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WWF: people are ready for action on climate; “world leaders” are not

WWF: people are ready for action on climate; “world leaders” are not | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it
Doha, Qatar – In a year in which the impacts of climate change pounded people in rich and poor countries alike, negotiators in Doha have failed to deliver even the minimum expectations for the UN climate negotiations.

“What science tells us and what millions of people experienced this year is that fighting climate change is now extremely urgent. Every year counts, and every year governments do not act increases the risk to us all. 
“The acid test for these negotiations was real emissions cuts; real and concrete financial commitments for climate change; and the basis for a new global deal by 2015 that is both ambitious and equitable. ...
”But hope is far from gone. Communities and people affected by climate change are standing up for safety, food and water security, and clean energy, confronting dirty projects all over the world, such as coal, and demanding real change. ...

“The most significant development in Doha was what happened outside the negotiations,” says Essop, “Social movements, labor unions and civil society joined hands to take a stand against the lack of ambition and urgency that governments brought to the table. We will return home and work together to ensure that governments act with the speed and scale that the climate crisis requires. That includes a fair, ambitious and binding agreement in 2015.” 

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Which Is Worse for the Planet: Beef or Cars? ("you'll be surprised at answer; your diet makes a diff")

Which Is Worse for the Planet: Beef or Cars? ("you'll be surprised at answer; your diet makes a diff") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

By Jordyn CormierCars are often used as the golden standard of environmental destruction. We know that our driving is hurtful to the environment. But, what about a burger? We don't instinctually associate meat consumption with climate change, but does the dark side of the meat industry give cars

Livestock emissions make up anywhere between 14.5 and 18 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions. Comparably, the transportation sector is responsible for around 14 percent of emissions. By those numbers alone, our current system of meat production is extremely damaging. Perhaps more looming, however, is that while transportation creates CO2, livestock farming is hugely responsible for producing methane. As you may know, methane is 23 times more potent when it comes to warming the planet.

Yes, driving cars is no good, but meat production is unexpectedly worse for the environment. Besides all of the fertilizer and cow waste products that release methane, meat unfortunately has to be transported in refrigerated trucks from feedlots to slaughterhouses to processing centers to your local grocery store. In this way, factory farming combines all of the harmful effects of driving an 18 wheeler, plus some.

The issue is that meat does not appear as harmful upon cursory glance. You can see emissions coming out of your old car and seeping into the atmosphere. You can't see emissions coming out of your hamburger. (Although, if you could see cow farts, that'd be a different story, as they shouldn't be underestimated in their profound environmental impact. Buying grass-fed beef reduces entropic emissions (methane gas flatulence) in cows simply because their stomachs are designed to digest grass, not grains. So, small changes do make a difference).

Bert Guevara's insight:
Would you believe that livestock emissions are worse to the environment than car emissions? Check out the facts and discover how climate change mitigation can be doable for the ordinary person.

"If everyone enjoyed one meatless day a week—a simple and easily accomplished request, livestock emissions could be greatly reduced. Unfortunately, a rise in sustainable farming, while more humane and necessary, will not greatly alter the skyrocketing emissions caused by livestock. This is especially true since meat consumption is growing across the globe and projected to increase by around 70 percent by 2050. The only way to clean up our act is to change how we produce, consume and think about meat. We need to become less meat-centric as a whole."
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Clouds of Denial Clear as Rising Storm Tops, Middle Latitude Drying Found to Speed Global Warming

Clouds of Denial Clear as Rising Storm Tops, Middle Latitude Drying Found to Speed Global Warming | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

"The data shows major reorganization of the cloud system... I consider this as the most singular of all the things that we have found, because many of us had been thinking the cloud changes might help us out, by having a strong feedback which is going the other way instead of amplifying it.” -- climate…

“The data shows major reorganization of the cloud system… I consider this as the most singular of all the things that we have found, because many of us had been thinking the cloud changes might help us out, by having a strong feedback which is going the other way instead of amplifying it.” — climate scientist Veerabhadran Ramanathan 

“Our results suggest that radiative forcing by a combination of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and volcanic aerosol has produced observed cloud changes during the past several decades that exert positive feedbacks on the climate system. We expect that increasing greenhouse gases will cause these cloud trends to continue in the future, unless offset by unpredictable large volcanic eruptions.” — Evidence for Climate Change in the Cloud Satellite Record (emphasis added). 

Scientists now have a satellite record of cloud behavior over the past few decades. What they’ve found is that, in response to Earth warming, cloud tops are rising even as clouds are forming at higher altitudes. This traps even more heat at the Earth’s surface. In addition, storms are moving north toward the poles, which means more sunlight hits the temperate regions near 40 degrees latitude both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This northward movement of storms also causes the Earth to warm more rapidly. In the past, scientists had hoped that changes in clouds would shelter the Earth from some of the greenhouse gas warming caused by fossil fuel emissions. What we are finding now is that the opposite is true. The way clouds change as the Earth warms appears to be increasing the intensity of greenhouse gas warming.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Are clouds working for us or against us (on climate change)?
Maybe not.

"Scientists now have a satellite record of cloud behavior over the past few decades. What they’ve found is that, in response to Earth warming, cloud tops are rising even as clouds are forming at higher altitudes. This traps even more heat at the Earth’s surface. In addition, storms are moving north toward the poles, which means more sunlight hits the temperate regions near 40 degrees latitude both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This northward movement of storms also causes the Earth to warm more rapidly. In the past, scientists had hoped that changes in clouds would shelter the Earth from some of the greenhouse gas warming caused by fossil fuel emissions. What we are finding now is that the opposite is true. The way clouds change as the Earth warms appears to be increasing the intensity of greenhouse gas warming."
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You’ll Never Believe How Cheap New Solar Power Is ("that's US 2.99 cents/KWH - unsubsidized")

You’ll Never Believe How Cheap New Solar Power Is ("that's US 2.99 cents/KWH - unsubsidized") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

If it surprises you that U.S. solar has jumped 100-fold in the last decade -- and prices are now under 4 cents per kilowatt-hour -- you should read this.

