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Chinatowns of New York City - Wikipedia

Chinatown, Manhattan (simplified Chinese: 纽约华埠; traditional Chinese: 紐約華埠; pinyin: Niŭyuē Huá Bù), home to the largest enclave of Chinese people in the Western hemisphere,[6][7][8][9][10] is located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA, bordering the Lower East Side to its east and Little Italy to its north.

With an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, Manhattan's Chinatown is also one of the oldest ethnic Chinese enclaves outside of Asia, with most of its residents now Mandarin, Min, or Cantonese-speaking and originating from various regions of China. It is one of seven Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City and nine in the New York City Metropolitan Area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, enumerating 682,265 individuals as of the 2010 United States Census;[11] the remaining Chinatowns are located in the boroughs of Queens (three) and Brooklyn (three) and in Nassau County, all on Long Island in New York State, as well as in Edison, New Jersey.[12] In addition, Manhattan's Little Fuzhou (小福州, 紐約華埠), an enclave populated primarily by more recent Chinese immigrants from the Fujian Province of China, is technically considered a part of Manhattan's Chinatown, albeit now developing a separate identity of its own.

A new and rapidly growing Chinese community is now forming in East Harlem (東哈萊姆), Uptown Manhattan, nearly tripling in population between the years 2000 and 2010, according to U.S. Census figures.[13][14][15] This neighborhood has been described as the precursor to a new satellite Chinatown within Manhattan itself,[16] which upon acknowledged formation would represent the second Chinatown neighborhood in Manhattan, the eighth Chinatown in New York City, and the tenth within the overall New York City metropolitan region.

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An overview of the history and formation of many different "Chinatowns" in NYC, including demographic, economic, and cultural differences among them.

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Chinese American history
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Dogpatch Ranch: the Orgins of a Chinese American Family

This is the story of my Chinese great grandfather and grandmother and the 7 children they raised on a ranch in the late 1800's in Dogpatch, the Potrero, Sa
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This documentary by architect Glenn Lym tells the story of his Chinese great grandfather Lim Lip Hong and his great grandmother Chan Shee and the family they raised in the late 1800’s on a ranch in Dogpatch in the Potrero District of San Francisco on the then Bay shoreline. Lim Lip Hong had returned to San Francisco after working more than a decade in the Sierra's and beyond, helping build railroads that crisscrossed the American West.

 Why did they raise their family on a ranch in rural, outlying San Francisco instead of in protected Chinatown? And how could they do this during a period of intense anti-Chinese discrimination in San Francisco and throughout the West? The ranch was half a acre large and located at the front gate of the biggest Potrero factory at the time - Tubbs Cordage. The ranch was intact for over 4 decades, yet the family was never run off the property.

 Seven children and several grandchildren total were born at the ranch. This six decade tale leads to interesting suggestions about the identity of great grandfather Lim Lip Hong. Life at the ranch provided Glenn Lym a profound understanding of his own grandfather, Lim Lip Hong's second son.
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Chop Suey on San Francisco Street : How George Park beat anti-Chinese laws and started a prominent Santa Fe family

Chop Suey on San Francisco Street : How George Park beat anti-Chinese laws and started a prominent Santa Fe family | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The woman watched as soldiers confiscated her family’s land and beat her husband to death—another horror in the bloody land reforms of Chairman Mao Zedong’s Communist Party.
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There were few Chinese in Sante Fe, New Mexico, during the Chinese Exclusion era, but George Park and his family had a restaurant there from the mid 1920s until 1975, originally named the Majestic but renamed in 1937 as the New Canton. This fascinating article describes in detail the immigration story of the family and how they became accepted in the Sante Fe community.
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Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882-1943 

Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882-1943  | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Winston Ho's compilation of  Youtube videos related to the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
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A compilation by historian Winston Ho of over 20 videos from various sources dealing with aspects of the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882-1943) that had profound and long lasting negative consequences for Chinese in America.  (A similar law existed in Canada)
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America's first Chinatown captured in 19th century photos

