James (IPCC author) explains the predicted future weather extremes and probable regional changes for Europe, North America, East Asia and Australia/NZ.A substantial fraction of Chapter 14 is taken up with tropical phenomena, since it is the heating of the tropics, and the way heat is radiated from the tropics towards higher latitudes that drives most of the global circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. Key findings for tropical regions include: On average, monsoon rainfalls are likely to become more intense and the monsoon systems are likely to cover a greater area than at present. This is despite an expected weakening of tropical circulations – increased atmospheric moisture content more than outweighs this. Monsoon seasons are likely to get longer, mostly through a delay in monsoon withdrawal dates. In most tropical regions (and for much of the rest of the globe), the rule of thumb is that ‘wet gets wetter’ and ‘dry gets drier’. However, it also appears that in the tropics, the ‘warmer get wetter’, i.e. those regions of the wet tropics that warm the fastest are likely to see the largest rainfall increases. The ENSO cycle will remain the dominant pattern of interannual climate variability globally into the future. There is no strong indication that the form of ENSO events will change in future, but rainfall variability associated with ENSO is likely to increase. Tropical cyclone numbers are unlikely to increase, but cyclone maximum intensity is likely to increase in the global average, meaning increased maximum precipitation and winds.