Solar energy has grown 100-fold in this country in the past decade. Globally, solar has doubled seven times since 2000, and Dubai received a bid recently for 800 megawatts of solar at a stunning “US 2.99 cents per kilowatt hour” — unsubsidized! For context, the average residential price for electricity in the United States is 12 cents per kilowatt-hour. 

Solar energy has been advancing considerably faster than anyone expected just a few years ago thanks to aggressive market-based deployment efforts around the globe. Since it’s hard to keep up with the speed-of-light changes, and this is the fuel that will power more and more of the global economy in the near future, here are all the latest charts and facts to understand it. 

If you are looking for one chart to sum up the whole solar energy miracle, Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) Chairman Michael Liebreich has one from his keynote address at BNEF’s annual conference in April titled “In Search of the Miraculous”:

The bids seen around the world this year without subsidies or incentives are even more stunning. Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) received a bid this year for 800 megawatts at a jaw-dropping “US 2.99 cents per kilowatt hour.” Two other bids were below US 4 cents/kWh, and the last two bids were both below 4.5 cents/kWh — again all of these bids were without subsidies! 

That 2.99 cents bid is way down from a 2015 deal Dubai signed for more than 1000 megawatts at 5.84 cents over 25 years. So Dubai has seen a 50 percent price drop in solar in just 18 months. 

And these prices aren’t unique to the Middle East. As Bloomberg New Energy Finance reported in April, Enel Green power signed a contract for $.036/kWh in in Mexico — 3.6 cents. 

With prices dropping so fast, sales of solar PV systems have been soaring, as you can imagine. Here is the recent growth in this country:

Bert Guevara's insight:
This is one of the more complete reports on solar energy. It is amazing how far the use of the technology has gone, and eventually how low its price has gone.

"Given how fast solar PV has been coming down in price — and given the world’s commitment in Paris last December to keep ratcheting down carbon pollution in the coming decades to keep total global warming “well below 2°C” — it seems entirely possible if not likely that solar power will outperform the IEA’s scenario."
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Arctic News: 2016 Arctic Sea Ice Headed To Zero ("accelerated global warming seen")

Arctic News: 2016 Arctic Sea Ice Headed To Zero ("accelerated global warming seen") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it
The image below shows that Arctic sea ice extent on July 3, 2016, was 8,707,651 square km, i.e. less than the 8.75 million square km that extent was on July 3, 2012.
In September 2012, Arctic sea ice extent reached a record low. Given that extent now is only slightly lower than it was in 2012 at the same time of year, can extent this year be expected to reach an even lower minimum, possibly as low as zero ice in September 2016? 
The ice this year is certainly headed in that direction, given that the sea ice now is much thinner than it was in 2012. The image below shows sea ice thickness on July 7, 2012, in the left-hand panel, and adds a forecast for July 7, 2016 in the right-hand panel.
Besides being thinner, sea ice now is also much more slushy and fractured into small pieces. The animation below shows that the sea ice close to the North Pole on July 4, 2016, was heavily fractured into pieces that are mostly smaller in size than 10 x 10 km or 6.2 x 6.2 miles. By comparison, sea ice in the same area did develop large cracks in 2012, but even in September 13, 2012, it was not broken up into small pieces.
One big reason behind the dire state the sea ice is in now is ocean heat. On July 2, 2016, sea surface near Svalbard (at the location marker by the green circle) was as warm as 16.7°C or 62.1°F, i.e. 13.5°C or 24.3°F warmer than 1981-2011. This gives an indication how much warmer the water is that is entering the Arctic Ocean.
As the sea ice disappears, less sunlight gets reflected back into space, resulting in additional warming of the Arctic Ocean. In October 2016, the sea ice will return, sealing off the Arctic Ocean, resulting in less heat being able to escape, at the very time the warmest water is entering the Arctic Ocean from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The danger of this situation is that a large amount of heat will reach the seafloor and destabilize hydrates, resulting in huge abrupt methane releases that will further contribute to warming. When adding in further factors such as discussed e.g. at this earlier post, this adds up to a potential temperature rise of more than 10°C or 18°F compared to pre-industrial times in less than ten years time from now.
Bert Guevara's insight:
Ocean warming is reaching the Poles. What will this mean for us? How does this affect global warming?

"As the sea ice disappears, less sunlight gets reflected back into space, resulting in additional warming of the Arctic Ocean. In October 2016, the sea ice will return, sealing off the Arctic Ocean, resulting in less heat being able to escape, at the very time the warmest water is entering the Arctic Ocean from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The danger of this situation is that a large amount of heat will reach the seafloor and destabilize hydrates, resulting in huge abrupt methane releases that will further contribute to warming. When adding in further factors such as discussed e.g. at this earlier post, this adds up to a potential temperature rise of more than 10°C or 18°F compared to pre-industrial times in less than ten years time from now."
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A Model for ‘Clean Coal’ Runs Off the Tracks ("model plant is between a failure and a fraud")

A Model for ‘Clean Coal’ Runs Off the Tracks ("model plant is between a failure and a fraud") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A Mississippi project, a centerpiece of President Obama’s climate plan, has been plagued by problems that managers tried to conceal, and by cost overruns and questions of who will pay.

The fortress of steel and concrete towering above the pine forest here is a first-of-its-kind power plant that was supposed to prove that “clean coal” was not an oxymoron — that it was possible to produce electricity from coal in a way that emits far less pollution, and to turn a profit while doing so. 

The plant was not only a central piece of the Obama administration’s climate plan, it was also supposed to be a model for future power plants to help slow the dangerous effects of global warming. The project was hailed as a way to bring thousands of jobs to Mississippi, the nation’s poorest state, and to extend a lifeline to the dying coal industry. 

The sense of hope is fading fast, however. The Kemper coal plant is more than two years behind schedule and more than $4 billion over its initial budget, $2.4 billion, and it is still not operational.

Many problems plaguing the project were broadly known and had been occurring for years. But a review by The New York Times of thousands of pages of public records, previously undisclosed internal documents and emails, and 200 hours of secretly though legally recorded conversations among more than a dozen colleagues at the plant offers a detailed look at what went wrong and why.