America's first Chinatown captured in 19th century photos | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinatown in San Francisco was established in 1848, but was destroyed by an earthquake and a series of fires in 1906. It was later re-built and continues to thrive today.
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Some photographs of everyday life in early Chinatown in San Francisco before and after the 1906 earthquake and fire.
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World War 2 Flying Ace Arthur Chin's Amazing True Story

World War 2 Flying Ace Arthur Chin's Amazing True Story | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
This is the amazing true story of World War 2 veteran Arthur Tien Chin and his amazing exploits as a flying ace and fighter pilot.
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Americans of Chinese descent, in defense of China, served in the air war over China during the ’30s. Art Chin, born in Portland, was one of these American born Chinese who volunteered to join as a fighter pilot, and was truly a hero.

At first, China did not welcome ABCs as pilots..Told that their pay would be  only about $25 and they would have to buy their own uniforms, he and a friend turned around and started walking out. They were then asked, ‘What do you want to do? Go back to America to be laundrymen?’ That was the clincher and  they decided to join the battle!

"Some became aces before the U.S. even entered the war. Many stayed on and continued to contribute to the Allied effort, joined by more of their countrymen. One of these was Arthur “Art” Chin, whose courage and dogged tenacity in the face of adversity shines as an example to us all."

 His story is a shared piece of Chinese and United States aviation and military history, and his legacy should be shared as well."
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Bitter Harvest — This Land

Bitter Harvest — This Land | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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Ming Kee's family had a laundry in Portland, but fled anti-Chinese violence of the early 1900s to pick hops on an Oregon farm to eke out a meagre living for two decades. He, like other Chinese like Ah Coe, faced white hostility for working on hop farms, labor for which they earned little.  Another Chinese, Hop Lee, was more successful at hop farming, despite anti-Chinese feelings toward Chinese working on farms.

"White farmers desperate for field hands took to secretly contracting with Chinese hop pickers, even though the threat of Chinese workers being rounded up and run off the land became a relentless risk. The Chinese laborers, resolved to earn a living, took their chances."

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Perspective | The transformation of New York’s Chinatown in the 1980s

Perspective | The transformation of New York’s Chinatown in the 1980s | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Robert Glick documented New York's Chinatown as it transformed from a primarily older, male population to a generation of young families.
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"A picture is worth a thousand words" is a saying attributed to the Chinese, and this selection of poignant candid photographs of New York Chinatown residents by Bud Glick from the 1980s tells much about their lives and experiences.
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Asians in Colorado: A History of Persecution and Perseverance in the Centennial State (Samuel and Althea Stroum Books): William Wei

Asians in Colorado: A History of Persecution and Perseverance in the Centennial State (Samuel and Althea Stroum Books) [William Wei]    A comprehensive examination to date of Asians in the Centennial State, William Wei addresses a wide range of experiences

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Historian William Wei 2017 book discusses the history of Asians in Colorado from anti-Chinese riots in late nineteenth-century Denver to the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans at the Amache concentration camp to the more recent influx of Southeast Asian refugees and South Asian tech professionals.  Wei reconstructs what life was like for the early Chinese and Japanese pioneers, with special attention to the different challenges faced by those in urban versus rural areas that helps us better understand how Asians survived―and thrived―in an often hostile environment.
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The Last Temple (1972)

The Last Temple was made at CHINA ALLEY in Hanford, California, in 1972, by Producer Maurice Chuck and his SAN FRANCISCO JOURNAL, Reported by Kathryn Fong
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Hanford, California, is a small town not far from Fresno, of historical significance to Chinese America. Although few Chinese live there now, it has a large Chinese population of workers who helped build the Southern Pacific Railroad. This fascinating documentary from the 1970s describes CHINA ALLEY, a one street Chinatown in Hanford that is a living museum to its history. Camille Wing, a relative of legendary "Chinoise" restaurateur, Richard Wing, tells the history of his Imperial Dynasty Restaurant that attracted celebrities and world leaders for many years. The film also shows the interior of the Taoist Temple, and provides explanations of many artifacts and practices of this cornerstone of the Hanford Chinese community. Also worth viewing is a more recent video about China Alley and the Taoist temple: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKSCVOSMQoc
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When America First Met China: A History Of U.S.-China Trade

