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Researchers devise means for creating controlled coordinated swarming

Researchers devise means for creating controlled coordinated swarming | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Humans have noted coordinated swarming in its natural state for most of history—members of flocks of birds or schools of fish change direction individually, simultaneously without any obvious control mechanism. Scientists have sought to better understand such behavior to learn more about how such systems work in smaller environment such as those made of bacteria. Also, understanding how it works might help engineers build robotic systems able to accomplish the same feats. Holding things up, however, has been an inability to create a replicable model of the behavior in a controlled environment. Now, it appears, the team in France has done just that.


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Strategic Islands in Economic Games: Isolating Economies From Better Outcomes

Many of the issues we face as a society are made more problematic by the rapidly changing context in which important decisions are made. For example buying a petrol powered car is most advantageous when there are many petrol pumps providing cheap petrol whereas buying an electric car is most advantageous when there are many electrical recharge points or high capacity batteries available. Such collective decision-making is often studied using economic game theory where the focus is on how individuals might reach an agreement regarding the supply and demand for the different energy types. But even if the two parties find a mutually agreeable strategy, as technology and costs change over time, for example through cheaper and more efficient batteries and a more accurate pricing of the total cost of oil consumption, so too do the incentives for the choices buyers and sellers make, the result of which can be the stranding of an industry or even a whole economy on an island of inefficient outcomes. In this article we consider the issue of how changes in the underlying incentives can move us from an optimal economy to a sub-optimal economy while at the same time making it impossible to collectively navigate our way to a better strategy without forcing us to pass through a socially undesirable “tipping point”. We show that different perturbations to underlying incentives results in the creation or destruction of “strategic islands” isolated by disruptive transitions between strategies. The significant result in this work is the illustration that an economy that remains strategically stationary can over time become stranded in a suboptimal outcome from which there is no easy way to put the economy on a path to better outcomes without going through an economic tipping point.

 

Entropy 2014, 16(9), 5102-5121; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e16095102


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Eagle's Wings Inspire More Fuel Efficient Planes

Eagle's Wings Inspire More Fuel Efficient Planes | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

"[...] The wing tips of steppe eagles are an ideal shape to maximize lift with a minimal wingspan. The curvature at the end of the wing reduces drag. Engineers designing the A380 copied that design, resulting in fuel savings of up to 3%, depending on if it is a long or short distance flight."


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The Jupiter and Uranus Cycle

The Jupiter and Uranus Cycle | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Symbol Reader:This writing is permeated with fiery energy urging to open the gates of our consciousness so that caravans loaded with spiritual gifts from the farther lands may enter. Right now this creative energy of fire is very palpable to me.

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Team develops ultra sensitive biosensor from molybdenite semiconductor

Team develops ultra sensitive biosensor from molybdenite semiconductor | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Move over, graphene. An atomically thin, two-dimensional, ultrasensitive semiconductor material for biosensing developed by researchers at UC Santa Barbara promises to push the boundaries of biosensing technology in many fields, from health care to environmental protection to forensic industries.

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Official AndreasCY's curator insight, September 5, 1:06 AM

Seems like something out of Star Trek.

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Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems

Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Though the statistical properties of musical compositions have been widely studied, little is known about the statistical nature of musical interaction—a foundation of musical communication. The goal of this study was to uncover the general statistical properties underlying musical interaction by observing two individuals synchronizing rhythms. We found that the interbeat intervals between individuals exhibit scale-free cross-correlations, i.e., the next beat played by an individual is dependent on the entire history (up to several minutes) of their partner’s interbeat intervals. To explain this surprising observation, we introduce a general stochastic model that can also be used to study synchronization phenomena in econophysics and physiology. The scaling laws found in musical interaction are directly applicable to audio production.

 


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Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 3: Atomic Theory of Matter

Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 3: Atomic Theory of Matter | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

We hear much about Bruno’s contributions to cosmology, especially in the first episode of the new Cosmos series, starring host, Neil deGrasse Tyson Indeed, his cosmological ideas were revolutionary and amazing prescient, but his primary contributions to humanity were philosophical and ontological, as we will see. I believe his theory of matter is most important. It influences all his other accomplishments.


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Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 2: Cosmology

Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 2: Cosmology | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Giordano Bruno had his eyes steadfastly fixed on the future of mankind. He desired more than anything that humanity be led out of the despotic morass of the Christian religion, with its chains of hierarchy, intolerance, dogmatism, and downright tyranny. Not only that, but he wanted to provide all peoples of all nations and religions an intellectual and spiritual infrastructure that they could wholeheartedly accept without reservation.


