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Towards a Methodology for Validation of Centrality Measures in Complex Networks

Towards a Methodology for Validation of Centrality Measures in Complex Networks | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

Our empirical analysis demonstrates that in the chosen network data sets, nodes which had a high Closeness Centrality also had a high Eccentricity Centrality. Likewise high Degree Centrality also correlated closely with a high Eigenvector Centrality. Whereas Betweenness Centrality varied according to network topology and did not demonstrate any noticeable pattern. In terms of identification of key nodes, we discovered that as compared with other centrality measures, Eigenvector and Eccentricity Centralities were better able to identify important nodes.


Batool K, Niazi MA (2014) Towards a Methodology for Validation of Centrality Measures in Complex Networks. PLoS ONE 9(4): e90283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090283


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Love this stuff.

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MIT-Singapore design center creates free software tool to analyze cities as spatial networks

MIT-Singapore design center creates free software tool to analyze cities as spatial networks | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

Network analysis — the mathematical analysis of relationships between elements or actors in a complex system — has become popular among transportation planners and spatial analysts, but its use remains relatively limited among architects and urban designers, whose day-to-day work demands more visioning than analysis.
Now, researchers at the joint MIT-SUTD International Design Center (IDC) have created a free network analysis plugin for Rhinoceros 3-D modeling software, one of the most popular software platforms among architects and urban designers. The new Urban Network Analysis (UNA) plugin enables urban planners and architects to describe spatial patterns of cities using mathematical network analysis methods.


http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2015/mit-singapore-design-center-free-software-tool-analyze-cities-spatial-networks-0616


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Liz Rykert's insight:

Looks like an amazing tool to support cities.

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Using Network Mapping to Build Thriving Communities | Neighborhood Economics


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Building resilience: what organisations can learn from social ecologists

Building resilience: what organisations can learn from social ecologists | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

I have been blessed with a very diverse network, which includes among others many renowned thinkers and scientists in the field of social-ecological systems. I am therefore exposed to thinking tha...


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Liz Rykert's insight:

Nice short set of principles. They need expansion but still worth the read.

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Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?

 Nt to find a low tech way to do this!

Functional networks, i.e. networks representing dynamic relationships between the components of a complex system, have been instrumental for our understanding of, among others, the human brain. Due to limited data availability, the multi-layer nature of numerous functional networks has hitherto been neglected, and nodes are endowed with a single type of links even when multiple relationships coexist at different physical levels. A relevant problem is the assessment of the benefits yielded by studying a multi-layer functional network, against the simplicity guaranteed by the reconstruction and use of the corresponding single layer projection. Here, I tackle this issue by using as a test case, the functional network representing the dynamics of delay propagation through European airports. Neglecting the multi-layer structure of a functional network has dramatic consequences on our understanding of the underlying system, a fact to be taken into account when a projection is the only available information.


Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?
Massimiliano Zanin

http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.04302


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Johannes van der Pol's curator insight, March 23, 9:47 AM

An Innovation network is the perfect candidate to be analyzed as  a multilayered network. The  channels that allow knowledge to transfer between between cooperating firms are numerous (patents, social links, licences, technology swaps, employee mobility and many more). Can't wait to put this into practise.

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Urban Acupuncture: Jaime Lerner

Urban Acupuncture

~ Jaime Lerner (author) More about this product
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During his three terms as mayor of Curitiba, Brazil in the 1970s and ‘80s, architect and urbanist Jaime Lerner transformed his city into a global model of the sustainable and livable community. From the pioneering Bus Rapid Transit system to parks designed to catch runoff and reduce flooding and the creation of pedestrian-only zones, Lerner has been the driving force behind a host of innovative urban projects. In more than forty years of work in cities around the globe, Lerner has found that changes to a community don’t need to be large-scale and expensive to have a transformative impact—in fact, one block, park, or a single person can have an outsized effect on life in the surrounding city.
In Urban Acupuncture, Lerner celebrates these “pinpricks” of urbanism—projects, people, and initiatives from around the world that ripple through their communities to uplift city life. With meditative and descriptive prose, Lerner brings readers around the world to streets and neighborhoods where urban acupuncture has been practiced best, from the bustling La Boqueria market in Barcelona to the revitalization of the Cheonggyecheon River in Seoul, South Korea. Through this journey, Lerner invites us to re-examine the true building blocks of vibrant communities—the tree-lined avenues, night vendors, and songs and traditions that connect us to our cities and to one another.
Urban Acupuncture is the first of Jaime Lerner’s visionary work to be published in English. It is a love letter to the elements that make a street hum with life or a neighborhood feel like home, penned by one of the world’s most successful advocates for sustainable and livable urbanism.