In their recorded conversations with Mr. Wingo, at least six senior engineers from the plant said that they believed that the delays and cost overruns, as well as safety violations and shoddy work, were partly the result of mismanagement or fraud.

Bert Guevara's insight:
In trying to prove that "clean coal" is possible and feasible, the US model plant is overpriced, behind schedule and unfinished. Trying to prove a myth is really expensive.

“The big question with clean coal has always been whether it’s a moonshot or a money pit,” said Charles Grayson, the director of the Bigger Pie Forum, which advocates fiscal conservatism in Mississippi and has been critical of the Kemper project for years. “The Obama administration and my state made a really bad wager in trying to use Kemper to make the economic argument for this technology.”
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A major climate landmark has been crossed – for the first time in 4 million years ("can't be a cycle")

A major climate landmark has been crossed – for the first time in 4 million years ("can't be a cycle") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

An observatory at the South Pole has recorded a reading for carbon dioxide of 400 parts per million – the last station to do so.

Carbon dioxide levels in the Antarctic just hit 400 parts per million (ppm) – making the polar region the final place on Earth to cross this climate threshold. 

The South Pole Observatory breached 400 ppm for the first time on 23rd May, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The organization says this is the first time in 4 million years this level has been reached. 

“The far southern hemisphere was the last place on Earth where CO2 had not yet reached this mark,” explained Pieter Tans, lead scientist at NOAA’s Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. “Global CO2 levels will not return to values below 400 ppm in our lifetimes, and almost certainly for much longer.”

The remote location of the Antarctic observatory means it was the last place on Earth to register a 400ppm reading. As this chart from the NOAA shows, levels have been increasing year on year. Indeed, since observations began in 1958, there has been an increase every year in the global yearly average.

2015 was also the fourth consecutive year that the NOAA have recorded a rise of above 2ppm – with the global average reaching 399ppm last year, it looks set to be over 400ppm this year. 

“Since emissions from fossil fuel burning have been at a record high during the last several years, the rate of CO2 increase has also been at a record high,” said Tans. “We know some of it will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
CO2 stays in the atmosphere for thousands of years. Once released, it won't just blow away tomorrow, or next week, or next year!

"2015 was also the fourth consecutive year that the NOAA have recorded a rise of above 2ppm – with the global average reaching 399ppm last year, it looks set to be over 400ppm this year. 
“Since emissions from fossil fuel burning have been at a record high during the last several years, the rate of CO2 increase has also been at a record high,” said Tans. “We know some of it will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years.”
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All new cars in Germany must be emissions-free after 2030 ("bold move for clean air starting w/ cars")

All new cars in Germany must be emissions-free after 2030 ("bold move for clean air starting w/ cars") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A senior government official says Germany will only register electric, emissions-free cars after 2030.

Many European nations are working to reduce carbon emissions, through a combination of initiatives related to boosting renewable energy production and curbing emissions from transportation. Now, Germany is taking a stand to cut back on emissions produced on its roadways, with a declaration that all new cars registered in the country will have to meet a zero-emissions requirement by 2030. This new rule is part of Germany’s broader goal to slash up to 95 percent of carbon dioxide emissions by 2050.

Deputy Economy Minister Rainer Baake thinks it’s high time that Germany gets serious about reducing emissions from transportation. “Fact is, there’s been no reduction at all in CO2 emissions by transport since 1990,” he said. “We don’t have any answers to cut truck emissions right now but we do have answers for cars.” The emissions-free requirement will help, but Germany’s government is making it a little easier to achieve with a previously announced cash incentive program to encourage sales of electric cars. The program translates into $4,500 on purchases of all-electric cars and $3,400 on hybrid vehicles, totaling a whopping $1.1 billion nationwide.

The Environment Ministry estimates the incentive program would help put 500,000 more electric cars on the road by 2020 which is, incidentally, the self-imposed deadline for cutting the nation’s emissions by 40 percent. Currently, there are just 130,000 hybrids and 25,000 full-electric cars registered in Germany (as of January 2016) and some 30 million gasoline cars and 14.5 million diesels. All things considered, boosting electric car sales may help put a dent in the nation’s transportation emissions, but Germany has a long road ahead to its 2050 goal.“Fact is, there’s been no reduction at all in CO2 emissions by transport since 1990,” he said. “We don’t have any answers to cut truck emissions right now but we do have answers for cars.” The emissions-free requirement will help, but Germany’s government is making it a little easier to achieve with a previously announced cash incentive program to encourage sales of electric cars.

Bert Guevara's insight:
The fight for clean air starts with political will.

“Fact is, there’s been no reduction at all in CO2 emissions by transport since 1990,” he said. “We don’t have any answers to cut truck emissions right now but we do have answers for cars.” The emissions-free requirement will help, but Germany’s government is making it a little easier to achieve with a previously announced cash incentive program to encourage sales of electric cars.
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Is this the most important chart in global energy? ("can't dispute graph of declining cost of solar")

Is this the most important chart in global energy? ("can't dispute graph of declining cost of solar") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

“It describes a pattern so consistent, and so powerful, that industries set their clocks by it."

At first glance, the progress made is significant, but look a little closer and it’s even more incredible. The chart is on a logarithmic scale, emphasizing the progress made towards making solar power more affordable. 

As the bubble on the chart highlights, the fall in module costs has been dramatic. For every doubling in the number of solar panels, costs fall by 26%. This cost is known as solar’s ‘learning rate’. 

Bloomberg offers a simple explanation for this trend. Efficiency increases and costs fall as time progresses because solar is a technology, not a fuel. As they emphasize: “This is the formula that’s driving the energy revolution.”

The benefits are already being seen across the world. Consider Morocco’s giant new solar power plant – the Noor-Ouarzazate complex, which is set to power over a million homes. Partly funded with a loan from the World Bank, the scale of the project is a key indication of the progress in solar infrastructure. 