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Controlling extreme events on complex networks

Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network “mobile” can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

 

Controlling extreme events on complex networks
• Yu-Zhong Chen, Zi-Gang Huang & Ying-Cheng Lai

Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 6121 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep06121


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Collective motions of heterogeneous swarms

The emerging collective motions of swarms of interacting agents are a subject of great interest in application areas ranging from biology to physics and robotics. In this paper, we conduct a careful analysis of the collective dynamics of a swarm of self-propelled heterogeneous, delay-coupled agents. We show the emergence of collective motion patterns and segregation of populations of agents with different dynamic properties; both of these behaviors (pattern formation and segregation) emerge naturally in our model, which is based on self-propulsion and attractive pairwise interactions between agents. We derive the bifurcation structure for emergence of different swarming behaviors in the mean field as a function of physical parameters and verify these results through simulation.

 

Collective motions of heterogeneous swarms
Klementyna Szwaykowska, Luis Mier-y-Teran Romero, Ira B. Schwartz

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.1042


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Origin of symbol-using systems: speech, but not sign, without the semantic urge

Natural language—spoken and signed—is a multichannel phenomenon, involving facial and body expression, and voice and visual intonation that is often used in the service of a social urge to communicate meaning. Given that iconicity seems easier and less abstract than making arbitrary connections between sound and meaning, iconicity and gesture have often been invoked in the origin of language alongside the urge to convey meaning. To get a fresh perspective, we critically distinguish the origin of a system capable of evolution from the subsequent evolution that system becomes capable of. Human language arose on a substrate of a system already capable of Darwinian evolution; the genetically supported uniquely human ability to learn a language reflects a key contact point between Darwinian evolution and language. Though implemented in brains generated by DNA symbols coding for protein meaning, the second higher-level symbol-using system of language now operates in a world mostly decoupled from Darwinian evolutionary constraints. Examination of Darwinian evolution of vocal learning in other animals suggests that the initial fixation of a key prerequisite to language into the human genome may actually have required initially side-stepping not only iconicity, but the urge to mean itself. If sign languages came later, they would not have faced this constraint.

 

Origin of symbol-using systems: speech, but not sign, without the semantic urge
Martin I. Sereno

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0303
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 19 September 2014 vol. 369 no. 1651 20130303


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Ten Simple Rules of Live Tweeting at Scientific Conferences

Ten Simple Rules of Live Tweeting at Scientific Conferences | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Rule 1: Short Conference Hashtag
Rule 2: Promote the Hashtag
Rule 3: Encourage Tweeting
Rule 4: Conference Twitter Etiquette
Rule 5: Conference Tweet Layout
Rule 6: Keep Conference Discussion Flowing
Rule 7: Differentiate Your Opinions from the Speaker's
Rule 8: Bring Questions up from Outside
Rule 9: Meet Other Live Tweeters Face to Face
Rule 10: Emphasize Impact of Live Tweeting

 

Ekins S, Perlstein EO (2014) Ten Simple Rules of Live Tweeting at Scientific Conferences. PLoS Comput Biol 10(8): e1003789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003789


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JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems

Complex systems are increasingly being viewed as distributed information processing systems, particularly in the domains of computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and Artificial Life. This trend has resulted in a strong uptake in the use of (Shannon) information-theoretic measures to analyse the dynamics of complex systems in these fields. We introduce the Java Information Dynamics Toolkit (JIDT): a Google code project which provides a standalone, (GNU GPL v3 licensed) open-source code implementation for empirical estimation of information-theoretic measures from time-series data. While the toolkit provides classic information-theoretic measures (e.g. entropy, mutual information, conditional mutual information), it ultimately focusses on implementing higher-level measures for information dynamics. That is, JIDT focusses on quantifying information storage, transfer and modification, and the dynamics of these operations in space and time. For this purpose, it includes implementations of the transfer entropy and active information storage, their multivariate extensions and local or pointwise variants. JIDT provides implementations for both discrete and continuous-valued data for each measure, including various types of estimator for continuous data (e.g. Gaussian, box-kernel and Kraskov-Stoegbauer-Grassberger) which can be swapped at run-time due to Java's object-oriented polymorphism. Furthermore, while written in Java, the toolkit can be used directly in MATLAB, GNU Octave and Python. We present the principles behind the code design, and provide several examples to guide users

 

"JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems"
Joseph T. Lizier, arXiv:1408.3270, 2014
http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.3270


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Eli Levine's curator insight, August 19, 8:11 AM

This could be useful.

Rescooped by Vasileios Basios from Complexity - Complex Systems Theory
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Self-organized criticality: An explanation of the 1/f noise

We show that dynamical systems with spatial degrees of freedom naturally evolve into a self-organized critical point. Flicker noise, or 1/f noise, can be identified with the dynamics of the critical state. This picture also yields insight into the origin of fractal objects.


