cognition
8.9K views | +0 today
Follow
 
Scooped by FastTFriend
onto cognition
Scoop.it!

25 Romantic Words That Don't Exist in English But Should

25 Romantic Words That Don't Exist in English But Should | cognition | Scoop.it
Because the world needs a name to call someone who has had sex with someone you've already had sex with. (It's buksvåger.)
FastTFriend's insight:

There is a word for it (whatever that 'it' is)...

more...
No comment yet.
cognition
How it evolved, what we do with it, futures; And otherwise interesting stuff
Curated by FastTFriend
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Knowmads, Infocology of the future
Scoop.it!

A civil servant missing most of his brain challenges our most basic theories of consciousness

A civil servant missing most of his brain challenges our most basic theories of consciousness | cognition | Scoop.it
Not much is definitively proven about consciousness, the awareness of one’s existence and surroundings, other than that its somehow linked to the brain. But theories as to how, exactly, grey matter generates consciousness are challenged when a fully-conscious man is found to be missing most of his brain.

Several years ago, a 44-year-old Frenchman went to the hospital complaining of mild weakness in his left leg. It was discovered then that his skull was filled largely by fluid, leaving just a thin parameter of actual brain tissue.

And yet the man was a married father of two and a civil servant with an IQ of 75, below-average in his intelligence but not mentally disabled.

Doctors believe the man’s brain slowly eroded over 30 years due to a build up of fluid in the brain’s ventricles, a condition known as “hydrocephalus.” His hydrocephalus was treated with a shunt, which drains the fluid into the bloodstream, when he was an infant. But it was removed when he was 14 years old. Over the following decades, the fluid accumulated, leaving less and less space for his brain.

While this may seem medically miraculous, it also poses a major challenge for cognitive psychologists, says Axel Cleeremans of the Université Libre de Bruxelles.

“Any theory of consciousness has to be able to explain why a person like that, who’s missing 90% of his neurons, still exhibits normal behavior,” says Cleeremans. A theory of consciousness that depends on “specific neuroanatomical features” (the physical make-up of the brain) would have trouble explaining such cases.

In theory, the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes in the brain control motion, sensibility, language, vision, audition, and emotional and cognitive functions. But those these regions were all reduced in the Frenchman. He did not, however, suffer significant mental effects suggesting that, if an injury occurs slowly over time, the brain can adapt to survive despite major damage in these regions.

Cleermeans, who gave a lecture on the subject at this year’s Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness conference in Buenos Aires, believes that the seeming plasticity of the brain is key to understanding how consciousness operates.

He believes that the brain learns to be conscious. As such, few specific neural features are necessary for consciousness, since areas of the brain are able to adapt and develop consciousness.

Via Wildcat2030
FastTFriend's insight:
“Consciousness is the brain’s non-conceptual theory about itself, gained through experience—that is learning, interacting with itself, the world, and with other people,” he says.
more...
nukem777's curator insight, July 10, 8:45 AM
FastTFriend's insight: “Consciousness is the brain’s non-conceptual theory about itself, gained through experience—that is learning, interacting with itself, the world, and with other people,” he says.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

'I felt as if I had become fear itself': life after a stroke at 34

'I felt as if I had become fear itself': life after a stroke at 34 | cognition | Scoop.it
Film-maker Lotje Sodderland was 34 when she had a severe stroke, losing the ability to speak, read, write or think coherently. Could she learn to live – and love – with a broken brain?
FastTFriend's insight:
"My life is now split into two: before the stroke, and after. Before, I weighed my quality of life according to how busy I was, both at work and socially. Now, I have to be selective about where I focus my attention. My brother describes the old me as “extremely dynamic, extremely social, very impassioned”. Now, he says, I don’t interact with people in the same way, that I have become introspective. I asked a friend if he thought I was a changed woman. “You’ve expanded,” he said."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

The Best Websites for Finding, Downloading, Borrowing, Renting, and Purchasing eBooks