Solar isn’t only for places with year-round sun either. Germany has the capacity to generate over a third of its electricity from solar – this in a country hardly noted for endless, sun-filled days.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Don't be the last to know.

"Increasing use of solar also reduces the use of coal and gas power plants. As they’re used less, costs increase. This will make renewables seem ever more attractive. 
"It’s fair to say that solar looks set to stay – and the best thing is, the further the technology advances, the cheaper it gets."
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Fighting Climate Change with Movies ("using movies can redefine values & culture; role of humans")

Fighting Climate Change with Movies ("using movies can redefine values & culture; role of humans") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

“It’s going to change in some of the most difficult and dangerous ways that we can imagine. When you really encounter that head on, it causes an incredible crisis. I think you go deep into some kind of despair and I think you ping-pong back and forth between that despair and, and denial” -- Josh Fox

“How to Let Go of the World and Love All the Things Climate Can’t Change” is the latest movie from filmmaker and climate activist Josh Fox. 

The movie is the third film in a three-part series about climate change. 

In 2010, America’s Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences nominated Fox’s documentary “Gasland” for its highest award -- an Oscar. “Gasland” explored “fracking,” the hotly debated process of removing natural gas from the ground. He examined the subject again in “Gasland II,” the second film in his climate change series. 

Fox was in Washington, D.C. recently to present his third film. He was arrested during a protest against a new fuel pipeline. The arrest was evidence of his opposition to traditional fossil fuels and support of renewable energy. 

In the film, Fox says pollution from fossil fuels must be reduced. Without limits, he says, there will be more extreme weather, like severe storms and dry weather, rising sea levels and shortages of food and water. 

“It’s going to change in some of the most difficult and dangerous ways that we can imagine. When you really encounter that head on, it causes an incredible crisis. I think you go deep into some kind of despair and I think you ping-pong back and forth between that despair and, and denial.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
Using the power of movies to shape opinion on climate change...

Fox notes there are some things that climate cannot change. “And those are the things that are inside of us. Those are our value structure and that is what the film starts to define. If we start to really emphasize building community, building human rights, building democracy and the things that are inside -- courage, love, generosity, innovation, creativity. And I think those are some of the hallmarks or the pillars of what we talk about when we talk about activism, when we talk about a response to climate change.”
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Scientists Seek a New Measure for Methane. Here’s Why.

Scientists Seek a New Measure for Methane. Here’s Why. | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

An Oxford University study suggests there is a problem with the way scientists account for methane's effect on the climate.

Methane and carbon dioxide have two things in common: They’re both composed of carbon, and they both heat the atmosphere. The difference? Carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere and stays there indefinitely. Methane does not. 

Emitting methane into the atmosphere is something like throwing kerosene on a fire. It warms the atmosphere a lot over a very short period of time — years to decades — but then it dissipates and its ability to heat the atmosphere dies down. 

That’s why methane, along with black carbon and a few other chemicals, are called “short-lived climate pollutants.” They don’t stay in the atmosphere very long, but they may do a lot of damage in the near future, such as speeding the melting of ice sheets, which contributes to sea level rise, and polluting the air with ozone. 

Carbon dioxide, by contrast, accumulates over centuries, warming the earth more and more as it mounts up. That means cutting carbon dioxide has a much greater effect on long-term climate change than cutting methane pollution.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Although short-lived compared to carbon dioxide, methane nonetheless increases global warming. The correct appreciation of methane will compel mitigation efforts.

"Scientists say that methane over the span of 20 years is 86 times more potent as carbon dioxide to warm the atmosphere, and 35 times as potent as carbon dioxide over the span of a century.
"Steffen Kallbekken, research director at the Center for International Climate and Energy Policy in Norway, said comparing methane and carbon dioxide masks how long it will take emissions cuts to make a difference in the climate. 
"Scientists worry that a strong focus on cutting methane could be used to justify less focus on cutting carbon dioxide, which will keep the atmosphere baking indefinitely, he said."
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Tom Schueneman's curator insight, June 10, 2:04 PM
Finding better ways to account for the climate impacts of Methane, a more potent than CO2 but relatively short-lived in the atmosphere (years to decades)
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Norway 'to completely ban' petrol powered cars by 2025 ("good news for ecology; worrisome for opec")

Norway 'to completely ban' petrol powered cars by 2025 ("good news for ecology; worrisome for opec") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Norway will ban the sale of all fossil fuel-based cars in the next decade, continuing its trend towards becoming one of the most ecologically progressive countries on the planet, according to reports.

Norway will ban the sale of all fossil fuel-based cars in the next decade, continuing its trend towards becoming one of the most ecologically progressive countries on the planet, according to reports. 

Politicians from both sides of the political spectrum have reportedly reached some concrete conclusions about 100 per cent of Norwegian cars running on green energy by 2025. 

According to Norwegian newspaper Dagens Naeringsliv, "FRP will remove all gasoline cars", a headline which makes reference to the populist right-wing Framstegspartiet, or Progress Party.

The report also follows the announcement that Norway will become the first country in the world to commit to zero deforestation. 

Speaking about the possible 2025 ban on non-electric cars, Elon Musk, chief executive of US electric car company Tesla Motors, lauded the announcement. "

Just heard that Norway will ban new sales of fuel cars in 2025," he wrote.

Bert Guevara's insight:
"Norway will ban the sale of all fossil fuel-based cars in the next decade, continuing its trend towards becoming one of the most ecologically progressive countries on the planet, according to reports. 
"Politicians from both sides of the political spectrum have reportedly reached some concrete conclusions about 100 per cent of Norwegian cars running on green energy by 2025. 
"According to Norwegian newspaper Dagens Naeringsliv, "FRP will remove all gasoline cars", a headline which makes reference to the populist right-wing Framstegspartiet, or Progress Party."
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The world is about to install 700 million air conditioners. Here’s what that means for the climate

The world is about to install 700 million air conditioners. Here’s what that means for the climate | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, it could be like adding several countries to the planet.

“We expect that the demand for cooling as economies improve, particularly in hot climates, is going to be an incredible driver of electricity requirements,” U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz said in an interview. 

