Chinese American history
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"Over Count" of Chinese in the 1940 Census?

"Over Count" of Chinese in the 1940 Census? | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:

The U. S. Census is a vital resource for many research topics including the measurement of demographic aspects of the population by place and decade. However, mistakes do happen in the coding of the data that lead to false conclusions.  For example, in the 1940 Census, the Race of a respondent was coded as C-2 for Colored (the term for African American during that era) and as C-4 for Chinese.  However, these codes got reversed for some records, with C-2's (Colored) being counted as Chinese, as illustrated by several examples.  The full extent of such errors is unknown, but in these examples, there were fewer Chinese than the census would indicate.

 

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Chinese American history
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Dogpatch Ranch: the Orgins of a Chinese American Family

This is the story of my Chinese great grandfather and grandmother and the 7 children they raised on a ranch in the late 1800's in Dogpatch, the Potrero, Sa
John Jung's insight:
This documentary by architect Glenn Lym tells the story of his Chinese great grandfather Lim Lip Hong and his great grandmother Chan Shee and the family they raised in the late 1800’s on a ranch in Dogpatch in the Potrero District of San Francisco on the then Bay shoreline. Lim Lip Hong had returned to San Francisco after working more than a decade in the Sierra's and beyond, helping build railroads that crisscrossed the American West.

 Why did they raise their family on a ranch in rural, outlying San Francisco instead of in protected Chinatown? And how could they do this during a period of intense anti-Chinese discrimination in San Francisco and throughout the West? The ranch was half a acre large and located at the front gate of the biggest Potrero factory at the time - Tubbs Cordage. The ranch was intact for over 4 decades, yet the family was never run off the property.

 Seven children and several grandchildren total were born at the ranch. This six decade tale leads to interesting suggestions about the identity of great grandfather Lim Lip Hong. Life at the ranch provided Glenn Lym a profound understanding of his own grandfather, Lim Lip Hong's second son.
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How Mixed Chinese-Western Couples Were Treated A Century Ago

How Mixed Chinese-Western Couples Were Treated A Century Ago | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

Emma J. Teng, a professor of Asian Civilizations at MIT, is author of the book Eurasian: Mixed Identities in Hong Kong, China and the US during the Treaty Port Era, 1842-1943, which looks at Chinese-Western mixed-race families in the United States, China, and Hong Kong from the mid-19th to mid-20th century, and how the social and legal dynamics influenced their identities.

John Jung's insight:
"Between 1850 and 1950, 15 states in the U.S. passed anti-miscegenation laws that made it illegal for Chinese and whites to intermarry. It wasn't that the absolute numbers of these intermarriages were huge, but the occurrence could arouse scandal and opposition nonetheless.

 
The Expatriation Act of 1907 decreed that any American woman who married a foreign citizen would lose her American citizenship. That was true in the case of any foreign national, but there were some extra consequences for women who married Chinese men because the loss of their citizenship meant that Chinese Exclusion laws would apply to them.

In China, intermarriage was much more acceptable at the elite level if you're taking about a Chinese male diplomat, for example, who marries a European or American woman, rather than a Chinese woman marrying a foreign man.
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Why Doesn’t Tacoma Have a Chinatown? - "The Tacoma Method" of 1885

Why Doesn’t Tacoma Have a Chinatown? - "The Tacoma Method" of 1885 | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The Tacoma Method is a dark spot on Tacoma's history, but what exactly happened to the Chinese population in the late 1800s?
John Jung's insight:
Harassment of Tacoma's Chinese residents became constant and increasingly brutal. Posters then set a date, November 3, 1885, after the “Committee of 15” was elected to administer the forced exile. Any remaining Chinese residents would be rounded up and forced out of town. Hundreds heeded the warning and left as fast as they could.
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Why Are There So Many Chinese Restaurants in the United States

Why Are There So Many Chinese Restaurants in the United States | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

1915 immigration ruling that Chinese restaurant owners are merchants opened the door to growth of this business.

John Jung's insight:
When immigration law in 1915  reclassified Chinese restaurant owners as merchants instead of laborers who were not allowed to immigrate, it opened the door for Chinese to expand this business rapidly using a 'corporate' model in which numerous partners would invest thus allowing them entry status to the U. S. as merchants.  MIT Prof. Heather Lee's meticulous research provides valuable insights.
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The Delicious History of the Nation's Oldest Chinese-American Restaurant

The Delicious History of the Nation's Oldest Chinese-American Restaurant | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The Pekin Noodle Parlor in Butte, Montana has thrived since 1911.
John Jung's insight:
Not the first, but arguably the longest operating Chinese American restaurant, Pekin Noodle Parlor, has been in business since 1911. Located in Butte, Montana, once a thriving Chinese community during the heyday of mining, that no longer exists due to decline of mining and also to the anti-Chinese sentiment that drove them away.
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 Sacramento Delta Chinese Contributions to America