The Best Websites for Finding, Downloading, Borrowing, Renting, and Purchasing eBooks | cognition | Scoop.it
So, you’ve got yourself an eBook reader, smartphone, tablet, or other portable device and you want to put some eBooks on it to take with you. There are many options for obtaining free eBooks as well as purchasing, borrowing, or even renting eBooks.
FastTFriend's insight:
(almost) everything there is to know about ebooks renting, borrowing and lending.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

Comparative phylogenetic analyses uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktales

Comparative phylogenetic analyses uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktales | cognition | Scoop.it
FastTFriend's insight:
the kinds of stories told in ancestral societies can provide important insights into their culture, furnishing new perspectives on linguistic, genetic and archaeological reconstructions of human prehistory.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Knowmads, Infocology of the future
Scoop.it!

Brain's 'atlas' of words revealed - BBC News

Brain's 'atlas' of words revealed - BBC News | cognition | Scoop.it
Scientists in the US have mapped out how the brain organises language.

Their "semantic atlas" shows how, for example, one region of the brain activates in response to words about clothing and appearance.

The researchers found that these maps were quite similar across the small number of individuals in the study, even down to minor details.

The work, by a team at the University of California, Berkeley, is published in the journal Nature.

It had previously been proposed that information about words' meaning was represented in a group of brain regions known as the semantic system.

But the new work uncovers the fine detail of this network, which is spread right across the outer layer of the human brain.

The results could eventually help those who are unable to speak, such as victims of stroke or brain damage, or motor neuron diseases.

Volunteers - including lead author Alex Huth - listened to more than two hours of stories from a US radio programme while remaining still inside a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner.

Via Wildcat2030
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Knowmads, Infocology of the future
Scoop.it!

How Neuroscientists Explain the Mind-Clearing Magic of Running

How Neuroscientists Explain the Mind-Clearing Magic of Running | cognition | Scoop.it
It is something of a cliché among runners, how the activity never fails to clear your head. Does some creative block have you feeling stuck? Go for a run. Are you deliberating between one of two potentially life-altering decisions? Go for a run. Are you feeling mildly mad, sad, or even just vaguely meh? Go for a run, go for a run, go for a run.

The author Joyce Carol Oates once wrote in a column for the New York Times that “in running the mind flees with the body … in rhythm with our feet and the swinging of our arms.” Filmmaker Casey Neistat told Runner’s World last fall that running is sometimes the only thing that gives him clarity of mind. “Every major decision I’ve made in the last eight years has been prefaced by a run,” he told the magazine. But I maybe like the way a runner named Monte Davis phrased it best, as quoted in the 1976 book The Joy of Running: “It’s hard to run and feel sorry for yourself at the same time,” he said. “Also, there are those hours of clear-headedness that follow a long run.”

Via Wildcat2030
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Philosophy everywhere everywhen
Scoop.it!

Forget mindfulness, stop trying to find yourself and start faking it

Forget mindfulness, stop trying to find yourself and start faking it | cognition | Scoop.it
Why is the history of Chinese philosophy now the most popular course at Harvard? Top tips on how to become a better person according to Confucius and co

Via Wildcat2030
more...
nukem777's curator insight, April 16, 5:04 AM
Food for the soul :)
Rescooped by FastTFriend from iPads, MakerEd and More in Education
Scoop.it!

5 Sites and Apps to Read Free, Quick Short Stories Everyday - @MakeUSeOf

5 Sites and Apps to Read Free, Quick Short Stories Everyday - @MakeUSeOf | cognition | Scoop.it
If you aren’t reading fiction already, you should be! Reading fiction has several benefits, studies have shown, from relieving stress and sleeping better to lightening your mood and keeping your mind sharp as you age.

Now, it’s advisable to target one brain-boosting habit each year. So for 2016, let’s make it about reading a little fiction every day. Like with any habit, the less resistance in getting started, the easier it will be.

We scoured the world wide web for the best sites and apps that serve a dose of short stories whenever you want them. Here’s what you need.

