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Invasora y asesina

Invasora y asesina | ciencia | Scoop.it
La llegada de un tipo de avispa foránea que se alimenta de abejas amenaza la industria de la miel (RT @ApiEcologica: Invasora y asesina http://t.co/jZJNiDTMjL vía @el_pais)...

Via Ursula Sola de Hinestrosa
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Underground Carbon Dioxide Injections Triggered Earthquakes in Texas in 2009-2011 | Geophysics | Sci-News.com

Underground Carbon Dioxide Injections Triggered Earthquakes in Texas in 2009-2011 | Geophysics | Sci-News.com | ciencia | Scoop.it
A new study correlates 93 small earthquakes near Snyder, Texas between 2009 and 2011 with the underground injection of gas, primarily carbon dioxide.
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The hybrid solar eclipse – in pictures

The hybrid solar eclipse – in pictures | ciencia | Scoop.it
A rare hybrid solar eclipse has taken place, switching between a total eclipse (where the moon completely covers the sun) and an annular one (where a halo of sunlight is visible around the moon) (The hybrid solar eclipse – in pictures
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New Blood Glucose Test Sensor Uses Tear Fluid

New Blood Glucose Test Sensor Uses Tear Fluid | ciencia | Scoop.it
For those who suffer from diabetes, the pain that comes with pricking one's finger often discourages consistent blood glucose monitoring.

 

Tear glucose has been suggested previously as a potential approach for the noninvasive estimation of blood glucose. While the topic remains unresolved, an overview of previous studies suggests the importance of a tear sampling approach and warrants new technology development. A concept device is presented that meets the needs of a tear glucose biosensor.

Three approaches to chronoamperometric glucose sensing were evaluated, including glucose oxidase mediated by potassium ferricyanide or oxygen with a hydrogen peroxide catalyst, Prussian blue, and potassium ferricyanide-mediated glucose dehydrogenase. For tear sampling, calcium alginate, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and polyurethane foam were screened as an absorbent tear sampling material. A quantitative model based on the proposed function of concept device was created.For glucose sensing, it was found that potassium ferricyanide with glucose dehydrogenase was ideal, featuring oxygen insensitivity, long-term stability, and a lower limit of detection of 2 μM glucose.Polyurethane foam possessed all of the required characteristics for tear sampling, including reproducible sampling from a hydrogel-simulated, eye surface (4.2 ± 0.5 μl; n = 8). It is estimated that 100 μM of glucose tear fluid would yield 135 nA (14.9% relative standard deviation).

While the device has numerous challenges ahead, such as obtaining reproducible results, proof-of-concept has been demonstrated and the project has received backing from Mayo Clinic and BioAccel, an Arizona biomedical commercialization non-profit.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Initiative to measure food waste globally launched

Initiative to measure food waste globally launched | ciencia | Scoop.it
What gets measured gets action: reducing food waste can bridge the gap to feeding a growing population and reduce climate changing impacts

Via Alan Yoshioka, Ursula Sola de Hinestrosa
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Sleep 'cleans' the brain of toxins

Sleep 'cleans' the brain of toxins | ciencia | Scoop.it

Via Jeff Morris
Andreina De Leon Carmenatis's insight:

Un resumen muy básico: "You can think of it like having a house party. You can either entertain the guests or clean up the house, but you can't really do both at the same time."

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Exploiting pathogens' tricks of the trade for engineering of plant disease resistance: challenges and opportunities

Exploiting pathogens' tricks of the trade for engineering of plant disease resistance: challenges and opportunities | ciencia | Scoop.it

Scooped from: Microbial Biotechnology, 2013

Authors: Murray R. Grant, Kemal Kazan & John M. Manners

 

Abstract:

With expansion of our understanding of pathogen effector strategies and the multiplicity of their host targets, it is becoming evident that novel approaches to engineering broad-spectrum resistance need to be deployed. The increasing availability of high temporal gene expression data of a range of plant–microbe interactions enables the judicious choices of promoters to fine-tune timing and magnitude of expression under specified stress conditions. We can therefore contemplate engineering a range of transgenic lines designed to interfere with pathogen virulence strategies that target plant hormone signalling or deploy specific disease resistance genes. An advantage of such an approach is that hormonal signalling is generic so if this strategy is effective, it can be easily implemented in a range of crop species. Additionally, multiple re-wired lines can be crossed to develop more effective responses to pathogens.


