Follow updates on FaceBook The following article appeared in...

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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Social Foraging
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Periodic Table of Machine Learning Libraries

Periodic Table of Machine Learning Libraries | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Machine Learning Libraries


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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity in Education
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Nature

Nature | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
An excerpt from the first chapter of my new book, Intertwingled. When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. – John Muir I'm standing on an is...

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, December 12, 2014 5:06 PM

"The more we studied, the more we came to realize how poor our previous explanations had been." We teach and learn in ecosystems, but we pretend we are still in a factory. Consequently, all our explanations are impoverished.

Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity in Education
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Complicated or complex - knowing the difference is important

Complicated or complex - knowing the difference is important | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Understanding the difference between complex and complicated systems is becoming important for many aspects of management and policy. With complicated problems or issues one can define the problem ...

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, June 3, 2014 7:28 AM

Discusses management & policy implications for dealing with complex issues rather than complicated issues.

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Bees

Bees | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

The world of bees is fascinating and varied. The common honeybee is the most well-known and well-studied species, but there are thousands of wild bee species that enliven our landscapes and help to pollinate crops and wildflowers. The widely reported threats to honeybees, which cause their colonies to collapse, also jeopardize the lives of these lesser-known and under-appreciated bee species.

 

http://www.nature.com/nature/outlook/bees/index.html ;


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Machine intelligence

Machine intelligence | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Research in the field of machine intelligence is seeing a resurgence. Big conceptual breakthroughs in artificial neural networks and access to powerful processors have led to applications that can process information in a human-like way. In addition, the creation of robots that can safely assist us with different tasks may soon become a reality. The Reviews in this Insight discuss the exciting developments in these fields and the opportunities for further research.

 

http://www.nature.com/nature/supplements/insights/machine-intelligence/index.html


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Bits from Brains for Biologically Inspired Computing

Inspiration for artificial biologically inspired computing is often drawn from neural systems. This article shows how to analyze neural systems using information theory with the aim of obtaining constraints that help to identify the algorithms run by neural systems and the information they represent. Algorithms and representations identified this way may then guide the design of biologically inspired computing systems. The material covered includes the necessary introduction to information theory and to the estimation of information-theoretic quantities from neural recordings. We then show how to analyze the information encoded in a system about its environment, and also discuss recent methodological developments on the question of how much information each agent carries about the environment either uniquely or redundantly or synergistically together with others. Last, we introduce the framework of local information dynamics, where information processing is partitioned into component processes of information storage, transfer, and modification – locally in space and time. We close by discussing example applications of these measures to neural data and other complex systems.

 

Wibral M, Lizier JT and Priesemann V (2015) Bits from brains for biologically inspired computing. Front. Robot. AI 2:5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2015.00005 


Via Complexity Digest
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Colbert Sesanker's curator insight, March 27, 5:55 PM

Ironic considering this section from the Walter Pitts article above:

 

Interesting Section:

 

"There was a catch, though: This symbolic abstraction made the world transparent but the brain opaque. Once everything had been reduced to information governed by logic, the actual mechanics ceased to matter—the tradeoff for universal computation was ontology. Von Neumann was the first to see the problem. He expressed his concern to Wiener in a letter that anticipated the coming split between artificial intelligence on one side and neuroscience on the other. “After the great positive contribution of Turing-cum-Pitts-and-McCulloch is assimilated,” he wrote, “the situation is rather worse than better than before. Indeed these authors have demonstrated in absolute and hopeless generality that anything and everything … can be done by an appropriate mechanism, and specifically by a neural mechanism—and that even one, definite mechanism can be ‘universal.’ Inverting the argument: Nothing that we may know or learn about the functioning of the organism can give, without ‘microscopic,’ cytological work any clues regarding the further details of the neural mechanism."

Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Image of the World
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►Greek Mythology: “The Nereids, Fifty Sea Nymphs”.-

►Greek Mythology: “The Nereids, Fifty Sea Nymphs”.- | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
►Greek Mythology: “The Nereids, Fifty Sea Nymphs”:
“A Mermaid” by John William Waterhouse (1900).