Via John Evans
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

The self-reliant individual is a myth that needs updating — Kimberley Brownlee — Aeon Opinions

Great loners are fascinating. Henry David Thoreau at Walden Pond, Buddhist monks in their hermitage, and fictional heroes such as Robinson Crusoe are all romantic figures of successful solitary survival. Their setting is the wilderness. Their appa...
FastTFriend's insight:

The strongest person in the world is she who is most connected.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Philosophy everywhere everywhen
Scoop.it!

Horizontal History - Wait But Why

Horizontal History - Wait But Why | cognition | Scoop.it
Most of us have a pretty terrible understanding of history. Our knowledge is spotty, with large gaps all over the place, and the parts of history we do end up knowing a lot about usually depend on the particular teachers, parents, books, articles, and movies we happen to come across in our lives. Without a foundational, tree-trunk understanding of all parts of history, we often forget the things we do learn, leaving even our favorite parts of history a bit hazy in our heads. Raise your hand if you’d like to go on stage and debate a history buff on the nuances of a historical time period of your choosing. That’s what I thought.

The reason history is so hard is that it’s so soft. To truly, fully understand a time period, an event, a movement, or an important historical figure, you’d have to be there, and many times over. You’d have to be in the homes of the public living at the time to hear what they’re saying; you’d have to be a fly on the wall in dozens of secret, closed-door meetings and conversations; you’d need to be inside the minds of the key players to know their innermost thoughts and motivations. Even then, you’d be lacking context. To really have the complete truth, you’d need background—the cultural nuances and national psyches of the time, the way each of the key players was raised during childhood and the subtle social dynamics between those players, the impact of what was going on in other parts of the world, and an equally-thorough understanding of the many past centuries that all of these things grew out of.

That’s why not only can’t even the most perfect history buff fully understand history, but the key people involved at the time can’t ever know the full story. History is a giant collective tangle of thousands of interwoven stories involving millions of characters, countless chapters, and many, many narrators.

Via Wildcat2030
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Embodied Zeitgeist
Scoop.it!

WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER THE MOST INTERESTING RECENT [SCIENTIFIC] NEWS? WHAT MAKES IT IMPORTANT? | Edge.org

WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER THE MOST INTERESTING RECENT [SCIENTIFIC] NEWS? WHAT MAKES IT IMPORTANT? | Edge.org | cognition | Scoop.it

Via Xaos
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Knowmads, Infocology of the future
Scoop.it!

Period. Full Stop. Point. Whatever It’s Called, It’s Going Out of Style

Period. Full Stop. Point. Whatever It’s Called, It’s Going Out of Style | cognition | Scoop.it
LONDON — One of the oldest forms of punctuation may be dying

The period — the full-stop signal we all learn as children, whose use stretches back at least to the Middle Ages — is gradually being felled in the barrage of instant messaging that has become synonymous with the digital age

So says David Crystal, who has written more than 100 books on language and is a former master of original pronunciation at Shakespeare’s Globe theater in London — a man who understands the power of tradition in language

The conspicuous omission of the period in text messages and in instant messaging on social media, he says, is a product of the punctuation-free staccato sentences favored by millennials — and increasingly their elders — a trend fueled by the freewheeling style of Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter

“We are at a momentous moment in the history of the full stop,” Professor Crystal, an honorary professor of linguistics at the University of Wales, Bangor, said in an interview after he expounded on his view recently at the Hay Festival in Wales

“In an instant message, it is pretty obvious a sentence has come to an end, and none will have a full stop,” he added “So why use it?”

Via Wildcat2030
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

The science of the Psychoactive Drugs Act

The science of the Psychoactive Drugs Act | cognition | Scoop.it
The world’s stupidest drugs law, the Psychoactive Drugs Act, has come into effect in the UK last week and it claims to prohibit the creation and supply of all psychoactive substances not already covered by pre-existing drugs laws.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Wisdom 1.0
Scoop.it!

