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China lead pollution poisons 160 children: report - Reuters

China lead pollution poisons 160 children: report - Reuters | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it
China lead pollution poisons 160 children: reportReuters| BEIJING (Reuters) - Lead emission from factories and the natural environment in China's manufacturing heart of Guangdong has poisoned 160 children, Xinhua said on Sunday in the country's latest...

Kawawang mga bata.  Sila sana ang makikinabang sa pagunlad ng bansa, pero yun pala, papatayin sila nito. Napahiya ang pamahalaan ng Tsina nang madiskubre na ang pagkalason ng mga bata ay mula sa polusyon sa hangin dulot ng buga ng mga industriya.

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CO2, Climate Change Seen As Waste Disposal Challenge ("removing trash from air = negative emissions")

CO2, Climate Change Seen As Waste Disposal Challenge ("removing trash from air = negative emissions") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Some scientists are increasingly looking at global warming as a waste disposal problem as they make a case for negative carbon emissions.

When it comes to carbon dioxide, what goes up doesn’t come down. It stays in the atmosphere for thousands of years after plumes of pollution have been released from tailpipes and power plants, trapping heat and warming the planet. 

That’s why some scientists are increasingly looking at global warming as a waste disposal problem. They say that thinking of emissions in terms of trash that needs to be taken out may draw more attention to something called negative carbon emissions — the process of physically removing carbon dioxide from the air to reduce its concentration in the atmosphere.

Research shows that keeping global warming from exceeding 2°C (3.6°F) under the Paris Climate Agreement may not be possible without some form of negative carbon emissions. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which breached 400 ppm atop Hawaii’s Mauna Loa for the first time in 2013, are expected to continue climbing unless humans take significant steps toward burning fewer fossil fuels. The remote reaches of Antarctica crossed the 400 ppm threshold in May for the first time in 4 million years.

CO2 concentrations are rising about 2.2 ppm annually, and the earth is expected to warm to 2°C when concentrations reach about 450 ppm. If today’s carbon dioxide emissions hold steady without reductions, it will take about 22 years to reach 450 ppm, and it’s possible the earth will overshoot that 2°C target if emissions continue increasing, Lackner said.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Instead of just reducing carbon emissions, there is a new paradigm to address climate change.

"That’s why some scientists are increasingly looking at global warming as a waste disposal problem. They say that thinking of emissions in terms of trash that needs to be taken out may draw more attention to something called negative carbon emissions — the process of physically removing carbon dioxide from the air to reduce its concentration in the atmosphere."
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Global oil glut set to last at least until mid-2017 – IEA ("bad news for clean air and renewables")

Global oil glut set to last at least until mid-2017 – IEA ("bad news for clean air and renewables") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

'Demand growth is slowing and supply is rising,' explains the International Energy Agency in its monthly report.

A global oil glut that has hurt producers but means cheaper pump prices for consumers looks set to go on at least 6 months longer than previously thought, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said Tuesday, September 13. 

The IEA said demand growth was slowing while supply was rising, meaning the glut was now due to linger "at least through the first half of next year."  

The Paris-based organization had earlier seen the oil oversupply disappearing in the latter part of 2016. 

The timing of the world oil market's return to balance is "the big question", the IEA said in its monthly report, adding that current prices – above $45 – would suggest supply falling and strong demand growth. 

"However, the opposite now seems to be happening," it said. "Demand growth is slowing and supply is rising." 

The trend may fuel speculation of a possible production freeze – aimed at supporting prices – being agreed between OPEC and non-OPEC member Russia at a meeting in Algeria later this month. 

China and India, which had been key drivers recently of demand growth, are "wobbling," it said, while a slowdown in the US and economic concerns in developing countries have also contributed to the surprise development. 

Global oil demand is now expected to grow by 1.3 million barrels per day (mb/d) in 2016, to 96.1 mb/d, from its original forecast of 1.4 mb/d growth. 

The IEA also trimmed its demand growth forecast for 2017 by 200,000 barrels per day, to 97.3 mb/d.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Good or Bad News? - Oil prices will remain low in 2017. More air pollution?
"The IEA data is also suggesting that an OPEC 'freeze' will not be enough to rebalance the market in 2017," he said in a note to investors.
I WONDER WHY PHIL GAS PRICES GO UP!!!???

"The IEA, which advises oil consuming nations on energy issues, said its latest data indicated that the "supply-demand dynamic may not change significantly in the coming months." 
"As a result, supply will continue to outpace demand at least through the first half of next year," it said. 
"As for the market's return to balance – it looks like we may have to wait a while longer," it added. 
"As a result of the stubborn supply glut, producers have been hurt by a plunge in crude prices from around $100 in mid-2014 to 13-year lows of below $30 at the start of this year."
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Landfalling Typhoons Have Become More Intense ("blame the warmer oceans, but not climate change yet")

Landfalling Typhoons Have Become More Intense ("blame the warmer oceans, but not climate change yet") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Typhoons that make landfall in the Northwest Pacific have intensified more, and faster, than those that stay out at sea.

The proportion of landfalling storms that reach Category 4 or 5 strength — the storms that wreak the most damage, as recent examples like 2013’s devastating Super Typhoon Haiyan show — has doubled and even tripled in some areas of the basin, researchers found. The increases seem to be the result of faster intensification linked to warmer ocean waters in coastal areas.

The findings, detailed Monday in the journal Nature Geoscience, are in line with the broader increase in the most intense tropical cyclones expected with rising global temperatures, though these trends have not yet specifically been linked to human-caused climate change.

The Northwest Pacific normally sees the most tropical cyclone activity of any ocean basin because of the deep well of ocean heat available to fuel typhoons, as such storms are called there. 

The new work is an outgrowth of a previous study by the same researchers that found that typhoon intensity had increased basin-wide since the late 1970s and suggested that another 14 percent increase in intensity could be expected by the end of the century, as the ocean takes up most of the excess heat trapped by greenhouse gases.

They found that the clusters that had the most landfalling hurricanes showed much clearer increases in intensity than those where most storms stayed out at sea. The cluster with the biggest trend had a 15 percent increase in intensity and, as part of that trend, saw the number of Category 4 and 5 storms increase from about one per year in the late 1970s to more than four per year recently.

