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19th Century Chinese Medical Self-Help - FoundSF

19th Century Chinese Medical Self-Help - FoundSF | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:

"Throughout the nineteenth century, city officials were reluctant to finance any health services for the Chinese population even though Chinatown was popularly viewed as "a laboratory of infection." Early Chinese immigrants realized the necessity of banding together and providing for their own health care needs. In the 1850's they first grouped together into associations based upon loyalty to dan (family associations) or place of origin (district associations). In the 1860's, the district associations federated into the Chung Wah Kung Saw".

 Medical care in Chinatown was largely provided by herbalists and pharmacies in the classic tradition of Chinese medicine asthe vast majority of Chinese were unwilling to consult Caucasian doctors because of the language barriers, the higher fees, and strange medications and methods.

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Chinese American history
Websites related to the history of Chinese in North America
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Two Curated Collections of Websites on Chinese American History, Past and Present

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A brief guide to my 2 curated collections of websites on Chinese American history, past and present, on Scoop.It, and how to search the collection by keyword topics by typing the term in the

FUNNEL-looking icon in the upper right corner of this page next to suggestions.

 

(The previous method of using the FILTER window has been eliminated)

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Anti-Chinese USA - racism and discrimination from the onset

Anti-Chinese USA - racism and discrimination from the onset | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Anti-Chinese USA: timeline and history of race laws sanctioning the systematic persecution of and discrimination against ethnic Chinese and Asian minorities
John Jung's insight:
Following a brief introduction highlighting current discriminatory practices against Chinese, Zak Keith, a British writer and musician of Chinese descent,  provides a detailed timeline of the history of prejudicial practices against Chinese in the United States.
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Chinese Americans in Oregon

Chinese Americans in Oregon | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
History of Chinese in Oregon 1850-presentEcell
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Excellent overview of the Chinese history in Oregon over a span of more than a century and a half by Douglas Lee, Oregon Historical Society, and Portland State University.
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Four Chinese Women and their Struggle for Justice - The Broken Blossoms Case of 1935

Four Chinese Women and their Struggle for Justice - The Broken Blossoms Case of 1935 | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The Broken Blossoms trial of 1935 rocked San Francisco Chinatown as four Chinese women testified and won convictions against those who have coerced them into prostitution.
John Jung's insight:
During the Chinese Exclusion era, Chinese opportunists, some of whom were women, sold some Chinese immigrant women into slavery to work as prostitutes. They deceived other women to immigrate with promises of marriage to rich men, but they also were forced into becoming sex slaves.

"The Broken Blossoms trials in the 1930s revealed the persistent exploitation of Chinese women that runs through Chinese American history. Criminal syndicates were quick to exploit the situation as U.S. laws forbade the importation of wives of Chinese laborers. The market that was set up to provide sexual services for Chinese men, both laborers and merchants, was founded on coercion. This ugly side of Chinese American history is not often acknowledged." 

See also:
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Immigrant Voices: Discover Immigrant Stories from Angel Island

Immigrant Voices: Discover Immigrant Stories from Angel Island | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Discover the stories of Pacific Coast Immigrants from around the world.
John Jung's insight:
This website for the Angel Island Immigration Station contains immigrant stories that describe many aspects of the experiences of immigrants detained at Angel Island. You can filter the set of stories by several criteria such as country of origin, date of entry, and a number of "themes' such as paper son, racism, deportation, family reunification.
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The Farmers of Tanner Creek, Oregon      |Edge: Summer 2016 | Magazine | Oregon Humanities

The Farmers of Tanner Creek, Oregon      |Edge: Summer 2016 | Magazine | Oregon Humanities | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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The Vegetable Man was one of dozens of Chinese immigrants, mostly men, who  eked out a living on the fringes of town in what soon became the moneyed neighborhood of Goose Hollow. The gardens cultivated by the Chinese farmers supplied Portland residents with a daily selection of fresh fruits and vegetables while providing many of the city’s earliest Chinese immigrants with a steady stream of income starting as early as 1879.