When America First Met China: A History Of U.S.-China Trade | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
You probably don't give much thought to the phrase "Made in China" when you see it written on the bottom of your coffee mug, or on the tag
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Long before the Chinese diaspora of the mid 19th century to many countries around the world, the U. S. and the West held a less negative attitude toward China because of the desire to benefit from trade with China. Dolin's book is very readable account of these early relationships and illustrate the importance of commerce between nations in shaping the history of their relationships.
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Chop Suey Before Li Huang Chuang's 1898 Endorsement

Chop Suey Before Li Huang Chuang's 1898 Endorsement | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese American history, immigration, racism, prejudice
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A popular account of the overnight rise in interest in chop suey by non-Chinese is that newspaper coverage of the 1898 visit of Viceroy Li Huang Chuang reported that he was served the dish at a Chinese restaurant and he liked the dish. However, chop suey was available in America several years before his visit as shown in this 1895 Centralia, Wisconsin market ad for a package of vegetable chop suey for 35 cts.
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Harley Spiller Menu Collection – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project

Harley Spiller Menu Collection – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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The Harley Spiller Menu Collection at New York University totals 40 linear feet and consists of more than 10,000 items. Menus from Chinese restaurants comprise about three-quarters of the collection. These span in date from 1981 to 2009 and about 1000 of the menus predate 1960. Most menus are 11×17 broadsheets or the 8 1/2x 11 folded kinds. Within the collection are menus from every decade, menus from all 50 states, and 3 linear feet of international menus.

Ephemera includes flyers and pamphlets containing information about a variety of topics relating to Chinese cookery, including chopsticks, fortune cookies, dim sum, kosher Chinese food. The artifacts in the collection consists of food packaging such as cans and take-out boxes (some with Spanish labels); restaurant breakables such as ceramics mugs, ash trays, and lidded tea cups; 8-foot chopsticks; plastic take-out bags with restaurant logos; and children’s toys, specifically plastic versions of Chinese food. There is correspondence between museums and individuals regarding his collection as well as documentation of the five exhibitions that have featured items from the collection.

Postcards of Chinese restaurants and about 1000 digital photographs of Chinese food Spiller or friends have taken over the course of their travels also comprise the collection.
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Keye Luke, Actor and Artist

Keye Luke, Actor and Artist | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Keye Luke (1904-1991), the Chinese-American actor whose Hollywood career spanned seven decades, made
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Recognition of the achievements of pioneering Chinese American actor, best remembered as No. 1 Son in the series of Charlie Chan movies of the 1930s. In his long career he also starred in Flower Drum Song in the 1960s, the David Carradine television, Kung Fu of the 1970s, and other roles until he died at age 86 in 1991. Luke was also a gifted graphic artist who created artwork for Hollywood.
In 1986, he won the first Lifetime Achievement Award bestowed by the Association of Asian/Pacific American Artists, and  he was honored with a sidewalk star in the Hollywood Hall of Fame. 
Luke was philosophical about roles that were denied to him because of the cultural stereotyping of his era, which continues to this day.