Bert Guevara's insight:
“The results leave little doubt that there are more high intensity events affecting Southeast Asia and China, and these are also intensifying more rapidly,”

" ... The increases seem to be the result of faster intensification linked to warmer ocean waters in coastal areas.
"The researchers wanted to figure out whether the higher intensities were due to the typhoons intensifying over a longer period of time or because they were doing so faster. They found that for the clusters with the biggest increases, typhoons were intensifying more than 60 percent faster since the late 1970s, but saw no major change in the rate for the others.
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Air pollution particles found inside human brains ("we all need clean air, not tomorrow, but yesterday")

Air pollution particles found inside human brains ("we all need clean air, not tomorrow, but yesterday") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A new study has found that certain toxic pollutant particles could enter the human brain and potentially increase the risk of brain conditions, such as Alzheimer's.

Another new concern could be on the horizon for city dwellers, particularly those living in the more polluted cities of the world, as a new study has found that certain particles found within pollution could enter the human brain -- by people breathing them in. 

The particles discovered, known as magnetite, are less than 150 nanometers in size -- smaller than the width of a human hair -- and commonly form inside engines and open fires. But researchers at Lancaster University in the UK found them inside the frontal cortex of the human brain during their recent study published Monday.

"Magnetite is toxic to the human brain," said Barbara Maher, a professor of environmental science at the University of Lancaster who led the study. "And magnetite particulates are always present in pollution." 

Magnetite is a mineral form of iron and is believed to be toxic due to its ability to easily react and release other particles, known as free radicals, which cause oxidative stress within brain cells, damaging and killing them in the process.

"There's no blood-brain barrier there," said Maher, adding that the particles could then be transported to other regions of the brain. "That's a real vulnerability." 

The miniscule size of the particles also reduces the chances of them being trapped by hairs and mucus that line your nose -- your body's natural barrier -- further aiding them getting into your bloodstream and then your brain.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Although still premature, there is growing evidence that air pollution may contribute to Alzheimer's disease. There are very minute particles (150 nanometers in size) that can be inhaled and reach the front part of the brain.

"Outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year, according to the World Health Organization. It is considered a risk factor for acute and chronic respiratory disease. 
"But Maher's team believes this particular pollutant could increase someone's risk of developing Alzheimer's disease."
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Holland is on the brink of completely banning petrol-powered cars ("tough climate change decision")

Holland is on the brink of completely banning petrol-powered cars ("tough climate change decision") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Europe appears poised to continue its move towards cutting fossil fuel use as the Netherlands joins a host of nations looking to pass innovative ...

Europe appears poised to continue its move towards cutting fossil fuel use as the Netherlands joins a host of nations looking to pass innovative green energy laws. 

The Dutch government has set a date for parliament to host a roundtable discussion that could see the sale of petrol- and diesel-fuelled cars banned by 2025. 

If the measures proposed by the Labour Party in March are finally passed, it would join Norway and Denmark in making a concerted move to develop its electric car industry. 

It comes after Germany saw all of its power supplied by renewable energies such as solar and wind power on one day in May as the economic powerhouse continues to phase out nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 

And outside Europe, both India and China have demanded that citizens use their cars on alternate days only to reduce the exhaust fume production which is causing serious health problems for the populations of both nations.

Richard Smokers, principle adviser in sustainable transport at the Dutch renewable technology company TNO, said the Dutch government was committed to meeting the Paris climate change agreement to reduce greenhouse emissions to 80 per cent less than the 1990 level. The plan requires the majority of passenger cars to be run on CO2-free energy by 2050.


Bert Guevara's insight:
Netherlands is serious in its commitment in attaining the Paris Agreement objectives. How about the other countries?
The Philippines is still building coal plants.

"If the law to ban the sale of new fossil-fuel cars by 2025 passes, a significant move will have been made towards phasing out all petrol and diesel cars by 2035, added Dr Smokers. ...
"One point of concern for the Netherlands will be ensuring the current design of electric cars can be adequately scaled-up for densely populated urban environments, warned Dr Smokers."
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Al Gore: The Clean Energy Revolution Is ‘A Dramatic New Reality’ – ThinkProgress ("growing momentum")

Al Gore: The Clean Energy Revolution Is ‘A Dramatic New Reality’ – ThinkProgress ("growing momentum") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

It will be bigger than the industrial and information revolutions combined

Al Gore believes we are in a turning point in the fight against climate change. The latest version of his “Inconvenient Truth” slideshow, which helped win him a Nobel Peace Prize and an Academy award, is chock-full of charts, factoids, and quotes on the unprecedented revolution in clean energy technologies. 

As part of his exclusive interview with me earlier this month, Gore spoke about the stunning advances in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and batteries: 

“It is now clear that the sustainability revolution is more significant in the global economy than the industrial revolution and information revolution combined,” Gore said with more optimism than I’ve ever heard.

“The rapid adoption of LEDs in lighting marks one of the fastest technology shifts in human history,” the company has noted. LEDs are part of a larger energy efficiency revolution that has kept U.S. electricity demand flat for the past decade and probably will for at least the next decade, too. 

The hybrid and electric vehicle (EV) revolution depicted in that figure, though much slower, is equally stunning. Why? Inefficient internal combustion engine vehicles are finally being seriously challenged after dominating the auto market for a full century, as I’ve discussed. 

The solar photovoltaic and wind revolution is even more consequential from a climate perspective — since it enables us to decarbonize the electric grid now and to decarbonize transportation in the coming decades with EVs. Gore pointed to the “stunning cost-down curves for PV” and pointed out the explosive growth of solar in Chile.

Bert Guevara's insight:
“Solar-plus-batteries is set to begin a dramatic transformation of human civilization.” 
Indeed there’s no question that storing the sun’s energy just got a whole lot cheaper. The battery revolution is unstoppable, and so is the renewable energy revolution — and they both enable each other.