 Sacramento Delta Chinese Contributions to America | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese Americans shaped the physical landscape of California during its
early history in a way that still impacts us today. We explore how Chinese
Americans developed the Sacramento delta, their role in California's
growth, and visit Locke, a town founded by Chinese Americans.
John Jung's insight:
Audio documentary interviews with Connie Lo and Kelley Fong about the history and significance of the Sacramento delta Chinese during the last part of the 19th century.  The  labor of Chinese in this region helped build the sections of Transcontinental Railroad in northern California and the levees that reclaimed the land to enable development of California rich agricultural abundance.
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Yoland Skeete Research Files on Newark Chinatown – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project

Yoland Skeete Research Files on Newark Chinatown – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
An invaluable archive created by Yoland Skeete on Newark's Chinatown.  Skeete initiated the Newark Chinatown History project upon discovering that Newark had once had a thriving Chinatown between the 1870s and the 1940s. At its peak in 1922, Newark’s Chinatown was home to 3,000 residents but by the 1950s, they had dispersed as many families moved into New Jersey’s suburbs. 

Skeete embarked on an archival and archaeological research project. As part of her research, she surveyed local churches, Newark’s public libraries, the National Archives and Records Administration, and the New Jersey Historical Society for records and xeroxed or photographed documents to begin building a collection. She spearheaded an archeological dig of the area, unearthing privies and other objects from Newark’s Chinatown, some of which are included in the collection. She also conducted oral histories of former residents and their descendants. Since building the collection.

Skeete-Laessig published a book in 2016 based on this research, 
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Recollecting Nemasket: Anti-Chinese Discrimination and Joe Yap’s ‘Paper Son’

Recollecting Nemasket: Anti-Chinese Discrimination and Joe Yap’s ‘Paper Son’ | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
 While Middleborough’s earliest Chinese immigrants experienced random and mercifully rare incidences of harassment, more official anti-Chinese discrimination was institutionalized in the Page Act of 1875, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, and subsequent laws which placed severe restrictions upon the emigration, residence and naturalization of Chinese in America. Senator George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts lambasted the Exclusion Act as “nothing less than the legalization of
John Jung's insight:
A richly detailed history of Chinese laundries in Nemasket, Massachusetts from the 1880s to 1940s. In addition, there is discussion of conflicts among competing Chinese laundries as well as internal disputes among laundrymen especially in one case involving the alleged mistreatment of a young "paper son."
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Illustrating Chinese Exclusion

Illustrating Chinese Exclusion | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Thomas Nast (1840-1902), was an illustrator and cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly from 1857 (1862 full time) to 1887.  In his 30-year career with the magazine, Nast drew approximately 2,250 cartoons. When Nast died in 1902, New York Times eulogized him as the “Father of American Political Cartoon,” an honorific bestowed in no small part for…
John Jung's insight:
An outstanding website created by Michele Walfred for a Master's Thesis directed by Professor Jean Pfaelzer, author of "Driven Out." She presents and analyzes the brilliant political cartoons of Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly from 1857-1887. He attacked the Demographic political machine at Tammany Hall in New York but he also Included among his work 46 Chinese drawings focused on Chinese Exclusion that expressed a sympathetic view, reflecting his desire of inclusion and tolerance for all immigrants.

Interestingly, It is unknown if Nast ever met or associated with a Chinese person in New York as there were only 200 Chinese were in New York in 1870.
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Chinese Immigration in the Circle City, Indianapolis

Chinese Immigration in the Circle City, Indianapolis | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
In 2008 Indianapolis Mayor Greg Ballard suggested that the Circle City build a Chinatown to celebrate the “cultural flavor of Indianapolis” and “showcase its diversity.”  Ballard’s proposal was an unfunded musing that was not especially focused on celebrating Chinese culture; the Mayor was instead aspiring to craft a tourist-friendly Chinese district in reach of downtown…
John Jung's insight:
Indianapolis, IN. never had many Chinese immigrants, let alone a Chinatown. In 1880, there were just 14 Chinese residents who were born in China ; in 1910 there were 43 Chinese, in 1930, 39, and in 194 , 20. Although few in number Chinese immigrants, mostly laundrymen,  did come to Indianapolis, and they and their families were part of city affairs throughout the early 20th century.  Detailed research by anthropologist Paul Mullins provides a valuable look at the early history of Chinese in Indianapolis.
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Chinese Shoemakers in North Adams, Massachusetts, 1870

