This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.
Scientists at UCSF have uncovered some tantalizing clues into the complex process of how the brain hears and interprets human voices, and transforms an influx of meaningless sounds into language. The UCSF team, which also included linguists from UC Berkeley, found that when patients listened to random sentences read out loud, their brains quickly and with great precision sorted the sounds based on very clear criteria. "When we hear sounds or language, our brain is actually organizing this information through very particular filters - neurons that are detecting certain sounds," said Dr. Edward Chang, a UCSF neurosurgeon and lead scientist of the brain research. With language in particular, humans are bombarded by sounds and the brain must instantaneously sort out what's meaningful from what's not, and then collect and process the important data into familiar words and sentences. The research is a "beautiful example" of the kind of discoveries scientists can make by taking electrical recordings directly from the brain, said Dr. Josef Parvizi, a Stanford neurologist who has done similar work on patients with epilepsy. Over the past five or so years, scientists have been using patients undergoing these procedures to study other brain activity. Since the patients are already exposing their brains for therapeutic purposes, and since they're going to be stuck in a hospital for several days with not much to do, they make rare but ideal subjects for real-time studies of the brain.
Short-term memory loss occurs when a person can remember incidents from 20 years ago but is fuzzy on the details of things that happened 20 minutes prior. Medical conditions and injuries can cause short-term memory loss.
Do you have trouble remembering your fifth birthday party, or your first day of school? This phenomenon, known as "childhood amnesia," has been shown by psychologists at Emory University to generally occur around age seven.
I have a tough time remembering names even though I can easily remember faces, events, ideas and concepts. Does that mean I have poor memory? The answer to that is not so straightforward. In this post, I shall explore sensory memory and why that is so important.
If you know that a small seahorse-shaped structure deep in the brain -- the hippocampus -- is crucial to committing new facts and skills to memory, you have not only your hippocampus to thank; you also owe a debt of gratitude to Henry Gustav Molaison, known to brain scientists worldwide as the amnesic patient "H.M."