Also see Film maker Timothy Tau's wonderful award winning reenactment bio-epic of Luke's acting career.  https://vimeo.com/58036076.
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History of Chinese in Prescott, AZ

History of Chinese in Prescott, AZ | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese began to settle in Prescott, AZ. in the 1860s even though they were hardly welcome and faced racism..
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Chinese began to settle  in Prescott, AZ. in the 1860s even though they were hardly welcome and faced racism..   Some of them may have been laid-off laborers from the Transcontinental Railroad  in 1869.  They worked as produce farmers, miners, cooks in saloons and restaurants, domestic servants, laundry owners, and even a faro dealer.
Various factors contributed to the departure of the Chinese from Prescott. In 1886 Stephen B. Marcou started a campaign against the Chinese and established an Anti-Chinese League. In 1891 Granite Creek overran its banks and flooded Chinatown. The great fire on July 14, 1900, destroyed Whiskey Row and the red light district with their restaurants, hotels, saloons, stores, sporting parlors and other businesses which were owned by or which employed Chinese. Further erosion of employment opportunities occurred in 1907 when gambling was declared illegal in Arizona Territory. In 1900 the Chinese population peaked at 229.

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New York Chinatown's Historic Public School 23

In 1984 the New York Chinatown History Project took up residence in four rooms of 70 Mulberry Street. The museum was on the second floor; its gallery space designed by the NYC architects Billie Tsien and Tod Williams. 70 Mulberry Street was formerly Public School 23. The Norman Romanesque Revival building was constructed in 1892, and was one of the first school buildings designed by C.B.J. Snyder, a noted architect and Superintendent of School Buildings for the New York City Board of Education from 1891 to 1923. Schools designed by Snyder in other parts of the city have been landmarked (see the Census listing for P.S. 64/ El Bohio). Until it closed in 1976, many of Chinatown's children attended school at P.S. 23. The New York Chinatown History Project, which was subsequently named the Museum of Chinese in America (MoCA), hosted an exhibit called What Did You Learn In School Today? P.S. 23, 1893-1976.
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Chin Gee Hee, Labor Contractor and Engineer

Chin Gee Hee, Labor Contractor and Engineer | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chin Gee Hee  was a Chinese merchant, labor contractor, and railway entrepreneur, who made his fortune in Seattle, Washington before returning to his native village in Guangdong province, where he continued his successes including the building of the first railway in Guangdong..
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Labor contractors, such as Chin Gee Hee in the Pacific Northwest,  played a key role in bringing Chinese laborers from China that is not fully recognized in accounts of the Chinese diaspora.
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"Chin Gee Hee (June 22, 1844 – 1929), courtesy name Chàngtíng (暢庭), Cheun Gee Yee, was a Chinese merchant, labor contractor, and railway entrepreneur, who made his fortune in Seattle, Washington before returning to his native village in Guangdong province, where he continued his successes." He built the Sun Ning Railway, the first in Guangdong, with funds raised mostly from overseas Chinese.
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The Struggles of a Local Chinese Artist in the Era of Exclusion - Free Press Online

The Struggles of a Local Chinese Artist in the Era of Exclusion - Free Press Online | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
When I. Nee Lee emigrated from Hong Kong to the U.S. in 1902, it was not an easy time to be Chinese in America. It was the year that Congress made permanent the
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I. Nee Lee  immigrated to the U.S.in 1902 at the age of 14 and eventually found his way to Camden, Maine in 1917 where he was one of the few Chinese during an era of anti-Chinese prejudice.. He operated a laundry, but found time to paint beautiful landscapes of the region with a Chinese perspective.

"There are no known written accounts by Lee in existence, but his paintings, which he gave to his landlady in lieu of rent, allow a glimpse into the man. Lee's artwork primarily focuses on the the scenic landscapes, mountains and lakes of Camden. He liked to paint colorful pictures of farmers and fishermen on the lake or in Camden Harbor with seemingly little concern for accurate proportions."
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America's Chinatowns - Archaeology Magazine

America's Chinatowns - Archaeology Magazine | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Dozens of digs and collections are revealing the culture, diversity, and challenges of the first Chinese Americans
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"Today, Chinese-American archaeology is changing, with new digs, the rediscovery of old collections, and a push to bring researchers together to share findings. Archaeologists and historians have begun working closely with historical societies and descendant communities, and even collaborating with colleagues in southern China. The picture emerging is of a complex, diverse community that held on to some traditions, selectively adopted aspects of Euro-American culture, and tried to make the most of opportunities."