John Jung's insight:
Paul Marino, a local historian in North Adams, MA., tells the story of Calvin Sampson bringing 75 Chinese from San Francisco in 1870 to work in his shoe factory in response to a labor strike by his Crispin Irish workers. This was one of several similar bold attempts to exploit cheap Chinese labor that ironically contributed eventually to the legislation in 1882 for exclusion of all Chinese laborers.
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John Jung's curator insight, October 3, 2016 4:25 PM
Paul Marino, a local historian in North Adams, MA., tells the story of Calvin Sampson bringing 75 Chinese from San Francisco in 1870 to work in his shoe factory in response to a labor strike by his Crispin Irish workers. This was one of several similar bold attempts to exploit cheap Chinese labor across the U. S.  that ironically contributed eventually to the legislation in 1882 for exclusion of all Chinese laborers.
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Anti-Chinese USA - racism and discrimination from the onset

Anti-Chinese USA - racism and discrimination from the onset | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Anti-Chinese USA: timeline and history of race laws sanctioning the systematic persecution of and discrimination against ethnic Chinese and Asian minorities
John Jung's insight:
Following a brief introduction highlighting current discriminatory practices against Chinese, Zak Keith, a British writer and musician of Chinese descent,  provides a detailed timeline of the history of prejudicial practices against Chinese in the United States.
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Chinese Americans in Oregon

Chinese Americans in Oregon | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
History of Chinese in Oregon 1850-presentEcell
John Jung's insight:
Excellent overview of the Chinese history in Oregon over a span of more than a century and a half by Douglas Lee, Oregon Historical Society, and Portland State University.
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No Place Project- Tim Greyhavens

No Place Project- Tim Greyhavens | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

An on-going visual/historical/cultural document, with the emphasis on the visual part.  Tim Greyhavens is not a historian or social anthropologist; he sees himself as a photographer with a story to tell, connecting images of actual places or sites of some of the worst anti-Chinese incidents and injustices in American history.

John Jung's insight:
When photographer Tim Greyhavens learned about the racism and violence against Chinese immigrants in the late 19th century, he was appalled and wanted to increase awareness of these past injustices.   He noted that for most of these historic sites there are no plaques or markers, no guidebook references – nothing at all to indicate what happened. They had simply been transformed by time and neglect,  and he decided to create a photographic record of these actual physical sites.

Greyhavens spent time reading new and old books, journals, magazines and newspapers; pouring over old records and maps; and meeting with local historians and residents in order to come up with as accurate information as possible about the specific sites where these events took place. 

Each image has come as the result of solving a puzzle, usually starting with deciphering old descriptions of locations, then tracking changes in street and place names, and finally trying to match the written information with the physical location.
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Settlement of Asians in the Deep South (1763 – 1882)

Settlement of Asians in the Deep South (1763 – 1882) | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
A guest post by commenter Jefe: Asians first arrived in post-Colombian North America aboard the Manila Galleons in the 1580s. Some worked on the Spanish Treasure Fleet from Veracruz which plied the waters of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico on the way to Spain. Starting in 1763, Filipinos sometimes deserted the ships in the Gulf of Mexico…
John Jung's insight:
This blogger uses the pen name Abagond to comment on a fascinating range of topics, one of which is about the history of Asians settling in the Deep South in the 19th century.  This post was followed by a "guest post" by "jefe" , a Chinese in Hong Kong, if memory serves me well, who had several ancestors who settled in Mississippi and had grocery stores.  His guest post generated a discussion thread of 84 exchanges which raised many unanswered but provocative questions about Chinese in the Deep South.
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California Chinese immigrants after the Gold Rush

California Chinese immigrants after the Gold Rush | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

What happened to Chinese immigrants after the California Gold Rush?   


A visiting Chinese missionary gives a sermon at the Methodist Episcopal Church in Snelling, circa the 1910s. Luella East Richberger Collection 

John Jung's insight:
Arriving in the early 1860s, Chinese immigrants were among the pioneer settlers in this gold country town of Snelling, CA. and a substantial number of them were miners. During the heyday of the Gold Rush, Chinese miners were driven out of the gold fields because of white miners’ hostility and discriminatory mining laws. 
 By the late 1850s and early 1860s, the Chinese returned to the mines and patiently worked and reworked the tailings of the previous miners.   
 After leaving the mining fields in the foothills, they found employment as farm laborers and became an indispensable army in the fields.  
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Tombstone Times - CHINESE RESIDENTS IN TOMBSTONE ARIZONA

Tombstone Times - CHINESE RESIDENTS IN TOMBSTONE ARIZONA | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
History of the Chinese citizens of Tombstone Arizona by Sam Shueh and Eric Chen
John Jung's insight:
Around 1870, hundreds of Chinese were employed in the construction of the Southern Pacific railroad through Arizona. When the railroad construction was completed, all the Chinese laborers were let go immediately. The competition of less intensive jobs filled by the whites resulted in the Chinese exclusion Act of 1882.  Chinese managed to settle in nearby towns like Tombstone, finding work in the mines or being redeployed into the service industry. Chinese were first regarded with open suspicion by the people of Tombstone, mainly because of their unusual appearance and cultural traits.