“Taken as a whole,” Gore told me, these gains represent “a dramatic new reality.” And they mean that vast amounts of fossil fuels will be left in the ground — “stranded assets” that will cause fossil fuel companies to be “suddenly repriced,” as many coal companies already have been. 
"Sadly, the fact these revolutions are unstoppable and game-changing doesn’t mean we will make the orderly shift off of fossil fuels fast enough to avert a millennium of climate catastrophe. That depends on political will. But as Gore has long said, political will is a renewable resource."
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Scary New Proof That We Have Seriously Screwed Up the Planet’s Oceans ("the day after tomorrow model")

Scary New Proof That We Have Seriously Screwed Up the Planet’s Oceans ("the day after tomorrow model") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Scientists confirm that climate change is stalling a major Atlantic Ocean current, and that could lead to flooding and food shortages.

The powerful ocean current that carries tropical warmth from the South Atlantic to northern countries has slowed down to a degree “unprecedented in the past millennium,” according to newly published research. The phenomenon has created an unusual pocket of cooling temperatures in the far North Atlantic, even as global warming heats the world overall. 

Yes, it’s the exact climate catastrophe envisioned in The Day After Tomorrow, the 2004 movie about how a slowing current triggers a new ice age and deep-freezes New York City. In real life, the current could cause severe coastal flooding between New York and Boston and affect the distribution of marine wildlife, putting coastal fishing industries at risk. ADVERTISEMENT 

If the slowdown persists or intensifies, weather could significantly change in parts of the Northern Hemisphere that have traditionally been warmed by this current, affecting everything from agriculture to urban transportation. 

“These are the kinds of things that scare me,” said oceanographer Scott Rutherford of Roger Williams University in Rhode Island, who coauthored the new study. “How much is this going to change temperature, sea level, marine ecosystems? We’re starting to mess with big things now.”

“Can we stop this? Yes,” he said. “We’re already locked into a little bit of warming. I would say that we ought to be concerned with minimizing it as much as we can.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
If you watched "The Day After Tomorrow," this is the climate model they are talking about. Though the movie is exaggerated, of course, there is scientific truth to the model that should warn our scientists.

"Scientifically, “it’s a bit of stretch right now” to link this winter’s record low temperatures and snowfall on much of the East Coast to the slowed ocean current, he said. “But it’s the kind of thing that we might expect to see” based on climate change modeling. 
“As a scientist, this is just one more data point to add to our records,” said climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe of Texas Tech University. “As a human, though, it’s a stark reminder that our choices have consequences, and the door is rapidly closing on our opportunities to choose a different future.”
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These Photos Show How Hard Climate Change Has Hit Greenland ("where have all the glaciers gone?")

These Photos Show How Hard Climate Change Has Hit Greenland ("where have all the glaciers gone?") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Nowhere has climate change been more devastating than in the Arctic, where temperatures are rising more than twice as fast as average ...

Year after year of record heat largely due to man-made global warming has hit hard across the globe. And nowhere have the impacts been more devastating than in the Arctic where temperatures are rising more than twice as fast as the global average and ice is quickly disappearing. 

Photos taken by a research team from Denmark capture how warming has hit glaciers in Greenland, where ice melt has been occurring at a faster rate than ever in recorded history. Researchers captured the images, published in the book The Greenland Ice Sheet, in the exact location their predecessor had taken photos eight decades prior as temperatures had just begun to warm. Side by side, the images offer a stark comparison showing vast areas once covered in ice now empty land.

“Climate change is particularly evident here and its consequences for people and nature are considerable,” said Ralf Hemmingsen, rector of the University of Copenhagen in the book’s foreword, “both for Greenland and the rest of the world.”

Scientists have understood for sometime how climate change is causing ice melt in Greenland. Satellite measurements taken since 1979 have shown a 12% decline in sea ice per decade, according to a Nature report. But a lack of earlier record keeping and satellite measurements has presented a challenge for scientists who hope to understand how ice levels have changed over time in Greenland. Now, scientists who study glaciers are using the photo comparison to improve their understanding of how ice levels have changed over time, according to a news article in the journal Nature.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Do you want to see photo evidences of climate change? Check out Greenland.

“Climate change is particularly evident here and its consequences for people and nature are considerable,” said Ralf Hemmingsen, rector of the University of Copenhagen in the book’s foreword, “both for Greenland and the rest of the world.”
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Scientists warn world will miss key climate target ("the likelihood of failure is imminent; need to reset")

Scientists warn world will miss key climate target ("the likelihood of failure is imminent; need to reset") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Grim backdrop to vital global emissions talks as new analysis shows 1.5C limit on warming is close to being broken ...

Leading climate scientists have warned that the Earth is perilously close to breaking through a 1.5C upper limit for global warming, only eight months after the target was set. 

The decision to try to limit warming to 1.5C, measured in relation to pre-industrial temperatures, was the headline outcome of the Paris climate negotiations last December. The talks were hailed as a major success by scientists and campaigners, who claimed that, by setting the target, desertification, heatwaves, widespread flooding and other global warming impacts could be avoided. 

However, figures – based on Met Office data – prepared by meteorologist Ed Hawkins of Reading University show that average global temperatures were already more than 1C above pre-industrial levels for every month except one over the past year and peaked at +1.38C in February and March. Keeping within the 1.5C limit will be extremely difficult, say scientists, given these rises. 

These alarming figures will form the backdrop to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change talks in Geneva this month, when scientists will start to outline ways to implement the climate goals set in Paris. Dates for abandoning all coal-burning power stations and halting the use of combustion engines across the globe – possibly within 15 years – are likely to be set.

Bert Guevara's insight:
The world cannot relax after the mere signing of the Paris Agreement eight months ago.

"Leading climate scientists have warned that the Earth is perilously close to breaking through a 1.5C upper limit for global warming, only eight months after the target was set. 
"The decision to try to limit warming to 1.5C, measured in relation to pre-industrial temperatures, was the headline outcome of the Paris climate negotiations last December. The talks were hailed as a major success by scientists and campaigners, who claimed that, by setting the target, desertification, heatwaves, widespread flooding and other global warming impacts could be avoided."
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Climate models have underestimated Earth’s sensitivity to CO2 changes ("more alarm bells on new find")

Climate models have underestimated Earth’s sensitivity to CO2 changes ("more alarm bells on new find") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A Yale University study says global climate models have significantly underestimated how much the Earth’s surface temperature will rise if greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase as expected.