Via Freddy Monteiro, Nicolas Denancé
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CRISPR gene therapy: Scientists call for more public debate around breakthrough technique

CRISPR gene therapy: Scientists call for more public debate around breakthrough technique | ciencia | Scoop.it
Scientists are calling for a wider public debate on a new development in genetics that could allow the simple and accurate manipulation of the human genome, as revealed yesterday by The Independent.
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Science inspires, so don't let your art rule your head

The previous two collections in the excellent The Best Australian Science Writing 2013 series have contained forewords written by Nobel laureates, so in pursuit of balance - I assume - this year's foreword is written by someone who is quite...
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Physicists decode three-way genetic decision switch of cancer metastasis

Physicists decode three-way genetic decision switch of cancer metastasis | ciencia | Scoop.it
Researchers from Rice University's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics have deciphered the operating principles of a genetic circuit that allows cancer to metastasize.

 

“Cancer cells behave in complex ways, and this work shows how such complexity can arise from the operation of a relatively simple decision-making circuit,” said study co-author Eshel Ben-Jacob, a senior investigator at Rice’sCenter for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) and adjunct professor of biochemistry and cell biology at Rice. “By stripping away the complexity and starting with first principles, we get a glimpse of the ‘logic of cancer’ — the driver of the disease’s decision to spread.”

 

In the PNAS study, Ben-Jacob and CTBP colleagues José Onuchic, Herbert Levine, Mingyang Lu and Mohit Kumar Jolly describe a new theoretical framework that allowed them to model the behavior of microRNAs in decision-making circuits. To test the framework, they modeled the behavior of a decision-making genetic circuit that cells use to regulate the forward and backward transitions between two different cell states, the epithelial and mesenchymal. Known respectively as the E-M transition (EMT) and the M-E transition (MET), these changes in cell state are vital for embryonic development, tissue engineering and wound healing. During the EMT, some cells also form a third state, a hybrid that is endowed with a special mix of both epithelial and mesenchymal abilities, including group migration.

 

The EMT transition is also a hallmark of cancer metastasis. Cancer cells co-opt the process to allow tumor cells to break away, migrate to other parts of the body and establish a new tumor. To find ways to shut down metastasis, cancer researchers have conducted dozens of studies about the genetic circuitry that activates the EMT.

 

One clear finding from previous studies is that a two-component genetic switch is the key to both the EMT and MET. The switch contains two specialized pairs of proteins. One pair is SNAIL and microRNA34 (SNAIL/miR34), and the other is ZEB and microRNA200 (ZEB/miR200). Each pair is “mutually inhibitory,” meaning that the presence of one of the partners inhibits the production of the other.

 

In the mesenchymal cell state — the state that corresponds to cancer metastasis — both SNAIL and ZEB must be present in high levels. In the epithelial state, the microRNA partners dominate, and neither ZEB nor SNAIL is available in high levels.

 

“Usually, if you have two genes that are mutually limiting, you have only two possibilities,” Ben-Jacob said. “In the first case, gene A is highly expressed and inhibits gene B. In the other, gene B is highly expressed and it inhibits A. This is true in the case of ZEB and miR200. One of these is ‘on’ and the other is ‘off,’ so it’s clear that this is the decision element in the switch.”

 

 

SNAIL and miR34 interact more weakly. As a result, both can be present at the same time, with the amount of each varying based upon inputs from a number of other proteins, including several other cancer genes.