Whites depended, however, on the work of the Chinese    who had good work habits and were willing to do anything for less pay. Despite the harsh wide social gulf and racism that separated them from whites, the Chinese eventually gained a recognition of their value.to the community.
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Analyzing the 1870s Chinese Migration Across America

Analyzing the 1870s Chinese Migration Across America | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

  Analyzing the 1870s Chinese Migration Across America  

John Jung's insight:
Two important unexamined questions about Chinese immigrants who moved during the 1860s and early1870s to parts of the United States where there had previously been few or no Chinese have largely been left unanswered. First, what happened to the contract laborers such as railroad workers of the 1860s and other contract workers in the early 1870s in other parts of the country after their contracts ended? Did most, if not all, return to their original place of residence or stay in their new locations? Second, how did individual Chinese, driven out of the west by increasing anti-Chinese violence over the 1870s and later, manage to migrate to distant regions.
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Gong Lum v. Rice 1927 Mississippi School Segregation and the Delta Chinese

Gong Lum v. Rice 1927 Mississippi School Segregation and the Delta Chinese | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

"Gong Lum v. Rice 1927 Mississippi School Segregation and the Delta Chinese "on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.

John Jung's insight:
Background and outcome of the Gong Lum v. Rice 1927 ruling by the U. S. Supreme Court supporting the Mississippi Supreme Court decision to exclude Chinese, and other noncaucasian children from attending "white schools."
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Chinese blacks in the Americas - Americas - ColorQ's Color Club

The history of intermarriage between the Chinese diaspora and the African diaspora in the Americas
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Overview of history of mixed race Chinese and Black persons in the American South as well as in the West Indies. 
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Angel Island: America’s Other Immigrant Isle

Angel Island: America’s  Other Immigrant Isle | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
On Angel Island, exclusion, not admission, was the name of the immigration game
John Jung's insight:
Historian Judy Yung, whose parents were detained at Angel Island Immigration Station and used paper names to gain entry to the U. S. in the 1920s, describes the arduous Chinese immigrant experience at Angel Island and contrasts it with the European immigrant reception at New York's Ellis Island.
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Bangor laundrymen prosecuted under Chinese Exclusion Act

They were merely laborers — victims of one of the most racially charged laws in U.S. history — trying to support themselves in Bangor’s Chinese laundries. Maine news, sports, politics and election results, and obituaries from the Bangor Daily News.
John Jung's insight:
A century ago on Jan. 20, 1916, the Bangor Maine newspaper headline read: "FOUR CHINAMEN HELD IN BANGOR."  These laundrymen were suspected of being laborers and subject to deportation under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.  
A writer for the Bangor Daily News presents highlights from the news coverage in 1916 to illustrate the problems faced by Chinese immigrants trying to avoid deportation. The four cases in Bangor were similar to cases all over the U. S. for decades.
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Chinese Shoemakers in North Adams, Massachusetts, 1870

Chinese Shoemakers in North Adams, Massachusetts, 1870 | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
Paul Marino, a local historian in North Adams, MA., tells the story of Calvin Sampson bringing 75 Chinese from San Francisco in 1870 to work in his shoe factory in response to a labor strike by his Crispin Irish workers. This was one of several similar bold attempts to exploit cheap Chinese labor across the U. S.  that ironically contributed eventually to the legislation in 1882 for exclusion of all Chinese laborers.
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John Jung's curator insight, October 3, 2016 4:23 PM
Paul Marino, a local historian in North Adams, MA., tells the story of Calvin Sampson bringing 75 Chinese from San Francisco in 1870 to work in his shoe factory in response to a labor strike by his Crispin Irish workers. This was one of several similar bold attempts to exploit cheap Chinese labor that ironically contributed eventually to the legislation in 1882 for exclusion of all Chinese laborers.
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Chinese in the South and in the Confederacy | 1882 Foundation

Chinese in the South and in the Confederacy | 1882 Foundation | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
"Chinese arrived in the south in the 1840s and 1850s. They had disembarked at the major southern ports – Baltimore, Charleston and New Orleans. Some moved inland to settle in places like Louisville, Kentucky, and existed in pockets of Chinese here and there in the south."

"Most don’t know that a few hundred Asians served the Union cause in the Civil War. Even fewer know that Chinese lived in the south and some joined the Confederate Army."
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Banana : A Chinese American Experience

Banana : A Chinese American Experience | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
A concise timeline of major events in Chinese American history from 1800-2001.
John Jung's insight:
The Tenement Museum of New York website has a concise timeline of major events in Chinese American history from 1800-2001.
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