A Yale University study says global climate models have significantly underestimated how much the Earth’s surface temperature will rise if greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase as expected. 

Yale scientists looked at a number of global climate projections and found that they misjudged the ratio of ice crystals and super-cooled water droplets in “mixed-phase” clouds — resulting in a significant under-reporting of climate sensitivity. The findings appear April 7 in the journal Science. 

Equilibrium climate sensitivity is a measure used to estimate how Earth’s surface temperature ultimately responds to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Specifically, it reflects how much the Earth’s average surface temperature would rise if CO2 doubled its preindustrial level. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated climate sensitivity to be within a range of 2 to 4.7 degrees Celsius. 

The Yale team’s estimate is much higher: between 5 and 5.3 degrees Celsius. Such an increase could have dramatic implications for climate change worldwide, note the scientists. 

“It goes to everything from sea level rise to more frequent and extreme droughts and floods,” said Ivy Tan, a Yale graduate student and lead author of the study. 

A key part of the research has to do with the makeup of mixed-phase clouds, which consist of water vapor, liquid droplets, and ice particles, in the upper atmosphere. A larger amount of ice in those clouds leads to a lower climate sensitivity — something known as a negative climate feedback mechanism. The more ice you have in the upper atmosphere, the less warming there will be on the Earth’s surface. 

Bert Guevara's insight:
New and better climate science shows us that we have underestimated global warming. Oh no!

"A key part of the research has to do with the makeup of mixed-phase clouds, which consist of water vapor, liquid droplets, and ice particles, in the upper atmosphere. A larger amount of ice in those clouds leads to a lower climate sensitivity — something known as a negative climate feedback mechanism. The more ice you have in the upper atmosphere, the less warming there will be on the Earth’s surface. 
“We saw that all of the models started with far too much ice,” said Storelvmo, an assistant professor of geology and geophysics. “When we ran our own simulations, which were designed to better match what we found in satellite observations, we came up with more warming.”
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Nuclear Power Is Losing Money At An Astonishing Rate ("nuclear may have lost the pricing game")

Nuclear Power Is Losing Money At An Astonishing Rate ("nuclear may have lost the pricing game") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Half of existing nuclear power plants are no longer profitable. Should we bail out this heavily subsidized industry because it helps reduce carbon pollution? And is New York's recent bailout way too high?

The point of blaming renewables, which currently receive significant government subsidies, is apparently to argue that existing nukes deserve some sort of additional subsidy to keep running — beyond the staggering $100+ billion in subsidies the nuclear industry has received over the decades. But a major reason solar and wind energy receive federal subsidies — which are being phased out over the next few years — is because they are emerging technologies whose prices are still rapidly coming down the learning curve, whereas nuclear is an incumbent technology with a negative learning curve.

As you can imagine, if existing nuclear power plants have become unprofitable, then new nuclear power plants make no economic sense whatsoever. Perhaps no surprise, then, that a Reuters headline blared last month, “New Nuclear Reactor Builds Fall To Zero In First Half Of 2016 — Report.” 

The utility consultancy Brattle Group came to a similar view on existing nukes in a 2014 analysis, concluding that 51 percent of the merchant (deregulated) nuclear fleet, some 23 Gigawatts, could be unprofitable by 2015. In researching this post, I spoke at length with economist Peter Fox-Penner, one of the country’s leading experts on both the electric grid and decarbonization, the author of Smart Power: Climate Change, the Smart Grid, and the Future of Electric Utilities. Fox-Penner is the former chair of the Brattle Group.

The primary reason existing nuclear power plants are in trouble is because of cheap natural gas. This is widely understood. In fact, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) staff itself, in its July proposal to bail out ailing nukes, explained: 

Staff’s analysis shows that due to low natural gas prices, forecasted wholesale market prices are significantly lower than the average operating costs of the upstate nuclear units.

Bert Guevara's insight:
With so many problems plaguing the nuclear power industry, we might as well relegate it to the "archive" for future reference!
I do not think the revival of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant will make economic sense at this time.
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Cleaner air may be driving water quality in Chesapeake Bay ("clean air means better water condition")

Cleaner air may be driving water quality in Chesapeake Bay ("clean air means better water condition") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it
A new study suggests that improvements in air quality over the Potomac watershed, including the Washington, D.C., metro area, may be responsible for recent progress on water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Scientists from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science have linked improving water quality in streams and rivers of the Upper Potomac River Basin to reductions in nitrogen pollution onto the land and streams due to enforcement of the Clean Air Act. 
"The recent water quality successes in the Chesapeake Bay restoration are apparently driven more by air quality regulation rather than by water quality control efforts," said study author Keith Eshleman, professor at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science's Appalachian Laboratory. "These air quality regulations were intended to address human health issues and acid sensitive streams. No one thought you would have this positive impact on water quality. It was totally unanticipated." 
The Chesapeake Bay -- the nation's largest estuary -- has suffered from excessive nutrient pollution and widespread hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions for decades. While land-based best management practices and improvements to wastewater treatment plants have been credited with beginning to turn the tide against nutrient pollution, researchers have found that improvement in air quality -- specifically reductions in atmospheric nitrogen deposition -- have been the primary driver of improvements in water quality in the Upper Potomac River Basin, which covers nearly 12,000 square miles in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia. These unanticipated region-wide water quality benefits were brought about by reductions in harmful emissions of nitrogen dioxides following implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990.
Bert Guevara's insight:
Levels of air pollution are significantly related to levels of water pollution. Check the findings in this study.
This gives us more reason to clean the air.

"Nitrogen deposition occurs when nitrogen in the atmosphere -- emitted mostly by fossil fuel combustion -- falls to the ground or water surface. When the amount of nitrogen falling exceeds what trees and plants need to grow, nitrogen saturation may result. When excess nitrogen enters streams and waterways, including the Chesapeake Bay, it can cause algae blooms that significantly impact marine life."
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This is where air pollution kills the most people ("air in China, India and Africa are deadliest")

This is where air pollution kills the most people ("air in China, India and Africa are deadliest") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

A report from the International Energy Agency shows the massive cost of air pollution in both lives lost and money in many developing countries.