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Human Computation and Convergence

Humans are the most effective integrators and producers of information, directly and through the use of information-processing inventions. As these inventions become increasingly sophisticated, the substantive role of humans in processing information will tend toward capabilities that derive from our most complex cognitive processes, e.g., abstraction, creativity, and applied world knowledge. Through the advancement of human computation - methods that leverage the respective strengths of humans and machines in distributed information-processing systems - formerly discrete processes will combine synergistically into increasingly integrated and complex information processing systems. These new, collective systems will exhibit an unprecedented degree of predictive accuracy in modeling physical and techno-social processes, and may ultimately coalesce into a single unified predictive organism, with the capacity to address societies most wicked problems and achieve planetary homeostasis.

 

Human Computation and Convergence
Pietro Michelucci

http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.05959


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►Greek Mythology: “Poseidon, The God of Sea”.-

►Greek Mythology: “Poseidon, The God of Sea”.- | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
►Greek Mythology: “Poseidon, The God of Sea”:
“Neptune and Triton” by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1620-1622). Victoria and Albert Museum of London.

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Carl Jung on the "Old Image of the World"

Carl Jung on the "Old Image of the World" | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
... you will perhaps permit me to make a few general remarks about the importance of alchemy and the place which it occupies in the history of science.

Alchemy and astrology are pre-stages of modern science.

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Dante’s Divine Comedy – symbolism and archetypes

Dante’s Divine Comedy – symbolism and archetypes | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Dante is not just any poet. With his epic poem “Commedia”, in English “Divine Comedy” he created an Italian cultural Monument, a journey through Hell, Purgatory and Paradise full of symbols, archetypes, historical and allegorical references.

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Depth Psychology List - Jung and Synchronicity: The Union of Nature and Psyche

Depth Psychology List - Jung and Synchronicity: The Union of Nature and Psyche | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Free-to-search database of Jungian and Depth Psychology-oriented practitioners and psychotherapists. Find a therapist, counselor, coach or psychologist that's right for you.

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Eva Rider's curator insight, March 27, 3:17 PM

Depth Psychology List on Depth Psychology Alliance

A place to gather and converse for all those interested and engaged in Depth Psychology

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Physicists make 'weather forecasts' for economies

Physicists make 'weather forecasts' for economies | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
The development of some countries is as predictable as steady winds, but for others it is more chaotic, physicists find.

Via NESS, Complexity Digest
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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Amazing Science
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Breaking Research: Separable short- and long-term memories can form after a momentous occasion

Breaking Research: Separable short- and long-term memories can form after a momentous occasion | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Imagine that you are a starving fruit fly, desperately searching for food in a new area. Suddenly, you encounter a mysterious new odor and discover a nearby source of life-sustaining food. After a single experience such as this, flies can instantly form an association between that new odor and food, and will follow the odor if it encounters it again (Figure 1-1). Yamagata et al. took advantage of this instinctual behavior to study how the fly brain stores a long-term memory after one event.

They trained groups of flies to associate a particular odor (A) with a sugar reward by presenting them with both stimuli at the same time. They confirmed that the flies formed a memory by giving them a choice between odor A and a different odor (B), and found that flies preferably flocked to an area scented with odor A.

They also identified a large group of dopamine neurons (known as PAM neurons) that were activated by the sugar reward. If the researchers activated the PAM neurons instead of providing sugar when the flies encountered odor A, the flies still associated that odor with a reward (Figure 1-2).

Now the question: how does PAM neuron activity paired with an odor form a long-term memory?  The researchers found that the PAM neurons could actually be grouped into two types. When they activated one type, which they dubbed stm-PAM, the flies only formed a short-term memory. The researchers tested their memory immediately after training and found most of the flies hanging around odor A. But 24 hours later, the memory was gone.

Surprisingly, when the researchers activated the other type of PAM neurons during training (called ltm-PAM), the flies only formed a long-term memory! The flies weren’t particularly interested in odor A immediately after training, but 24 hours later the flies flocked toward it. This incredible result showed that long-term memory doesn’t necessarily require a short-term counterpart. So, instead of the reward pathway forming a short-term memory that later transforms into a long-term memory, this sugar reward formed two complementary memories.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity in Education
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Why Some Teams Are Smarter Than Others

Why Some Teams Are Smarter Than Others | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
It’s about listening, empathy and having more women.

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, January 21, 12:08 PM

Groups in organizations, including education I suspect, are smarter and make better decisions when they listen better, empathize more, and include more women—who typically listen and empathize better than men. This works for adults, but what about children? Maybe we should teach listening/empathizing skills for group work.