There is no death, only a series of eternal ‘nows’ – Bob Berman & Robert Lanza | Aeon Opinions

Here we tell you what happens after you’re dead. Seriously. Okay, it’s not so serious, because you won’t actually die. 
To lay the groundwork, let's recap the scientific view of death: essentially, you drop dead and that’s the end of everything

Via Xaos
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

A brief hallucinatory twilight

A brief hallucinatory twilight | cognition | Scoop.it
I've got an article in The Atlantic on the hypnagogic state - the brief hallucinatory period between wakefulness and sleep - and how it is being increasingly used as a tool to make sense of consciousness.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Philosophy everywhere everywhen
Scoop.it!

The Evolutionary Argument Against Reality | Quanta Magazine

The Evolutionary Argument Against Reality |  Quanta Magazine | cognition | Scoop.it
As we go about our daily lives, we tend to assume that our perceptions — sights, sounds, textures, tastes — are an accurate portrayal of the real world. Sure, when we stop and think about it — or when we find ourselves fooled by a perceptual illusion — we realize with a jolt that what we perceive is never the world directly, but rather our brain’s best guess at what that world is like, a kind of internal simulation of an external reality. Still, we bank on the fact that our simulation is a reasonably decent one. If it wasn’t, wouldn’t evolution have weeded us out by now? The true reality might be forever beyond our reach, but surely our senses give us at least an inkling of what it’s really like.

Not so, says Donald D. Hoffman, a professor of cognitive science at the University of California, Irvine. Hoffman has spent the past three decades studying perception, artificial intelligence, evolutionary game theory and the brain, and his conclusion is a dramatic one: The world presented to us by our perceptions is nothing like reality. What’s more, he says, we have evolution itself to thank for this magnificent illusion, as it maximizes evolutionary fitness by driving truth to extinction.

Getting at questions about the nature of reality, and disentangling the observer from the observed, is an endeavor that straddles the boundaries of neuroscience and fundamental physics. On one side you’ll find researchers scratching their chins raw trying to understand how a three-pound lump of gray matter obeying nothing more than the ordinary laws of physics can give rise to first-person conscious experience. This is the aptly named “hard problem.”

Via Wildcat2030
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from The Aesthetic Ground
Scoop.it!

The Big Idea: What Is Object-Oriented Ontology? A Quick-and-Dirty Guide to the Philosophical Movement Sweeping the Art World | Artspace

The Big Idea: What Is Object-Oriented Ontology? A Quick-and-Dirty Guide to the Philosophical Movement Sweeping the Art World | Artspace | cognition | Scoop.it
If you're wondering why artists are trying to turn themselves into turtles and filling rooms with flesh-toned liquids, this is the guide for you.

Via Xaos
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

Intelligent machines might want to become biological again – Caleb Scharf | Aeon Essays

Intelligence could have been moving back and forth between biological beings and machine receptacles for aeons
FastTFriend's insight:
But are living things really compelled to become ever-smarter and more robust? And is biological intelligence really a universal dead-end, destined to give way to machine supremacy? Perhaps not. There is quite a bit more to the story.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by FastTFriend
Scoop.it!

Ancient history suggests that atheism is as natural to humans as religion

Ancient history suggests that atheism is as natural to humans as religion | cognition | Scoop.it
People in the ancient world did not always believe in the gods, a new study suggests – casting doubt on the idea that religious belief is a "default settin ...
FastTFriend's insight:

As a result, while some people viewed atheism as mistaken, it was rarely seen as morally wrong. In fact, it was usually tolerated as one of a number of viewpoints that people could adopt on the subject of the gods. Only occasionally was it actively legislated against, such as in Athens during the 5th Century BCE, when Socrates was executed for “not recognising the gods of the city.”

 

The age of ancient atheism ended, Whitmarsh suggests, because the polytheistic societies that generally tolerated it were replaced by monotheistic imperial forces that demanded an acceptance of one, “true” God. Rome’s adoption of Christianity in the 4th Century CE was, he says, “seismic”, because it used religious absolutism to hold the Empire together.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Knowmads, Infocology of the future
Scoop.it!

Can Another Body Be Seen as an Extension of Your Own?