Around the world, 18,000 people die every day because of air pollution. 

The World Health Organization says the number of deaths attributed to air pollution is 6.5 million a year. That’s more than the number of people killed by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and road injuries combined. 

In fact, air pollution is the fourth-largest threat to human health, behind high blood pressure, dietary risks and smoking. It is caused by power generation, industry and transport as well as cooking fuels used inside the home. It is a problem around the world, but some countries are much more affected than others.

Premature deaths caused by air pollution have declined in Europe, the United States and a number of other areas, while they have increased in many countries in Asia and Africa in particular. 

The countries with the largest number of premature deaths caused by air pollution are mostly in Asia and Africa. However, when adjusted to take account of the size of a country’s population (i.e. deaths per 100,000 people), the highest rates of mortality from air pollution also span across other parts of the world, such as Eastern Europe. 

Georgia tops the International Energy Agency’s table, with nearly 300 deaths per 100,000 in 2012 due to air pollution. Bulgaria is fourth while China ranks sixth with over 150 deaths per 100,000 people.

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Bert Guevara's curator insight, July 28, 9:24 PM
Around the world, 18,000 people die every day because of air pollution. Many of them are poor.

"The World Health Organization says the number of deaths attributed to air pollution is 6.5 million a year. That’s more than the number of people killed by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and road injuries combined. 
"In fact, air pollution is the fourth-largest threat to human health, behind high blood pressure, dietary risks and smoking. It is caused by power generation, industry and transport as well as cooking fuels used inside the home. It is a problem around the world, but some countries are much more affected than others."
Eric Larson's curator insight, August 2, 7:07 PM
Where do the most people die from air pollution?
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World's First Boat Powered by 100% Renewables to Circle Globe ("then a solar plane, now a solar boat")

World's First Boat Powered by 100% Renewables to Circle Globe ("then a solar plane, now a solar boat") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

The Energy Observer, the world's first boat powered by solar, wind and self-generated hydrogen, is gearing up for its scheduled maiden journey. "Solar Impulse of the Seas"

The €4.2m ($4.72 million) vessel—nicknamed the "Solar Impulse of the Seas"—aims to circumnavigate the globe using only clean power, a feat similar to Solar Impulse 2's historic, solar-powered flight around the world that was completed this past July. 

The boat will sail for six years around the world as a floating exhibition and clean energy laboratory, with stops in 50 countries and 101 ports of call. 

"For the first time, Energy Observer will allow us to explore the oceans without leaving any trace behind us," Jerome Delafosse, a director and co-captain of the expedition, said in the video. 

The multi-hulled catamaran, a former racing vessel that won the 1994 Jules Verne Trophy for the fastest circumnavigation of the world, stands at 30 meters in length and 12.80 meters in width. Its green upgrade is currently in full swing at a shipyard in Saint Malo, France where it awaits installation of 130 square meters of solar panels, two vertical axis wind turbines, two reversible electric motors and electrolysis equipment—all to help produce and store hydrogen onboard.

"Hydrogen is not a fuel but a way of storing energy," Delafosse told Tribune de Genève. "Instead of batteries, we fill high-pressure hydrogen tanks and the hydrogen can power our fuel cell and generate electricity." 

The ship will also be the first in the world to produce hydrogen on board through desalination of sea water, according to ENSTA Bretagne. 

All this green technology onboard will allow the boat to power itself indefinitely with emission-free energy.

Bert Guevara's insight:
“We are going to be the first boat with an autonomous means of producing hydrogen," says Frenchman Victorien Erussard, who is behind the project—confidential until now—with compatriot Jacques Delafosse, a documentary filmmaker and professional scuba diver. 
"The plan is for the boat's batteries, which will feed the electric motors, to be powered in good weather by solar and wind energy, explained the 37-year-old merchant navy officer. 
“If there's no sun or wind, or if it's night, stored hydrogen—generated by electrolysis powered by the solar panels and two wind turbines—will take over," he said. 
"As a result, the vessel's trip will not use any carbon-emitting fossil fuels, as is the case for 96% of boats today."
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Report Shows Exactly How Many Asthma Attacks Are Caused By The Oil And Gas Industry (methane + voc")

Report Shows Exactly How Many Asthma Attacks Are Caused By The Oil And Gas Industry (methane + voc") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Report Shows How Many Asthma Attacks Are Caused By The Oil And Gas Industry

New analysis from the Clean Air Task Force shows that by 2025 America’s childr…

The report, Gasping for Breath, is the first to quantify the effects of smog caused by oil and gas production and distribution. The authors used industry data submitted to the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory, particularly looking at methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can interact to create smog. This chemical reaction is facilitated by ultraviolet rays and heat — which is why smog is a bigger problem in the summer than the winter.

VOCs, which include gasoline, benzene, and formaldehyde, are particularly concerning. Not only are they often heavier than air, allowing them to pool in low-lying areas, where people live and breath, and many VOCs are known carcinogens.

While the report looks specifically at the year 2025, when most currently proposed regulation is expected to be fully in effect, the level of impact is roughly the same today, according to Lesley Fleischman, the report’s lead author. That’s because most of the facilities expected to be in production in nine years are already being used.

“It’s just science,” Gilbert said. “Science is slow. Science is steady. Science is careful. Science doesn’t jump to conclusions — but it piles up. We have now hundreds of studies saying there are deleterious health effects if you are living within a half mile” of oil and gas production. 

“I guess science doesn’t matter to people,” she said. “I’m not really an activist; I’m a teacher that believes in science. I believe in peer-reviewed science.” 

Just this week, the state ruled that a Colorado petition that would have required a 2,500-foot setback from homes, schools, and other buildings for oil and gas development narrowly missed having enough valid signatures to put the ballot measure to voters in November.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Methane and VOC (volatile organic compounds - gasoline, benzene and formaldehyde) interact to create smog. VOCs are carcinogenic and settle in low-lying areas, causing more cases of asthma among residents.