By1910, the vegetable gardens and the men who tended them began to rapidly disappear. Likely it was some combination of elements that eroded the Chinese garden community in Portland: explosive urban growth in the early 1900s, racist practices and exclusionary laws, and local policies that restricted the Chinese gardeners’ ability to sell their produce.
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The Siyi Region 四邑

The Siyi Region 四邑 | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Winston Ho 何嶸.  Rutgers University, New Brunswick, Department of Asian Languages and Cultures 羅格斯大學東亞語言文化系. winstonho0805@gmail.com 2016 Aug. 7.   [Early twentieth-century map of the Siyi (Seiyap) Region, with the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong to the east. The red lines are probably railroads.  Also note the doted lines representing oceanic trade routes to Southeast…
John Jung's insight:
The "mother lode" of 19th century and early 20th century Chinese immigrants to North America and many parts other of the world was the four agrarian counties of Guangdong in southern China. Winston Ho's article describes the geography and history of this region during that period. His map is especially helpful for descendants searching for their ancestral village location.
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The Madame Chiang Project

The Madame Chiang Project | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The Madame Chiang Project utilizes a humanities-based approach to: (1) examine the day-to-day occurrences of Madame Chiang Kai-Shek's 1943 visit to Los Angeles and its impacts on the Chinese American community (via a photo tour format); (2) examine the impact of the sociopolitical circumstances of the 1930s and 1940s on the local, national, and global level…
John Jung's insight:
The Madame Chiang Project was created by UCLA students (Asian American Studies 187A  Doing Community History in Los Angeles Chinatown) taught by William Gow, to provide students with the research methodology to become public historians and document the history of an often overlooked Asian American community.

The hope is that the Madame Chiang Project will foster discussion about Madame Chiang Kai-Shek’s visit to Los Angeles in 1943 and its apparent impact on the American perceptions of Chinese via media sources, foster discussion about the unique sociopolitical circumstances that impacted the lives of Chinese Americans during the 1930s and 1940s, and how they affected the Chinese American identity, and spark interest in academic circles about the growing need for community-based research not only in Chinatown but all ethnic communities that are yet to truly historical document their own personal stories.
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Yoland Skeete Research Files on Newark Chinatown – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project

Yoland Skeete Research Files on Newark Chinatown – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
An Newark, N.J. had once had a thriving Chinatown (at its peak, there were 3,000 residents).  An artist living in the area, Yoland Skeete, embarked on an ambitious archival and archaeological research project to recover the largely forgotten history of the neighborhood and the people who once lived there.An impress
John Jung's insight:
An impressive archive of documents, interviews, photographs, audio recordings, collected by Yoland Skeete about the Newark, New Jersey, that no longer exists.  This research led to a book, When Newark Had A Chinatown, (Note: don;t try Amazon, which lists a ridiculously high price; check the publisher, Dorrance Publishing Online instead)
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City of Austin - Pioneers from the East: First Chinese Families in Austin

City of Austin - Pioneers from the East: First Chinese Families in Austin | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
"According to the 1875 Census there were 20 Chinese living in Austin. Most of these were men who left China to find work in order to support their families. Because of the Chinese Exclusion Act, they could not bring over their wives or children. These men worked mainly in the laundry or restaurant business." 

"Beginning in the 1870's the Chinese population in Travis County grew rather slowly until there was a large jump from 94 to 332 in the 1960's to the 1970's. Today, we have over 10,000 Chinese Americans in Austin working in many different industries. They share their culture and heritage and are constantly contributing to the great success of our city."
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The Opium Dens of Territorial Prescott - Sharlot Hall Museum Library & Archives

The Opium Dens of Territorial Prescott - Sharlot Hall Museum Library & Archives | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
Opium smoking was not illegal until 1909 and was associated with Chinese immigrants in Prescott,Arizona, as in other communities with Chinese.  However, most Chinese did not use opium nor was its use limited to the Chinese as many whites also smoked opium.
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Portland Chinese family stories of the adverse impact of the Chinese Exclusion Act

Portland Chinese family stories of the adverse impact of the Chinese Exclusion Act | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

Christine DeVillier of Portland has an immigration photo of her grandfather Bong Woon Lim, who entered the United States by boat under the name Wing Hun Lim at age 10 in 1921. (Courtesy of Christine De Villier)

John Jung's insight:
The Chinese Exclusion Act, started in 1882 and continuing in effect until 1943, not only barred the immigration of Chinese laborers, but disrupted the lives of many Chinese by separating family members for decades, in some instances. Those that managed to remain intact lived under the constant fear of deportation.   
Six examples from Portland Chinese vividly illustrate the adverse impact of the Chinese Exclusion Act.
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A coaching book used by a Paper Son

A coaching book used by a Paper Son | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
On the Records: Filled with details about life in southern China in 1923, a brown notebook may well be a “coaching” document intended to help an immigrant secure entry to the United States.
John Jung's insight:
During Chinese exclusion, Chinese resorted to trying to enter as paper sons, using documents belonging to someone entitled to immigrate. Here is an example of a coaching book used by a paper son to help him answer questions from Immigration officers to convince them he was the person he claimed to be.
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Chinese in the South and in the Confederacy | 1882 Foundation

Chinese in the South and in the Confederacy | 1882 Foundation | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
"Chinese arrived in the south in the 1840s and 1850s. They had disembarked at the major southern ports – Baltimore, Charleston and New Orleans. Some moved inland to settle in places like Louisville, Kentucky, and existed in pockets of Chinese here and there in the south."