 

 

“One of the most important things the model showed us was how SNAIL and miR34 act as an integrator,” Ben-Jacob said. “This part of the circuit is acted on by multiple cues, and it integrates those signals and feeds information into the decision element. It does this based upon the level of SNAIL, which activates ZEB and inhibits miR200.”

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Campbell Soup Eliminará el Bisfenol A de sus Latas

Campbell Soup Eliminará el Bisfenol A de sus Latas | ciencia | Scoop.it
Aunque se sigue creyendo que el BPA no es una sustancia nociva, Campbell Soup Company suprimirá su uso para evitar que los consumidores de sus productos sientan que su salud está amenazada.

Via Barzanallana, Estíbaliz Huarte Cilveti, Ursula Sola de Hinestrosa
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Estíbaliz Huarte Cilveti's curator insight, October 9, 2013 2:19 PM

El principio de precaución se aplica a situaciones en las que existe incertidumbre científica sobre el riesgo para la salud y/o medio ambiente que puede suponer un producto, tecnología o fenómeno ambiental. En el caso del Bisfenol A, es un compuesto del que existen sospechas de suponer riesgo para la salud y con el que se han hecho investigaciones que relacionan su presencia con ciertas enfermedades, pero que todavía no existen evidencias claras o hay bastante disputa. En este artículo, Campbell Soup ha eliminado el compuesto de sus latas como medida protectora, pese a que el motivo de su conducta es evitar perder consumidores. 

Ursula Sola de Hinestrosa's curator insight, October 21, 2013 6:06 PM

De eso se trata! Somos nosotros quienes consumimos. Si obligamos a modificar  las malas prácticas empresariales y a compensar impactos tendremos un mundo mejor. 


Si dudas que un alimento puede causarte daño NO LO CONSUMAS. Más, si éste es enlatado, embotellado o lleno de conservantes y químicos. 


Hay mejores maneras de alimentarnos. Y los productores locales estarán felices y en mejores condiciones de atender nuestras necesidades diarias.


¡Bienvenidas las mejores prácticas!

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Trouble at the lab

Trouble at the lab | ciencia | Scoop.it

My last post looked at an article published by The Economist on why research can be unreliable.  The link in the title above is to part two:  Trouble at the Lab.

 

One of the most fascinating topics here is a sting mounted by John Bohannon, in collaboration with editors at Science. 

 

Bohannon concocted a manuscript that was entirely false - flawed data, no ethics approval, manufactured authors and institutions.  He submitted the manuscript to a number of open access journals.  The result:  98 rejected the paper, 157 accepted it.

 

You can read Bohannon's account of the sting at:

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full

 

The sting has caused a storm in its turn - particularly because Bohannon submitted only to open access journals and did not include the more "traditional" journal formats.

 

You can get an idea of responses from the science community at:

http://svpow.com/2013/10/03/john-bohannons-peer-review-sting-against-science/


Via Amanda Capes-Davis
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Do we want “gentically modified children”? - Practical Ethics ...

Do we want “gentically modified children”? - Practical Ethics ... | ciencia | Scoop.it
And as to the idea that you can't clone something by simply moving it, consider the following (horrifying) thought experiment: You have a replication machine that can only work by taking a human heart and building up around ...
Andreina De Leon Carmenatis's insight:

cuestión muy discutida en los últimos años, ¿creen ustedes que debemos hacer este tipo de prácticas ? Personalmente creo que la clonación es un sector muy arriesgado en el que jugar, sobre todo si estamos hablando de embriones, en estas prácticas entra en juego no solo la ética de cada científico,  sino támbien la consideración de la diversidad génetica, el uso no controlado de clonación, el efecto en el futuro individuo....

Piensen en todo ello y hagan un balance de riesgo y beneficio

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Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero… | JoVE Video

Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero… | JoVE Video | ciencia | Scoop.it
Genes can be manipulated during development of the cortex or the hippocampus of the rat via in utero electroporation (IUE) at E16, to enable fast and...
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