“We have terrible ground-level ozone now,” Gilbert said, and she and others blame it for increases in poor health outcomes, particularly among children and the elderly. The local newspaper recently reported that Weld’s infant mortality rate is 7.2 per 1,000 births— more than twice that of Boulder. While officials attributed the difference to higher poverty rates, “I’m not buying that,” Gilbert said. “Especially when you see asthma rates going up among children.”
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Gov’t must focus on renewable energy sources ("so many negative safety, env't & economic issues")

Gov’t must focus on renewable energy sources ("so many negative safety, env't & economic issues") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

There is no reason for the Philippines to consider nuclear power in its energy mix given the range of alternative options that the country has, not to mention the high risks and costs associated with ...

“Nuclear requires a lot of money. The investment is very high and the risk is very high. So why go nuclear? If we had no other option, I would think you may have to consider nuclear. But the Philippines definitely has other options. Also, if you look at the prices of renewable energy, they are going down and soon the Philippines will have affordable energy,” he explained. 

Schumacher was reacting to pronouncements of Energy Secretary Alfonso G. Cusi that the government was checking on the mothballed Bataan nuclear power plant (BNPP) as it considers using the facility to help improve the country’s energy mix. Nuclear power, Cusi was reported to have said, “holds much promise especially for our nation’s long-term energy plans.” 

“(First world) countries like Japan and Germany are already getting out of the nuclear source from the point of view that the risks are so high. And that’s just one part. The other part (of the equation) would be, what will you do with the used nuclear rods? They will be active for a hundred years and so where are you going to put them? That’s a big argument all over the world. I believe the Philippines is not ready,” Schumacher said. 

“Maybe the government should look at why Germany and Japan are getting out of it and I think that’s a good indication. The Philippines is being hit by heavy typhoons continuously and then earthquakes on top of that. I’m not sure whether you want to expose the country and its population to those risks. There are other energy options and I don’t see the need for (nuclear),” he added.

Bert Guevara's insight:
I agree 100%.

“I think there are so many other options. Why focus on nuclear when you have wind sources and solar as well as natural gas. If you put natural gas and renewable energy together, you’ll have a good combination to feed the (electricity requirements) of the country,” said Henry V. Schumacher, senior advocacy adviser at the European Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines (ECCP).
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Indian Scientists Design Solar Tree to Save Space for Solar Power Generation ("1% of usual space")

Indian Scientists Design Solar Tree to Save Space for Solar Power Generation ("1% of usual space") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Experts hope the ‘Solar Tree’ will boost solar power in a country with scarce land resources

With photovoltaic panels placed at different levels on branches made of steel, “solar trees” could dramatically reduce the amount of land needed to develop solar parks. 

“It takes about four-square meters of space to produce energy which otherwise would have required 400 square meters of space. So almost 100 times the space is saved, which as you know is very valuable,” said Daljit Singh Bedi, chief scientist at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in New Delhi, whose laboratory in Kolkata developed the tree. 

A scarce resource in India, acquisition of land to develop roads, factories and other infrastructure is a sensitive issue that has led to frequent and sometimes violent protests from displaced people. 

Scientists estimate the energy generated by a solar tree would be sufficient to light up five homes. They say the space-saving tree would not only make it easier to increase solar power generation to light up homes and streets in cities, but also in rural areas where farmers are unwilling to give up large tracts of land for solar panel installations. 

The solar tree will also harness more energy compared to rooftop panels. “This design, it facilitates placement of solar panels in a way that they are exposed more towards sun and that way they are able to harness 10 to 15 per cent more energy, which is more or less equivalent to one hour more than the conventional format,” said Bedi.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Using only 1% of the normal space required for solar panel layout, this design idea has a lot of potential. It only shows how creativity is a necessary component of technology.
I remember the traditional design debate between an engineer and an architect, during my college days.

“When we talk about plantation of trees, we would now talk about plantation of solar trees,” he said.
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See how Earth is fast approaching a red hot mess ("pictures state that the warming is getting worse")

See how Earth is fast approaching a red hot mess ("pictures state that the warming is getting worse") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

This is a terrifyingly clear visualization of our warming planet.

Scientists are getting better at producing visualizations that make climate change, a pretty heady topic, simple enough to take in at a glance. This image charts global temperature changes each year since 1850, using the period from 1961 to 1990 as a baseline. The color scale ranges from dark blue (-2.5 degrees C) to dark red (+2.5 degrees C). 

It was created by climate scientist Ed Hawkins, the same person who brought us the popular hypnotic GIF of global temperatures spiraling out of control.

Bert Guevara's insight:
From 1850 to 2016, what has happened to our global temperature? This graphic representation gives the straight answer.
What is your reaction? Are you a skeptic, a denier or a realist?
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Inconvenient Study: Biofuels not as ‘green’ as many think – may be worse than Gasoline 

Inconvenient Study: Biofuels not as ‘green’ as many think – may be worse than Gasoline  | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

From the "road to hell is paved with good intentions" department: Biofuels not as 'green' as many think Go back to basics when calculating the greenhouse impact and carbon neutrality of biofuels, researchers urge Statements about biofuels being carbon neutral should be taken with a grain of salt. This is according to researchers at the…

The use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector has expanded over the past decade in response to policies such as the US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and California’s Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). These policies are based on the belief that biofuels are inherently carbon neutral, meaning that only production-related greenhouse gas emissions need to be tallied when comparing them to fossil fuels. 

This assumption is embedded in the lifecycle analysis modelling approach used to justify and administer such policies. Simply put, because plants absorb carbon dioxide as they grow, crops grown for biofuels should absorb the carbon dioxide that comes from burning the fuels they produce. Using this approach, it is often found that crop-based biofuels such as corn ethanol and biodiesel offer at least modest net greenhouse gas reductions relative to petroleum fuels. 

Field data for assessing the net carbon dioxide emission effect of biofuels has been available since the Renewable Fuel Standard was passed in 2005. DeCicco’s team evaluated the data up to 2013, using the Annual Basis Carbon (ABC) accounting method he previously developed. It takes a circumscribed look at the changes in carbon flows directly associated with a vehicle-fuel system, and does not treat biofuels as inherently carbon neutral. 