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Bernard Ryefield's curator insight, August 12, 7:45 AM

seminal paper on self-organized criticality

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War: Origins and Effects

The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a critical threshold, resulting in a critical transition. This critical transition caused a fundamental reorganization of the International System: Europe transformed from an anarchistic system to cooperative security community. This critical transition also marks the actual globalization of the International System. During the life span of cycles, the war dynamics show chaotic characteristics. Various early-warning signals can be identified, and can probably be used in the current International System. These findings have implications for the social sciences and historical research.

 

War: Origins and Effects
Ingo Piepers

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.6163


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Eli Levine's curator insight, September 26, 8:31 AM

Thus we delve closer into the hidden language of our social world.

 

Way cool science!

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Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 5: A New Ethics

Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 5: A New Ethics | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Bruno desired to place truth into the hands of the human race. He may not have completely seen the ramifications of an acentric universe, that this would lead humanity to question its own self-worth in the face of nihilism. Humanity believed it dwelt in the center of God’s universe. After Bruno, this delusion was banished. Humanity lived on a planet that was just another speck in a vast, infinite ocean of other specks. Eventually, this truth, among others, would lead many to discouragement, anxiety, and despair. But now that the lies had been dispelled, mankind could focus on its true nature, to become conscious of its affinity with the cosmic mind, to copulate with it, and to bring forth truth in abundance.


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Not too fast, but not too slow: searching strategies to beat a majority group of interacting walkers

We introduce a model of interacting random walkers on a finite one-dimensional chain with absorbing boundaries or targets at the ends. Walkers are of two types: informed particles that move ballistically towards a given target, and diffusing uniformed particles that are biased towards close informed particles. This model mimics the dynamics of animals searching for food, where an informed individual knows the location of a food target and tries to persuade close-by uninformed conspecifics to go to that target. We characterize the success of this persuasion by the first-passage probability of the uniformed particle to the target, and we interpret the speed of the informed particle as a strategic parameter that the particle tunes to maximize its success. We find that the success probability is non-monotonic, reaching its maximum at an intermediate speed that increases with the diffusing rate of the uniformed particle. When two different groups of informed particles traveling in opposite directions compete, usually the largest group is the most successful. However, the minority can reverse this situation and become the most probable winner by following two different strategies: increasing its attraction strength and adjusting its speed to an optimal value relative to the majority's speed.

  


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A Neuroscientist’s Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious | Science | WIRED

A Neuroscientist’s Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious | Science | WIRED | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
It's a question that's perplexed philosophers for centuries and scientists for decades: Where does consciousness come from? Neuroscientist Christof Koch, chief scientific officer at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, thinks he has an answer.

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Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 4: Epistemology

Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 4: Epistemology | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Bruno was one who fully utilized the imagination in his work. It took him a mere ten years of traversing the imaginal world to reach a more accurate picture of the universe than Galileo’s, who spent several decades calculating and experimenting. Even after those many years, when Galileo was ready to die, he still believed the Sun to be the center of the universe. Bruno accurately saw the universe to be without a center almost sixty years prior to this. Galileo had much better technology, some he invented himself. Bruno used, primarily, his imagination, along with astute observation, to reach these revolutionary conclusions. This brings to mind Albert Einstein’s success, using his “thought-experiments” to reach equally monumental developments.


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Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 1: Religion

Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 1: Religion | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Giordano Bruno was a rare revolutionary, whose intellectual powers only occasionally arise among humans.  The ideas he espoused during those days of religious oppression and intellectual suppression demonstrated a tremendous amount of courage. Even during the expanded intellectual and artistic freedom of the European Renaissance, the terrors of The Inquisition hung over his head like the sword of Damocles. But, unlike Damocles, he bore the tortures, suffering, and finally the flames. He left behind a legacy that is with us to this day.


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Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 4: Epistemology

Soul Spelunker » The Brunian Revolution, Part 4: Epistemology | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it

Bruno was one who fully utilized the imagination in his work. It took him a mere ten years of traversing the imaginal world to reach a more accurate picture of the universe than Galileo’s, who spent several decades calculating and experimenting. Even after those many years, when Galileo was ready to die, he still believed the Sun to be the center of the universe. Bruno accurately saw the universe to be without a center almost sixty years prior to this. Galileo had much better technology, some he invented himself. Bruno used, primarily, his imagination, along with astute observation, to reach these revolutionary conclusions. This brings to mind Albert Einstein’s success, using his “thought-experiments” to reach equally monumental developments.