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Unintended Consequences Can Be Opportunities for Conservation | The Nature of Cities

Unintended Consequences Can Be Opportunities for Conservation | The Nature of Cities | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
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Rescooped by Liz Rykert from Economic Networks - Networked Economy
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Innovation districts: Simple guidelines

Innovation districts: Simple guidelines | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
For those of us who have been around a while, the new push to regenerate cities with innovation districts appears like yet another fad. But is it? Clearly, Brookings, the major proponent of the shi...

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The Bright Side of Indigenous Urbanization for Biodiversity  | The Nature of Cities

The Bright Side of Indigenous Urbanization for Biodiversity  | The Nature of Cities | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
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Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.



Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions
Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 238701 – Published 2 December 2014
Ioannis Karamouzas, Brian Skinner, and Stephen J. Guy

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.238701


Via Complexity Digest
Liz Rykert's insight:

Love this kind of research describing the actual patterns of interaction, in this case the space between pedestrians described as the time to potential collision!

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Body of Water

Body of Water | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
Throughout the summer of 2014 Veronica Simmonds and Katie Mckay (part & parcel) gathered sounds, sights, and sentiments from the lakes of Halifax.
Liz Rykert's insight:

Lovely website/video on lakes in cities. This website describes the lake in the city of Halifax.

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Rescooped by Liz Rykert from Economic Networks - Networked Economy
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Forget dating apps. These millennials want to save the world - CNNMoney

Forget dating apps. These millennials want to save the world - CNNMoney | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

San Francisco-based Tumml is an accelerator fostering 'urban impact start-ups' that aim to tackle civic problems -- and turn a profit.


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Rescooped by Liz Rykert from Biomimicry
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Hydroceramic Walls Could Cool Buildings By Sweating Like Human Skin

Hydroceramic Walls Could Cool Buildings By Sweating Like Human Skin | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
Our reliance on air conditioning, however magical an innovation, has become a serious environmental burden. Which is why researchers in Barcelona designed a material they say can naturally cool rooms by about 5 degrees Celsius, using a moisture-absorbing polymer that "sweats" much like our own body.

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Rescooped by Liz Rykert from Economic Networks - Networked Economy
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Building networks and working partnerships with creatives

Building networks and working partnerships with creatives | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

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Responding to complexity in socio-economic systems: How to build a smart and resilient society?

The world is changing at an ever-increasing pace. And it has changed in a much more fundamental way than one would think, primarily because it has become more connected and interdependent than in our entire history. Every new product, every new invention can be combined with those that existed before, thereby creating an explosion of complexity: structural complexity, dynamic complexity, functional complexity, and algorithmic complexity. How to respond to this challenge? And what are the costs?


Responding to complexity in socio-economic systems: How to build a smart and resilient society?
Dirk Helbing

http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.03750


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Innovation Excellence | To Change your Organization, Change the Way you Bring Change

Innovation Excellence | To Change your Organization, Change the Way you Bring Change | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
The most effective approach to change does not start or end in the C-suite. It happens at the heart of the organization, where mid-level managers and their teams build the momentum to implement and lead change. Executives initiate and support change, the rest of the organization lead change.
Liz Rykert's insight:

I found this article from Innovation Excellence right up my alley. It describes the approach we have been taking with hospitals and other large organizations in clear and simple language.


I think you will find the reasons they cite for why people don't like change efforts will resonate. 


In essence the article describes the need to tap everyone in an organization, to everyone as a change agent. 

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Network Literacy: Essential Concepts and Core Ideas

Network Literacy: Essential Concepts and Core Ideas | City Building Networks | Scoop.it

Network science is a significant pathway into understanding many kinds of Big Data. Since its inceptions during the late 20th century it has been increasing its relevance to people's everyday life. Networks can help us to make sense of this increasingly complex world, making it a useful literacy for people living in the 21st century.


https://sites.google.com/a/binghamton.edu/netscied/teaching-learning/network-concepts 


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Brain Science: Can Training Change Your Corporate Culture? by Art Kohn : Learning Solutions Magazine

Some scandalous questions: What are the odds that your eLearning, by itself, will succeed at changing behavior? Put
another
way, “Does education matter?” Will teaching people new information really get them to behave in new ways? Art reveals
some research that lay hidden for years, although it opens insights into what does and does not cause groups of people to
change their behavior.
Liz Rykert's insight:

Love this article - which looks like the first in a series about changing behaviour in workplaces. It digs into some great research on how effective training programs are at *not* changing behaviour. Worth the read. 