Instead, the ABC method tallies carbon dioxide emissions on the basis of chemistry in the specific locations where they occur. The system takes into account motor fuel consumption, fuel processing operations and resource inputs, including the use of cropland for biofuel feedstocks. Unlike lifecycle analysis, ABC accounting reflects the stock-and-flow nature of the carbon cycle, recognizing that changes in the atmospheric stock depend on both inflows and outflows.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Ethanol in gasoline (biofuel) may not be a good idea, all things considered.

"Go back to basics when calculating the greenhouse impact and carbon neutrality of biofuels, researchers urge.
"In this regard, the researchers concluded that rising US biofuel use has led to a net increase rather than a net decrease in CO2 emissions. This finding contrasts with those of lifecycle analysis models which indicate that crop-based biofuels such as corn ethanol and soy biodiesel lead to a modest reduction in greenhouse gas emissions."
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Climate Scientists' New Hurdle: Overcoming Climate Change Apathy - Eos ("rise of the neoskeptics")

Climate Scientists' New Hurdle: Overcoming Climate Change Apathy - Eos ("rise of the neoskeptics") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

It's not just about deniers anymore. Scientists now have to convince a new group: those who believe humans have altered the climate but don't think anything can or should change.

Chuck Nobles of Portland, Ore., believes that climate change is real and that humans are causing it. “I think the evidence is clear,” he said.

He’s just not sure what, if anything, should be done about it. “The planet will survive. Humans will just need to adapt to live under different environmental conditions,” he said. For the 60-year-old Nobles, who works as a senior lecturer in marketing and management at a university in Portland, the issue is a matter of scope. “If you take some of the dramatic actions that the extreme climate people believe in, it may hurt the economy. We must work hard to understand the trade-offs and be rational.”

Nobles represents a growing fraction of people who accept that anthropogenic climate change is a real, currently occurring phenomenon but aren’t sure that anything can or should be done about it. In a new policy forum paper published today in Science, Paul Stern of the National Research Council and colleagues call this “neoskepticism.” 

Neoskeptics aren’t just random venting bloggers; policy makers and even academics are joining in. They may argue that climate scientists “overblow” the risks or insist that because scientists are still hammering out the details on climate change’s effects on the globe, immediate mitigation is too costly. 

How can scientists and educators, many of whom have their hands full combating outright deniers of human-caused climate change, address neoskeptics? It’s all about communicating risk, argue Stern and his colleagues.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Many scientists agree that if extreme action isn’t taken now, there’s no turning back from the consequences of climate change. However, a growing portion of the general public is neoskeptics—they believe mitigation efforts just aren’t worth it.

Unfortunately, in climate science, “there’s been a long history that says that scientific uncertainty is a reason for not taking action,” Stern said. Such delay of action feeds back to fuel neoskepticism. 
For example, Nobles believes that there’s somewhere in the middle where societies could arrest the increase of carbon dioxide “a little bit.” But he added that if he were in charge of deciding what needs to be done about climate change, he would stress caution. 
“I think you just need to maybe understand ranges of impact a little bit more,” he said. “I think we need to be rational about the range of possible results.”
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France to pave 1000km of roads with solar panels ("imagine driving directly on top of solar panels")

France to pave 1000km of roads with solar panels ("imagine driving directly on top of solar panels") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Over the next five years, France will install some 621 miles (1,000km) of solar roadway using Colas' Wattway solar pavement.

Solar freakin' roadways! No, this is not the crowdfunded solar road project that blew up the internet a few years ago, but is a collaboration between Colas, a transport infrastructure company, and INES (France's National Institute for Solar Energy), and sanctioned by France's Agency of Environment and Energy Management, which promises to bring solar power to hundreds of miles of roads in the country over the next five years. 

One major difference between this solar freakin' roadway and that other solar freakin' roadway is that the new Wattway system doesn't replace the road itself or require removal of road surfaces, but instead is designed to be glued onto the top of existing pavement. The Wattway system is also built in layers of materials "that ensure resistance and tire grip," and is just 7 mm thick, which is radically different from that other design that uses thick glass panels (and which is also claimed to include LED lights and 'smart' technology, which increases the complexity and cost of the moose-friendly solar tiles).

According to Colas, the material is strong enough to stand up to regular traffic, even heavy trucks, and 20 m² of Wattway panels is said to provide enough electricity to power a single average home in France, with a 1-kilometer stretch of Wattway road able to "provide the electricity to power public lighting in a city of 5,000 inhabitants."

Bert Guevara's insight:
1000 km of solar-panel paved roads!!! This is revolutionary! One advantage will be the free cost of land, since it is on top of the public road.

"One major difference between this solar freakin' roadway and that other solar freakin' roadway is that the new Wattway system doesn't replace the road itself or require removal of road surfaces, but instead is designed to be glued onto the top of existing pavement. The Wattway system is also built in layers of materials "that ensure resistance and tire grip," and is just 7 mm thick ..."
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This is what Earth will look like in 100 years — if we're lucky ("dangerously close to warming limit")

This is what Earth will look like in 100 years — if we're lucky ("dangerously close to warming limit") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

The best we can hope for is pretty alarming.

At this point, you're probably fully aware of how hot it is. But in case you're unaware: It's really, really hot. 

In fact, 2016 is likely to be the hottest year on record, increasing 2.3 degrees Fahrenheit (1.3 degrees Celsius) above preindustrial averages. 

That brings us dangerously close to the 2.7-degree-Fahrenheit (1.5-degree-Celsius) limit set by international policymakers for global warming. 

"There's no stopping global warming," Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist who is the director of NASA's Goddard Institute of Space Studies, told Business Insider. "Everything that's happened so far is baked into the system." 

That means that even if carbon emissions dropped to zero tomorrow, we'd still be watching human-driven climate change play out for centuries. And, as we all know, emissions aren't going to stop tomorrow. So the key thing now, Schmidt said, is slowing climate change down enough to make sure we can adapt to it as painlessly as possible. 

This is what the Earth could look like within 100 years if we do, barring huge leaps in renewable energy or carbon-capture technology.

Bert Guevara's insight:
"I think the 1.5-degree [2.7-degree F] target is out of reach as a long-term goal," Schmidt said. He estimated that we will blow past that by about 2030.