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Complex Systems Science: From Cell Regulation to the Global Food Crisis

Insights and methods of complex systems science are transforming science and providing clarity about the impact of policies to address major societal problems. These conceptual and mathematical advances allow us to study interdependence, patterns, networks, multiscale behaviors, and “big data.” Here I focus on the application of these advances to real-world concerns. I discuss case studies from global socioeconomic systems and immune cell regulation. Our analysis of the global food crisis exposes the causes and consequences of rapidly increasing and volatile food prices. Food price spikes in 2007–2008 and 2010–2011 triggered food riots across the world and precipitated the Arab Spring. Our quantitative models of nonequilibrium markets show that the food price increases are due to (1) US biofuel quotas increasing the amount of corn to ethanol conversion and (2) deregulation of commodity trading enabling speculator trend-following to cause bubbles and crashes. Policy action by the US and the European Union could alleviate or even resolve these problems. Our analysis of cell regulation makes use of gene expression data to obtain whole-cell regulatory models describing the response of immune cells to dynamic perturbations. Moreover, we have shown that cell dynamics are controlled by attractor states with implications for understanding biological development and treating cancer. Our analyses demonstrate the opportunity for complex systems science to inform both social policy decisions and medical advances.

 

Bar-Yam Y (2014) Complex Systems Science: From Cell Regulation to the Global Food Crisis   ISCS 2013: Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems Emergence, Complexity and Computation Volume 8, 2014, pp 19-28

 


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Artemis Archetype Arises in Modern Day Films, Books - Women's eNews

Artemis Archetype Arises in Modern Day Films, Books - Women's eNews | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
Women's eNews
Artemis Archetype Arises in Modern Day Films, Books
Women's eNews
Energies and archetypal patterns in the collective unconscious are rising into our individual consciousness and changing assumptions about women and in women.

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Study of a model for the distribution of wealth

An equation for the evolution of the distribution of wealth in a population of economic agents making binary transactions with a constant total amount of "money" has recently been proposed by one of us (RLR). This equation takes the form of an iterated nonlinear map of the distribution of wealth. The equilibrium distribution is known and takes a rather simple form. If this distribution is such that, at some time, the higher momenta of the distribution exist, one can find exactly their law of evolution. A seemingly simple extension of the laws of exchange yields also explicit iteration formulae for the higher momenta, but with a major difference with the original iteration because high order momenta grow indefinitely. This provides a quantitative model where the spreading of wealth, namely the difference between the rich and the poor, tends to increase with time.

 

Study of a model for the distribution of wealth
Yves Pomeau, Ricardo Lopez-Ruiz

http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2963


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Systems Thinking and the Future of Cities

Systems Thinking and the Future of Cities | collectibles from scoop.it | Scoop.it
The idea that nothing exists in isolation−but only as part of a system−has long been embedded in folklore, religious scriptures, and common sense.

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Josie Gibson's curator insight, September 14, 4:11 PM

Timely focus on the critical role of thinking systemically as a leader...

Jason Leong's curator insight, September 29, 1:15 AM

"Despite the inherent logic of systems thinking, governments, corporations, foundations, universities, and non-profit organizations still work mostly by breaking issues and problems into their separate parts and dealing with each in isolation. Separate agencies, departments, and organizations specialize in energy, land, food, air, water, wildlife, economy, finance, building regulations, urban policy, technology, health, and transportation−as if each were unrelated to the others. So, one agency pushes hard to grow the economy while another is charged to clean up the resulting mess and so forth, which is to say that the right hand and left hand seldom knows−or cares−what the other is doing. The results are often counter-productive, overly expensive, risky, sometimes disastrous, and most always ironic."

Miklos Szilagyi's curator insight, September 29, 1:57 AM

Very comprehensive and interesting.... and not only about the cities... Good...

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JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems

Complex systems are increasingly being viewed as distributed information processing systems, particularly in the domains of computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and Artificial Life. This trend has resulted in a strong uptake in the use of (Shannon) information-theoretic measures to analyse the dynamics of complex systems in these fields. We introduce the Java Information Dynamics Toolkit (JIDT): a Google code project which provides a standalone, (GNU GPL v3 licensed) open-source code implementation for empirical estimation of information-theoretic measures from time-series data. While the toolkit provides classic information-theoretic measures (e.g. entropy, mutual information, conditional mutual information), it ultimately focusses on implementing higher-level measures for information dynamics. That is, JIDT focusses on quantifying information storage, transfer and modification, and the dynamics of these operations in space and time. For this purpose, it includes implementations of the transfer entropy and active information storage, their multivariate extensions and local or pointwise variants. JIDT provides implementations for both discrete and continuous-valued data for each measure, including various types of estimator for continuous data (e.g. Gaussian, box-kernel and Kraskov-Stoegbauer-Grassberger) which can be swapped at run-time due to Java's object-oriented polymorphism. Furthermore, while written in Java, the toolkit can be used directly in MATLAB, GNU Octave and Python. We present the principles behind the code design, and provide several examples to guide users

 

"JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems"
Joseph T. Lizier, arXiv:1408.3270, 2014
http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.3270


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Eli Levine's curator insight, August 19, 8:11 AM

This could be useful.