In most ways, of course, this is a very good thing: Protecting people from intense heat — a town in India this month saw temperatures exceed 123 degrees Fahrenheit — is essential for their health and well-being. It’s just that it’s going to come with a huge energy demand, and potentially huge carbon emissions to boot. 

Overall, the Berkeley report projects that the world is poised to install 700 million air conditioners by 2030, and 1.6 billion of them by 2050. In terms of electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions, that’s like adding several new countries to the world.

Zaelke and Moniz said that the real impact for the planetary greenhouse will be if the world can combine a restriction on emissions of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol, the global treaty originally adopted in 1987 to address ozone depleting substances like CFCs, with greater air conditioner efficiency overall. The Protocol “has never failed to do its job once it has gotten its assignment,” Zaelke said. 

The Berkeley Laboratory study found that if the world can shift toward 30 percent more efficient air conditioners, and phase out HFCs at the same time, that could effectively offset the construction of as many as 1,550 peak power plants.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Global warming? Turn on the air conditioners!

“We expect that the demand for cooling as economies improve, particularly in hot climates, is going to be an incredible driver of electricity requirements,” U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz said in an interview.
"Overall, the Berkeley report projects that the world is poised to install 700 million air conditioners by 2030, and 1.6 billion of them by 2050. In terms of electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions, that’s like adding several new countries to the world."
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Tom Schueneman's curator insight, June 3, 1:49 PM
Indicative of the general issue of sustainable development
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The west country cheddar maker powered by solar and cow dung ("this is smart, eco-friendly business")

The west country cheddar maker powered by solar and cow dung ("this is smart, eco-friendly business") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Wyke Farms saves £100,000 a year on energy bills thanks to green initiatives. And that’s just the start

The dairy business in southwest England, which exports 14,000 tonnes of cheddar a year to more than 160 countries, has been building an energy generation and water recycling operation over the past five years to reduce its environmental impact and save money. According to Clothier, it’s been able to lower its energy bills by nearly £100,000 per month as a result. 

Aside from solar panels, Wyke generates electricity and heat from cow dung. Using microbes, the dung is broken down to produce biogas, which the farm burns to generate electricity and heat. Since dung naturally releases methane during decomposition, the process of producing biogas helps the farm cut the amount of methane – a potent greenhouse gas – reaching the atmosphere. 

In addition, the cheese maker converts some of the biogas into biomethane, the majority of which it sells to businesses – including the supermarket chain Sainsbury’s – via a local utility’s pipelines.

Wyke’s reliance on solar and biogas isn’t unusual for an agricultural business. What sets Wyke’s plan apart is its scale and complexity. The company is putting in place software to monitor energy generation and wastewater recycling, which can figure out the business’s needs and adjust the energy generation accordingly.

Bert Guevara's insight:
“My grandparents used to tell me that if you look after nature, then nature will look after you,” says Richard Clothier, managing director of Wyke Farms, which generates electricity, gas and heat from renewable sources. “It’s nice to go to work in the morning and know you are doing the right thing.”

"Wyke Farms saves £100,000 a year on energy bills thanks to green initiatives. And that’s just the start ...
"Aside from solar panels, Wyke generates electricity and heat from cow dung. Using microbes, the dung is broken down to produce biogas, which the farm burns to generate electricity and heat. Since dung naturally releases methane during decomposition, the process of producing biogas helps the farm cut the amount of methane – a potent greenhouse gas – reaching the atmosphere."
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The Archimedes windmill movie ENG high quality ("more efficient design that's better for households")

History of The Archimedes HQ

Liam F1’s logarithmic spiral, the company claims, make it the most efficient urban wind turbine in existence, able to operate at approximately 80% of the Betz Limit, or 47.4% overall efficiency, which states that the theoretical maximum efficiency of any wind turbine is only 59.3%. Commercial wind turbines max out at 50% of the Betz Limit, or just 29.7% efficiency.

Liam F1 Urban Wind Turbine’s unique design is not only efficient, but far more compact and quieter than traditional wind turbine designs, making it a far better candidate for residential installation.

A single unit, according to The Archimedes, is capable of generating “an average of 1,500 kilowatt-hours of energy [per year] at a wind-speed of 5 m/s [16.4 ft/s], which resembles half of the power consumption of a common household.” Officially-available July 1, the unique wind turbine will go sale for €3,999 (≈$5,450).

Bert Guevara's insight:
Check out this smaller, more efficient, logarithmic spiral which can serve as a household windmill.

"Scaling down wind turbines doesn’t help a whole lot with these problems, so residential systems remain an oddity. 
"A small company, The Archimedes, may change all of that with an entirely new small-scale wind turbine design. As the company name suggests, the Liam F1 Urban Wind Turbine’s unique turbine shape is inspired, partly by the Green mathematician Archimedes, and by the natural spiral design of the nautilus shell."
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Last month was hottest June on record – US scientists ("14th straight month; 137-year record streak")

Last month was hottest June on record – US scientists ("14th straight month; 137-year record streak") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

(UPDATED) NOAA: 'This marks the 14th consecutive month the monthly global temperature record has been broken, the longest such streak in the 137-year record'

Last month was the hottest June in modern history, marking the 14th consecutive month that global heat records have been broken, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said on Tuesday, July 19. 

"The globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for June 2016 was the highest for the month of June in the NOAA global temperature dataset record, which dates back to 1880," the agency said in a statement. 

"This marks the 14th consecutive month the monthly global temperature record has been broken, the longest such streak in the 137-year record."

The report, issued each month by NOAA, also said the global temperature for the first 6 months of 2016 was the hottest on record. 

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for June was 1.62 degrees Fahrenheit (0.9 degrees Celsius) above the 20th century average of 59.9 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5 Celsius). 

"June 2016 marks the 40th consecutive June with temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average," NOAA said. 

NOAA also spoke about what it calls the "monthly temperature departure" or record spikes in heat. It said 14 of 15 of these spikes have occurred since February 2015, signaling that global warming is accelerating. 