Can Another Body Be Seen as an Extension of Your Own? | cognition | Scoop.it
Among dance forms, tango holds a unique and potent allure. It showcases two individuals—each with a separate mind, body, and bundle of goals and intentions, moving at times in close embrace, at times stepping away from each other, improvising moves and flourishes while responding to the imaginative overtures of the other—who somehow manage to give the impression of two bodies answering to a single mind. For performers and viewers alike, much of tango’s appeal comes from this apparent psychic fusion into a super-individual unit. Michael Kimmel, a social and cultural anthropologist who has researched the interpersonal dynamics of tango, writes that dancers “speak in awe of the way that individuality dissolves into a meditative unity for the three minutes that the dance lasts. Time and space give way to a unique moment of presence, of flow within and between partners.”

Tango offers more than aesthetic bliss; like all artistic practices that demand great skill, it also presents a seductive scientific puzzle, highlighting the mind’s potential to learn and re-shape itself in dramatic ways. But it’s only very recently that scientists have started building a systematic framework to explain how a person might achieve the sort of fusion that is needed for activities like social dancing, and what the impact of such an interpersonal entanglement might be.

At the heart of the puzzle is the notion of a body schema—a mental representation of the physical self that allows us to navigate through space without smashing into things, to scratch our nose without inadvertently smacking it, and to know how far and how quickly to reach for a cup of coffee without knocking it over. We can do all these things because our brains have learned to identify the edges of our bodies using information from multiple senses and devote exquisite attention to stimuli near our bodily boundaries.

Via Wildcat2030
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by FastTFriend from Knowmads, Infocology of the future
Scoop.it!

Genetic ‘intelligence networks’ discovered in the brain | KurzweilAI

Genetic ‘intelligence networks’ discovered in the brain | KurzweilAI | cognition | Scoop.it
Scientists from Imperial College London have identified two clusters (“gene networks”) of genes that are linked to human intelligence. Called M1 and M3, these gene networks appear to influence cognitive function, which includes memory, attention, processing speed and reasoning.

Importantly, the scientists have discovered that these two networks are likely to be under the control of master regulator switches. The researcher want to identify those switches and see if they can manipulate them, and ultimately find out if this knowledge of gene networks could allow for boosting cognitive function.

“We know that genetics plays a major role in intelligence but until now, haven’t known which genes are relevant,” said Michael Johnson, lead author of the study from the Imperial College London Department of Medicine. Johnson says the genes they have found so far are likely to share a common regulation, which means it may be possible to manipulate a whole set of genes linked to human intelligence.

Combining data from brain samples, genomic information, and IQ tests

In the study, published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, the international team of researchers looked at samples of human brain from patients who had undergone neurosurgery for epilepsy. The investigators analyzed thousands of genes expressed in the human brain, and then combined these results with genetic information from healthy people who had undergone IQ tests and from people with neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

Then they conducted various computational analyses and comparisons to identify the gene networks influencing healthy human cognitive abilities. Remarkably, they found that some of the same genes that influence human intelligence in healthy people cause impaired cognitive ability and epilepsy when mutated. And they found that genes that make new memories or sensible decisions when faced with lots of complex information also overlap with those that cause severe childhood onset epilepsy or intellectual disability.

Via Wildcat2030
more...
Farid Mheir's curator insight, January 15, 5:57 PM

Brain research and work to understand the architecture of our brain and reverse engineer it into machines continues to bring wonderful insights into who we are and what will soon be possible with digital machines.

Rescooped by FastTFriend from Daily Magazine
Scoop.it!

Quantum Computers Explained – Limits of Human ...

Quantum Computers Explained – Limits of Human ... | cognition | Scoop.it

Where are the limits of human technology? And can we somehow avoid them? This is where quantum computers become very interesting. 


Via THE *OFFICIAL ANDREASCY*
more...
Christian Verstraete's curator insight, January 4, 3:05 AM

Interesting and frightening at the same time.

CapConsult's curator insight, January 5, 3:37 AM

Quantum computers to understand with a bit of science, recommended video.