"Most don’t know that a few hundred Asians served the Union cause in the Civil War. Even fewer know that Chinese lived in the south and some joined the Confederate Army."
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Banana : A Chinese American Experience

Banana : A Chinese American Experience | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
A concise timeline of major events in Chinese American history from 1800-2001.
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The Tenement Museum of New York website has a concise timeline of major events in Chinese American history from 1800-2001.
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Salem (Oregon) Online History - Chinese Americans

Salem (Oregon) Online History - Chinese Americans | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Salem History Project, Our Heritage, Our Home. This site focuses on key events, institutions and culture in Salem's history
John Jung's insight:
History of Chinese in Salem, Oregon.   "Chinese in Salem worked on railroad construction clearing land, building roads, ditching swamps, building levees and in hotels, laundries, kitchens. They became gardeners, worked with agriculture crops, were servants and small tradesmen in metropolitan areas. Chinese had no citizen rights, were not allowed to vote or own land or mining claims."

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The tong wars: how New York’s 1900s Chinatown descended into violence, bloodshed and savvy politics

The tong wars: how New York’s 1900s Chinatown descended into violence, bloodshed and savvy politics | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
What started with the murder of a laundry worker erupted into decades of tactical warfare
John Jung's insight:
"Tong Wars" by Scott Seligman is a reconstruction and analysis  of the key moments in the New York tongs’ bloody battles that stretched over several decades in the early 1900s based on extensive documents and evidence.  A  historian and former businessman who has lived in Taiwan, Hong Kong and mainland China, Seligman has written two other excellent books about Chinese-American history, including a biography of 19th-century Chinese-American newspaperman and activist Wong Chin Foo.
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Chinese Workers Arrive  in 1870 to Work in Shoe Factory in North Adams, Massachusetts

Chinese Workers Arrive  in 1870 to Work in Shoe Factory in North Adams, Massachusetts | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

"Mass Moments"--a daily almanac of Massachusetts history--

John Jung's insight:
In 1870, a train arrived in North Adams, MA. with 75 young men from California hired to replace striking shoe workers.  A crowd of over 2000 watched with curiosity and anxiety as most had never seen a Chinese before. The Chinese proved to be both cheaper and more efficient than the union shoe workers they replaced. 

This outcome helped put the question of Chinese immigration and contracted Chinese workers on the national agenda. In 1876 both major political parties included Chinese exclusion in their campaign platforms; and in 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Within a decade, only five Chinese men remained in North Adams.

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Santa Ana Deliberately Burned Down Its Chinatown in 1906--And Let a Man Die to Do It

Santa Ana Deliberately Burned Down Its Chinatown in 1906--And Let a Man Die to Do It | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The atmosphere was jovial as more than 1,000 people gathered in downtown Santa Ana on May 25, 1906, to watch their civic dream come true: th
John Jung's insight:
The Chinatown in Santa Ana, California, was unwelcome and ambivalent efforts were made at the beginning of the 20th century to get rid of it. When several Chinese came down with leprosy, fear of contagion was the catalyst that led to the burning down of the Chinese quarters.

Today, what was Santa Ana's Chinatown is hipster lofts and the parking lot behind the DGWB ad agency, which occupies the old City Hall (built in the 1930s, it replaced the City Hall that originally stood next to Chinatown). No marker stands anywhere in the area to commemorate its existence.
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Chinese Brotherhoods, Clans, and Secret Societies in Vancouver's Chinatown

Learn about the lives and experiences of early Chinese pioneers in Canada. Brotherhoods, Clans and Secret Societies of Vancouver's Chinatown
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Although this excellent documentary of the  history and social function of various Chinatown organizations is based on Vancouver, British Columbia, it is very applicable to major Chinatowns across the U. S. aside from specific dates and names. 
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Biography of Charlie Soong, Father of the Soong Sisters

Biography of Charlie Soong, Father of the Soong Sisters | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

 "Charlie Soong: North Carolina's Link to the Fall of the Last Emperor of China", tells the little known story of the life of the father of 3 daughters, the Soong sisters, who were arguably the 3 most powerful women in the world during their lifetimes. Their husbands were   finance minister T. V.  Koong, revolutionary Sun-Yat Sen, and Generalissimo Chiang-Kai-Shek.

John Jung's insight:
Overshadowed by his 3 daughters, Charlie Soong was an important figure in China's history. He came to America just before the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and attended seminaries in the American South before returning to China to promote Christianity. His contacts with missionaries in the South led him to send his daughters, Ai-Ling, Ching-Ling, and Mei-Ling, to Macon, Georgia in the early 1900s as wards of Rev. William Burke.