The planet's average land temperature in June was 2.23 degrees Fahrenheit higher than the 20th century monthly average, tied at an all-time record for June that was struck last year. 

The land temperature also hit a record high for the first 6 months of the year. 

The average sea surface temperature was 1.39 degrees Fahrenheit above last century's monthly average. That marked the hottest June and the hottest January-June period on record.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Did you feel the heat?

Last month was the hottest June in modern history, marking the 14th consecutive month that global heat records have been broken, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said on Tuesday, July 19. 
"The globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for June 2016 was the highest for the month of June in the NOAA global temperature dataset record, which dates back to 1880," the agency said in a statement. 
"This marks the 14th consecutive month the monthly global temperature record has been broken, the longest such streak in the 137-year record."
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In former ‘Dirtiest City in America,’ clean transportation is thriving ("from mediocre to leader")

In former ‘Dirtiest City in America,’ clean transportation is thriving ("from mediocre to leader") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A small Tennessee city is emerging as a national leader in clean transportation, with electric buses, a bike share system and a soon-to-launch electric car sharing program.

In October of 1969, Walter Cronkite announced to America that Chattanooga, Tennessee had been anointed the “Dirtiest City in America” by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 

Today, the mid-sized city nestled at the foot of the Appalachian mountains is known as “gig city” for its lightning fast fiberoptic network, and this year was rated number one among mid-size cities in innovation economy by the National League of Cities. 

Through private and public initiatives, including both state and federal funding, it has also become a national leader in the transition to clean transportation – with an electric bus, bike-sharing and a soon-to-launch electric car sharing service. In 2015, the city was ranked 12th among the top 15 metro areas seeing the most improvement in air quality—with 66 percent of days having good air quality in 2014.

The transition began 26 years ago, when the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA) began operating an emission-free electric shuttle bus service in the polluted downtown area, which was undergoing revitalization. The shuttle costs nothing to residents to ride. Funding from the Federal Transit Administration ($15.7 million), Tennessee Valley Authority ($2 million), and Tennessee Department of Transportation ($2 million) covered the initial startup costs. 

“That electric shuttle bus now has a million passengers a year,” says Scott Allen Fiedler of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). “It is popular with tourists and residents alike. It has been a driving force in the transformation in Chattanooga transportation for a quarter century.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
See how the correct investment in clean energy provides returns beyond the numbers.

“I tend to be a fiscal conservative and generally respect this process,” says Pugliese. “But I believe these investments in transportation have a huge return on investment in terms of promoting freedom of choice, mobility, healthy living, and overall quality of life.
“We’ve gone from being called the dirtiest and least inviting city in the nation to now being ranked one of the best places to live in America. We are working hard to transform transportation choice in the city.”
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Short Answers to Hard Questions About Clean Coal Technology ("still unreachable & uneconomical")

Short Answers to Hard Questions About Clean Coal Technology ("still unreachable & uneconomical") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A primer on carbon capture and storage, and why it has an uncertain future as a force for fighting climate change.

Technology holds the promise of enabling coal power plants, which produce much of the world’s electricity, to run more cleanly, emitting far less of the pollution that causes climate change. But these projects have been difficult to make a reality because they are complicated and expensive. Here is a quick primer.

... Since the early 2000s, there has been a wave of optimism that this technology could play a vital role in slowing climate change by cleaning up some of the biggest emitters of carbon pollution. Now there is significant skepticism that the technology can be scaled up affordably, reliably and soon enough to make a difference.

​How is the CO2 captured? 

A power plant can trap carbon dioxide in one of three ways. After combustion, the carbon dioxide is captured from the exhaust of a power plant by absorbing it in a liquid, which is later heated to release the gas for storage. CO2 can also be captured before combustion. In this case, a controlled amount of oxygen is used to turn coal or natural gas into “syngas,” a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Before it is burned to generate power, the syngas is treated with steam, producing carbon dioxide. A third method involves burning fossil fuels in oxygen. That results in an exhaust stream of water vapor and CO2, which are then separated by cooling and compressing the gas stream.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Clean coal is still a THEORY! Even if it is reached, it is not economical.

"Coal plants that capture carbon are expensive partly because they are so complex. As the New York Times reporter Henry Fountain explained, “removing carbon dioxide from the swirl of gases unleashed at a power plant is challenging, akin to plucking just a few colored Ping-Pong balls out of the air from a swarm of mostly white ones.” That price rises further because capturing and compressing the carbon requires so much energy, sometimes sapping more than 20 percent of the electricity that the plant is supposed to produce for consumers."
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Sweden Opens World's First Electric Highway ("another step closer to zero-emission transport")

Sweden Opens World's First Electric Highway ("another step closer to zero-emission transport") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A 22 kilometer stretch of the E16 road in Sweden is fitted with power lines overhead, developed by Siemens, providing electricity to hybrid trucks.

A 22 kilometer (or roughly 13 miles) stretch of the E16 road—which connects Oslo, Norway, to Gävle, Sweden—is fitted with power lines overhead, developed by Siemens, providing electricity to hybrid trucks. The system works like a tram system. A current collector on the trucks will transfer energy from the power lines to the trucks’ hybrid electric motors, Sputnik News reported. The electric lines help trucks operate longer between recharges. 

“Electric roads will bring us one step closer to fossil fuel-free transports, and has the potential to achieve zero carbon dioxide emissions,” Lena Erixon, director general of transport authority Trafikverket, said. “This is one way of developing environmentally smart transports in the existing road network. It could be a good supplement to todays road and rail network.”

When the trucks, provided by Scania, are not on the electric stretch of road, they will operate as hybrid vehicles running on biofuel. Electric-powered trucks are expected to cut 80 to 90 percent of fossil fuel emissions. The opening of this stretch of road is another step toward Sweden’s goal of operating a fossil fuel-free fleet by 2030, Inhabitat reported. 

“Electric roads are one more piece of the puzzle in the transport system of the future, especially for making the heavy transport section fossil fuel-free over the long term,” Erik Brandsma, director general of the Swedish Energy Agency, said. “This project also shows the importance of all the actors in the field cooperating.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
Another novel approach to emission-free transport, but I wonder if this is practical for the Philippines.