"That means that even if carbon emissions dropped to zero tomorrow, we'd still be watching human-driven climate change play out for centuries. And, as we all know, emissions aren't going to stop tomorrow. So the key thing now, Schmidt said, is slowing climate change down enough to make sure we can adapt to it as painlessly as possible."
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We flew over 8,000 oil and gas wells. Here's what we found. ("well-kept secret emissions revealed")

We flew over 8,000 oil and gas wells. Here's what we found. ("well-kept secret emissions revealed") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

Methane pollution is widespread, pouring out from hundreds of "super emitting" production facilities nationwide. That's why we need strong, federal pollution rules.

For a different and more eye-opening view, fly over one of these industrial sites with an infrared camera. Chances are you’ll now see dark plumes of methane, the main ingredient in natural gas, pouring from the facility or piece of equipment. 

We did exactly that for a new study to determine how common so-called “super emitter” sites are. 

These large and evasive sources of methane pollution make up the lion’s share of the roughly 9 million tons the oil and gas industry wastefully spews into the atmosphere every year. And they provide an urgent reminder why stronger methane pollution laws are needed now.

We hired one of America’s most experienced leak detection companies to fly a helicopter over 8,000 well pads in seven states across the country for our study, using infrared technology to capture photos and videos of methane and other pollutants. It was the largest-ever study of its kind in the United States. 

A grim picture emerged from those helicopter trips over Arkansas, Montana, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah and Wyoming: Methane pollution is widespread, pouring out from hundreds of these super emitter sites. 

Worse, these leaks sit largely undetected.

But our research also confirmed what other studies have shown, namely that super emitters are nearly impossible to predict. They can happen anywhere, anytime, when malfunctioning equipment goes unattended and sloppy mistakes are made. 

This is why we can no longer continue to rely on industry policing itself. We need strong rules that require all operators to keep their facilities from polluting the atmosphere.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Large methane emissions from oil and gas wells worldwide are hardly detected. (See video.)
Since methane is a major GHG contributor to climate change, this compounds our problem with the oil and gas industry.

"But our research also confirmed what other studies have shown, namely that super emitters are nearly impossible to predict. They can happen anywhere, anytime, when malfunctioning equipment goes unattended and sloppy mistakes are made. 
"This is why we can no longer continue to rely on industry policing itself. We need strong rules that require all operators to keep their facilities from polluting the atmosphere."
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First Half of 2016 Blows Away Temp Records ("the heat records are way off the charts! alarming!")

First Half of 2016 Blows Away Temp Records ("the heat records are way off the charts! alarming!") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

2016 is looking more and more likely to be the hottest year on record, after a record warm June extended this year's streak.

The monthly numbers from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration puts the planet on track to surpass 2015 as the hottest on record. 

“2016 has really blown that out of the water,” Gavin Schmidt, the director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said. 

While 2016 has gotten a boost from an exceptionally strong El Niño, the record temps are mostly the result of the excess heat that has built up in Earth’s atmosphere due to accumulating greenhouse gases. That heat is raising global sea levels, disrupting ecosystems and leading to more extreme weather events. 

Every month this year has been record warm globally. Several months early in the year were among the first ever recorded to exceed 1°C (1.8°F) above average according to both NASA and NOAA. All six months of the year so far exceeded that remarkable benchmark when compared to preindustrial temperatures.

With the demise of El Niño, those temperature departures have dropped slightly, but are still at record-high levels. June was 1.62°F (0.90°C) above the 20th century average according to NOAA and 1.42°F (0.79°C) above the 1951-1980 average, according to NASA. (June was also record warm for the contiguous U.S., in part because of an intense, record-breaking heat wave that swept the Southwest.) 

In NOAA’s records, that makes an unprecedented 14 consecutive record-hot months. While that streak will eventually end, Deke Arndt, the head of the climate monitoring division at NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, said that the long-term warming trend is stll clear.

Bert Guevara's insight:
We are treading on new climate territory, which may spiral out of control if we just treat it as a minor "bump". Check the charts!

"2016 will be one of the warmest on record. Whether it slips to nominally above or nominally below 2015, that may depend on some climate variability factors like the strength of the La Niña," Arndt said. "But it will share with 2015 the distinction of being, comfortably, the two warmest years on record and warmer, comfortably than any year we've measured in modern times."
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EPA Finding Clears Way for Limit on Aircraft Emissions ("they emit big CO2 that warms the planet")

EPA Finding Clears Way for Limit on Aircraft Emissions ("they emit big CO2 that warms the planet") | Climate & Clean Air Watch | Scoop.it

The EPA has declared jet engine exhaust a contributor to climate change that endangers public health — the first step toward regulating jet emissions.

Large commercial jets account for 11 percent of all emissions from the global transportation sector. Aircraft emissions are expected to grow by 50 percent by 2050 as demand for air travel increases.

Regulating aircraft emissions is part of the Obama administration’s goal under the Paris Climate Agreement to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by up to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025. The international pact aims to to keep global warming from exceeding 2°C (3.6°F). 

“Addressing pollution from aircraft is an important element of U.S. efforts to address climate change,” Janet McCabe, the EPA’s acting assistant administrator for air and radiation, said in a statement. “EPA has already set effective GHG standards for cars and trucks and any future aircraft engine standards will also provide important climate and public health benefits.”

Both the EPA and the International Civil Aviation Organization, or ICAO, are developing regulations that will cut carbon emissions from commercial aircraft. The ICAO is expected to finalize its emissions standards in 2017, but the EPA could not proceed with developing its own standards in the U.S. until it concluded that jet engine exhaust poses a public health threat.

Bert Guevara's insight:
The airline industry almost got away with murder. They are now equally responsible as the transport emitters on the ground and in the oceans.

"Jet engine exhaust emits carbon dioxide, which drives climate change by warming the atmosphere, leading to increasing global temperatures, rising seas and extreme weather. Public health will suffer as heat waves become more frequent and intense, rising seas inundate coastal cities, extreme storms lead to more deaths and catastrophic wildfires burn more forests and reduce air quality. 
“The endangerment finding is key because it obligates the EPA to take regulatory action to cut carbon dioxide emissions from aircraft — it triggers a legal mandate,” said Drew Kodjak, executive director of the International Council on Clean Transportation."
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