E. A. Haag 's biography traces Charlie Soong's life through his years in North Carolina and Tennessee. This website includes a video that presents about a minute of the historic speech of his daughter, Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, to the U. S. Congress in 1943.  http://www.charliesoonghistory.com/video.html

This speech of the first woman ever to address Congress was important in building ties between the U. S. and China in the fight against Japan in WW II, and is thought to have played a factor in the 1943 repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act. Her flawless English, with a tinge of Southern drawl, helped make her a powerful voice.
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Fong Wan, Chinese Herbalist , Restaurant-Night Club owner, Shrimping Company owner

Fong Wan, Chinese Herbalist , Restaurant-Night Club owner, Shrimping Company owner | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
John Jung's insight:
Fong Wan was a Chinese herbalist of some fame in Oakland, California in the mid 20th century who also ran a nightclub, New Shanghai Restaurant, that featured Chinese entertainers. He had time to run a shrimping business as well. 
His club was not as well known as Chinese nightclubs in San Francisco such as Charlie Low's Forbidden City, Kubla Khan, Andy Wong's Sky Room and  the Lion's Den and in fact he feuded with Charlie Low over claims of status.  



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Jon Con Sang Came to Prescott, AZ. and earned enough to open stores in China, which he lost when Communist China

Jon Con Sang Came to Prescott, AZ. and earned enough to open stores in China, which he lost when Communist China | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
English class at the Congregational Church in Prescott, AZ. Charley Wan is in the back row at the far right (Call Number: BU-C-1069p – Reuse only by permission).
John Jung's insight:
Sometime in the 1880s Jon Con Sang emigrated from China to Prescott, Arizona, where he worked in restaurants, laundries, and for other people. Locals knew him as “Charley Wan.” By the late 1890s, he had saved enough to return to China and establish The Sincere Company Ltd. which grew to seven stores in the major cities of China. Charley Wan became a very wealthy man. However, after the Communist takeover of Mainland China in 1949, Sang lost all of his stores to the new regime except the one in Hong Kong.  

Half a century later, in1989, Charley Wan’s great-granddaughter, Diana Cheng (Jan) Yue and her family came to Prescott to see if the Sharlot Hall Museum had any documents and records associated with Charley Wan. When the archives staff showed them photographs and other items, there were tears of joy and surprise. Diana’s son and grandchildren were able to see their family through four generations in one photograph. They were able to see their aunts and uncles, cousins, nieces, nephews, and grandparents.

(Note: The photo of the g-g-granddaughter and her family mentioned in the blog  is missing from the post)
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Sharlot Hall Museum : Archives : Photographs

Sharlot Hall Museum : Archives : Photographs | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Sharlot Hall Museum Digital Historic Arizona Photographs
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Some rarely seen historic photographs of early Arizona Chinese can be found in this searchable digital archive.  Just enter "Chinese" in the search box on the linked page.
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Three letters 1946­-1948 between a Chinese-­American husband and wife (in Chinese with English translations).

Three letters 1946­-1948 between a Chinese-­American husband and wife (in Chinese with English translations). | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
This document is part of 'Early Chinese Immigration to the US', a primary source set for educational use.
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Three letters (in Chinese with English translation) (1948) between Charles Wong (Wong Mingzhu) and Flora Wong (born Lee Jong Hai). They were Chinese-Americans who owned a grocery on South Main St in Helena, Montana. The letters document the bureaucratic difficulties the couple had in getting Flora's exit papers from China. Their plight was similar to that of countless other Chinese couples separated by immigration problems until they could be reunited. The collection is part of an educational project about the difficulties of Chinese immigration.
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New York Chinatown's Historic Public School 23

In 1984 the New York Chinatown History Project took up residence in four rooms of 70 Mulberry Street. The museum was on the second floor; its gallery space designed by the NYC architects Billie Tsien and Tod Williams. 70 Mulberry Street was formerly Public School 23. The Norman Romanesque Revival building was constructed in 1892, and was one of the first school buildings designed by C.B.J. Snyder, a noted architect and Superintendent of School Buildings for the New York City Board of Education from 1891 to 1923. Schools designed by Snyder in other parts of the city have been landmarked (see the Census listing for P.S. 64/ El Bohio). Until it closed in 1976, many of Chinatown's children attended school at P.S. 23. The New York Chinatown History Project, which was subsequently named the Museum of Chinese in America (MoCA), hosted an exhibit called What Did You Learn In School Today? P.S. 23, 1893-1976.
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