"The system works like a tram system. A current collector on the trucks will transfer energy from the power lines to the trucks’ hybrid electric motors, Sputnik News reported. The electric lines help trucks operate longer between recharges.
“Electric roads will bring us one step closer to fossil fuel-free transports, and has the potential to achieve zero carbon dioxide emissions,” Lena Erixon, director general of transport authority Trafikverket, said. “This is one way of developing environmentally smart transports in the existing road network. It could be a good supplement to todays road and rail network.”
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Seven climate records set so far in 2016 ("we can no longer ignore the obvious warming of planet")

Seven climate records set so far in 2016 ("we can no longer ignore the obvious warming of planet") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

From soaring temperatures in Alaska and India to Arctic sea ice melting and CO2 concentrations rising, this year is smashing records around the world

1) Arctic sea ice is melting at a rate that by September could see it beat the record low set in 2012. The maximum extent of sea ice in winter was at a record low, and the extent in May was the lowest for that month ever, by more than 500,000 sq km.

2) Every month this year has been the hottest on record globally for that month. May, data published this week by Nasa revealed, was no exception. Nasa’s dataset, one of three main global surface temperature records, shows February recorded the highest anomaly against long term average temperatures.

3) India recorded its hottest day ever on 19 May. The mercury in Phalodi, in the desert state of Rajasthan, rose to 51C, as a nationwide drought that has affected more than 300 million people marched on, leaving armed guards at dams, and reservoirs well below their usual levels.

4) Alaska, along with the rest of the Arctic, has experienced record-breaking heat. Spring was the warmest on record in the state, with an average temperature of 0C, and the average year-to-date temperature has been 5.5C above the long term average.

5) Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have been breaking records every year for decades, but the size of the margin by which the record is forecast to break the annual record in 2016 is striking and itself a record. The increase for 2016 is expected to be 3.1 parts per million, up from an annual average of 2.1.

6) Australia, no stranger to record-breaking heat, just clocked up its hottest autumn yet.

7) The Great Barrier Reef, a natural wonder and world heritage site, experienced its worst ever coral bleaching event, as a blob of warm water made its way around the world.

Bert Guevara's insight:
From soaring temperatures in Alaska and India to Arctic sea ice melting and CO2 concentrations rising, this year is smashing records around the world.
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Tom Schueneman's curator insight, June 24, 8:59 PM
If we don't begin to feel the required sense of urgency now, we never wlll
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Green Microcycle Plus: The world's first electric bike that doubles as a pedal generator ("cool!")

Green Microcycle Plus: The world's first electric bike that doubles as a pedal generator ("cool!") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

File this under "It's about time."

Adam Boesel, the creator of the Green Microgym and the Green Microcycle bike generators, which are being used in a "Green Read & Ride" program, hasn't just spinning his wheels, as his latest product is an electric bike that does double duty as a home electricity generator. 

The Green Microcycle Plus (a 26" cruiser e-bike) and the Green Microcycle Plus/Minus (a 20" folding e-bike) can be cycled just like any other e-bike, with a 350W rear hub motor for pedal-assist or throttle-based electric riding, a removable 36V 10 Ah lithium-ion battery, a top speed of 20 mph, and a range of 20-30 miles per charge, but they also come with a heavy duty stand that allows the bikes to be used as pedal-powered generators. These bikes can produce anywhere between 30 and 100 watts, depending on the rider, which can go directly back into the home via a standard wall outlet. Granted, this isn't nearly enough power to take your home off of the grid, by any means, but it is a way to cleanly charge or offset the electricity of a number of small electronics devices.

The Green Microcycles can also be used as a standalone (off-grid) charger for 12V batteries, when used in conjunction with a charge controller, which means that they could serve as an emergency power source or simply as a way to charge backup batteries or power packs.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Nice to have this bike when you want to get off the grid.

"Ride this e-bike around town, and then park it in your living room and generate clean electricity."
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Future summers could regularly be hotter than the hottest on record ("warmer for the next 50 years")

Future summers could regularly be hotter than the hottest on record ("warmer for the next 50 years") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it
In 50 years, summers across most of the globe could regularly be hotter than any summer experienced so far by people alive today, according to a study by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). 
If climate change continues on its current trajectory, the probability that any summer between 2061 and 2080 will be warmer than the hottest on record is 80 percent across the world's land areas, excluding Antarctica, which was not studied. 
If greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, however, that probability drops to 41 percent, according to the study. 
"Extremely hot summers always pose a challenge to society," said NCAR scientist Flavio Lehner, lead author of the study. "They can increase the risk for health issues, but can also damage crops and deepen droughts. Such summers are a true test of our adaptability to rising temperatures." 
The study, which is available online, is part of an upcoming special issue of the journal Climatic Change that will focus on quantifying the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The research was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Swiss National Science Foundation.
Bert Guevara's insight:
Do you want unbearably warm summers?

"If climate change continues on its current trajectory, the probability that any summer between 2061 and 2080 will be warmer than the hottest on record is 80 percent across the world's land areas, according to a new study. If greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, however, that probability drops to 41 percent, according to the study."
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Researchers Turn CO2 to Stone in Climate Change Breakthrough ("safe, quick but wasteful water use")

Researchers Turn CO2 to Stone in Climate Change Breakthrough ("safe, quick but wasteful water use") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Researchers in Iceland found a new way of tackling climate change by pumping carbon dioxide underground and turning it into stone

Researchers in Iceland found a new way of tackling climate change by pumping carbon dioxide underground and turning it into stone. 

Other carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods store CO2 as a gas, but problems include a high cost and concern about leakage. This new method of burying CO2 and turning it into stone is cheaper and more secure, the Guardian reports. 

To turn C02 to stone, researchers with the Carbfix project pumped the gas into volcanic rock and sped up the natural process in which basalts react with gas and form carbonate minerals. The gas turned into solid in just two years—much faster than the hundreds or thousands of years researchers had predicted. 