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EngagingCities

EngagingCities | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
Liz Rykert's insight:

Great site for city builders! Focus is on community based planning and lots of other great resources for people who want ot engage in their cities and how they work.

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Leadership as Network Weaving

Leadership as Network Weaving | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
Networkweaving - Creating Stronger Communities from Deborah McLaren Thanks to Deborah McLaren for putting this slide show together that references the good work of June Holley, Chris Brogan, and Be...

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Multilayer stochastic block models reveal the multilayer structure of complex networks

In complex systems, the network of interactions we observe between system's components is the aggregate of the interactions that occur through different mechanisms or layers. Recent studies reveal that the existence of multiple interaction layers can have a dramatic impact in the dynamical processes occurring on these systems. However, these studies assume that the interactions between systems components in each one of the layers are known, while typically for real-world systems we do not have that information. Here, we address the issue of uncovering the different interaction layers from aggregate data by introducing multilayer stochastic block models (SBMs), a generalization of single-layer SBMs that considers different mechanisms of layer aggregation. First, we find the complete probabilistic solution to the problem of finding the optimal multilayer SBM for a given aggregate observed network. Because this solution is computationally intractable, we propose an approximation that enables us to verify that multilayer SBMs are more predictive of network structure in real-world complex systems.


Multilayer stochastic block models reveal the multilayer structure of complex networks
Toni Valles-Catala, Francesco A. Massucci, Roger Guimera, Marta Sales-Pardo
http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1098


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Saberes Sin Fronteras OVS's curator insight, November 30, 2014 5:41 PM

Avanzando en la comprensión de las redes de interacción humana.

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WHERE GOOD IDEAS COME FROM by Steven Johnson - YouTube

Share your videos with friends, family, and the world

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How to build a ‘national park’ in the heart of a city | Toronto Star

How to build a ‘national park’ in the heart of a city | Toronto Star | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
A recent experiment in Toronto shows the transformative potential of bringing nature to our cities.
Liz Rykert's insight:

Great example of city building described in this article. Organizer Jode Roberts recruited and worked with 20+ local "park rangers" who did local organizing and actions to string together disparate patches of green and concrete conversions. Brilliant. It makes the city a better place. Here is para that summarizes the effort and its impact:


"Will Canada’s network of Homegrown National Parks ever rival our actual national parks? Not likely. But we must harness and amplify this homegrown local creativity to enhance urban ecologies and make our communities more livable and resilient. Smart urban innovations should be scaled up, shared and continuously adapted, supported by smart public policy and investment."

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A typology of street patterns

We propose a quantitative method to classify cities according to their street pattern. We use the conditional probability distribution of shape factor of blocks with a given area and define what could constitute the ‘fingerprint’ of a city. Using a simple hierarchical clustering method, these fingerprints can then serve as a basis for a typology of cities. We apply this method to a set of 131 cities in the world, and at an intermediate level of the dendrogram, we observe four large families of cities characterized by different abundances of blocks of a certain area and shape. At a lower level of the classification, we find that most European cities and American cities in our sample fall in their own sub-category, highlighting quantitatively the differences between the typical layouts of cities in both regions. We also show with the example of New York and its different boroughs, that the fingerprint of a city can be seen as the sum of the ones characterizing the different neighbourhoods inside a city. This method provides a quantitative comparison of urban street patterns, which could be helpful for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind their distinct shapes.


A typology of street patterns
Rémi Louf, Marc Barthelemy

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2014.0924

J. R. Soc. Interface 6 December 2014 vol. 11 no. 101 20140924

Also at http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2094


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Rescooped by Liz Rykert from Economic Networks - Networked Economy
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How Racial Equity Can Make Cities Richer

How Racial Equity Can Make Cities Richer | City Building Networks | Scoop.it
What would happen if everyone in America—black, white, Hispanic, Asian—was on a level playing field? For one, our cities would be richer. 'As America becomes a majority people-of-color nation, racial inclusion isn't just the right…

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