The research took place at Iceland’s Hellisheidi power plant, the largest geothermal facility in the world. Already, the project in Iceland has been increased in scale to bury 10,000 tons of CO2 each year.

One potential difficulty is that for each ton of CO2 buried, the technique requires 25 tons of water. However, Juerg Matter of the University of Southampton in the U.K., who led the research, said seawater could be used.

Bert Guevara's insight:
After polluting the air and the ground, man now wants to pollute the underground.

"Scientists and engineers working at a major power plant in Iceland have shown for the first time that carbon dioxide emissions can be pumped into the earth and changed chemically to a solid within months—radically faster than anyone had predicted. The finding may help address a fear that so far has plagued the idea of capturing and storing CO2 underground: that emissions could seep back into the air or even explode out."
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Satellites ​help​ track down sulfur dioxide we didn’t know existed ("evil coal by-product in the air")

Satellites ​help​ track down sulfur dioxide we didn’t know existed ("evil coal by-product in the air") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

The pollutant comes from fossil fuels, and can cause serious harm to the planet and human health.

Emissions of sulfur dioxide — a toxic gas with a nasty smell — are regulated and monitored in the U.S., but they can easily go underreported in other countries. In fact, a team of researchers recently found that as much as 12 percent of human-created sulfur dioxide emissions, or 14 million metric tons of the stuff, comes from sources that were previously unreported. The findings, which were based on satellite data and wind patterns, were published in Nature Geoscience last week. 

Sulfur dioxide is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants and other production in the oil and gas sector, and its consequences can be deadly. Aside from contributing to acid rain, which harms forests and waterways, it also poses serious health risks, like asthma and lung cancer. While sulfur dioxide doesn’t contribute to climate change, it is a side-effect of our dirtiest energy habits and its presence remains a matter of life and death for the people who are exposed to it. 

NASA satellite data helped pinpoint the 39 unreported sources of sulfur dioxide emissions, which are in what researchers call the developing world (the bulk of them are in the Persian Gulf). Having an improved international inventory of these emissions is crucial for determining health outcomes and for shaping environmental policy.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Do you still believe in "clean coal"? What about sulfur dioxide?

"Sulfur dioxide is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants and other production in the oil and gas sector, and its consequences can be deadly. Aside from contributing to acid rain, which harms forests and waterways, it also poses serious health risks, like asthma and lung cancer. While sulfur dioxide doesn’t contribute to climate change, it is a side-effect of our dirtiest energy habits and its presence remains a matter of life and death for the people who are exposed to it. ...
"There is a glimmer of hope through all those clouds of noxious gas, though: Overall, sulfur dioxide emissions are decreasing globally. But toxic hot spots persist — indicating that not everyone is benefiting equally from the general reduction."
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Chile Has So Much Solar Energy It’s Giving It Away for Free ("this is a problem many like to have")

Chile Has So Much Solar Energy It’s Giving It Away for Free ("this is a problem many like to have") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Chile’s solar industry has expanded so quickly that it’s giving electricity away for free.

Spot prices reached zero in parts of the country on 113 days through April, a number that’s on track to beat last year’s total of 192 days, according to Chile’s central grid operator. While that may be good for consumers, it’s bad news for companies that own power plants struggling to generate revenue and developers seeking financing for new facilities. 

Chile’s increasing energy demand, pushed by booming mining production and economic growth, has helped spur development of 29 solar farms supplying the central grid, with another 15 planned. Further north, in the heart of the mining district, even more have been built. Now, economic growth is slowing as copper output stagnates amid a global glut, energy prices are slumping and those power plants are oversupplying regions that lack transmission lines to distribute the electricity elsewhere. 

“Investors are losing money,” said Rafael Mateo, chief executive officer of Acciona SA’s energy unit, which is investing $343 million in a 247-megawatt project in the region that will be one of Latin America’s largest. “Growth was disordered. You can’t have so many developers in the same place.”

A key issue is that Chile has two main power networks, the central grid and the northern grid, which aren’t connected to each other. There are also areas within the grids that lack adequate transmission capacity.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Having excess power is better than having a shortage. More industries can build on this problem.

"Bernabei, however, is adamant that change is needed. “The rapid development of renewables was a surprise and now we have to react quickly,” he said. 
"Until this is resolved, low prices will plague companies that own power plants, according to Jose Ignacio Escobar, general manager for Acciona’s Chile unit."
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World's most polluted city by air is in ... Nigeria ("another template of progress with filthy air")

World's most polluted city by air is in ... Nigeria ("another template of progress with filthy air") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

The word "Africa" conjures up an romantic scenes: elephants crossing the Kalahari, crashing water at Victoria Falls, panoramic views from Table Mountain.

Four of the worst cities in the world for air pollution are in Nigeria, according to data released by the World Health Organization (WHO). Onitsha -- a city few outside Nigeria will have heard of -- has the undignified honor of being labeled the world's most polluted city for air quality, when measuring small particulate matter concentration (PM10).

A booming port city in southern Nigeria, Onitsha recorded 30 times more than the WHO's recommended levels of PM10.

Last year, the World Bank reported that 94% of the population in Nigeria is exposed to air pollution levels that exceed WHO guidelines (compared to 72% on average in Sub-Saharan Africa in general) and air pollution damage costs about 1% post of Gross National Income. 

The WHO study tracked the growth in the two different sizes of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, per cubic meter of air. 

PM2.5 particles are fine, with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers (µm) to more than 40 micrometers, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. 

PM10 particles are less than or equal to 10 micrometers in diameter. 

Nigeria did not feature in the top 10 for PM2.5 levels.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Cities who are racing for progress, with little regard for the environment, often end up with the dirtiest air. 

"The contributing factors to pollution are a reliance on using solid fuels for cooking, burning waste and traffic pollution from very old cars," ...
"At home, due to unreliable electricity supplies, many Nigerians rely on generators, which spew out noxious fumes often in unventilated areas. 
"On the street, car emissions go unregulated. 
"Neira adds: "In Africa, unfortunately, the levels of pollution are increasing because of rapid economic development and industry without the right technology."
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