"Archaeological thinking has since evolved, and the relationship between Chinese immigrants and American culture is now known to be much more than a one-way street toward “Americanness.” Chinese-American culture was shaped by tradition, connections to mainland China, institutional segregation and racism, local circumstances, and a complex process of adaptation and selective accommodation."
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From Ventura’s China Town to the Jue Family Dynasty

From Ventura’s China Town to the Jue Family Dynasty | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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A success story of Walton  and Bob Jue, Chinese immigrants in Ventura, CA., who established a landmark grocery store in the community. 
 "Jue’s Market was the second grocery in Ventura after Peirano’s and became a veritable landmark. The annual fair parade was a real event at the store and the accompanying picture shows Walton with the Budweiser Clydesdales sometime during the 1950s. Jue’s Market business was sold in 2001 after all the decades of serving farmers, customers and the city itself. The Jue family and the branches brought forth from that original root have accomplished many successes in academics and business and have earned friendship and respect from the city and beyond."
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‘Yellow Peril!’ documents historical manifestations of ‘Oriental phobia’

‘Yellow Peril!’ documents historical manifestations of ‘Oriental phobia’ | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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A Tour of Chinatown, with Philip P. Choy

In many Hollywood motion pictures, the image of Chinatown registers as a fleeting montage of gangster chasing, detective hunting, opium smoking, mahjong playing,…
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One of the pioneering historians of Chinese America, Philip Choy, who died in 2017, was filmed giving an in-depth and authentic historical tour of San Francisco Chinatown to a group of tourists.
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Taste For Chinese Tea Led To America's First Millionaires

Taste For Chinese Tea Led To America's First Millionaires | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
China and its trade practices are often blamed for U.S. economic woes. But once upon a time, it was the tea trade with China that created American magnates — with some catastrophic consequences.
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America's love of tea came at a terrible cost because it created a large trade imbalance.Then, as now, America imported more from China that it exported. Apart from ginseng and silver (which was hard to get), the only other goods the Chinese wanted were sealskins — and opium. Starting in 1804, opium became for many traders the good that, once smuggled in, could bring balance to the China trade. It was tea drinking that spurred the advent of an illegal narcotics trade. 
Later, American merchants contributed to even more tragic events. Starting from 1852, American ships transported thousands of indentured Chinese laborers in the most abysmal conditions to the sugar and tobacco plantations in Cuba and Latin America, as well as to the Chincha Islands off Peru, where the Chinese workers mined guano, or bird waste. Tragically, those beautiful clippers built for the swift transport of tea were also used to transport these laborers from China.
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The Sour Side of Chinese Restaurants

A blog with posts of odds and ends related to the history of Chinese restaurants
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Many popular and scholarly discussions of Chinese restaurants focus on the cuisine and its evolution over the past century. However, there is also a decidedly "sour side" of running family-run restaurants including the difficult work demands, the racism often encountered, and legal impediments.
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William F. Wu Comic Book Collection – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project

William F. Wu Comic Book Collection – Asian/Pacific American Archives Survey Project | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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An archive at New York University of the William F. Wu collection of comic books featuring Asian characters. A valuable resource for analysis of the stereotypical depiction of Chinese and other Asians.  
Spanning the years 1942 to 1986, the books contain an abundance of representations of Asians in popular American culture. Many stereotypical depictions of Asians and Asian Americans - such as "Chinamen" and martial arts experts - are present, as are characters with exaggeratedly "Asian" features. Many of the comics also contain advertisements for martial arts books and courses.

A Finding Guide for the collection describes the contents: http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/fales/wu/index.html
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The Chinese in Britain: personal tales of a journey to a new land

The Chinese in Britain: personal tales of a journey to a new land | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Today, 400,000 ethnic Chinese call Britain home. But their 325-year history of labour contributions to the UK, from being 17th-century seamen to establishing London's now-famous Soho Chinatown, have often gone undocumented and unnoticed. Some of their stories are belo
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Although this post is about the history of Chinese in Britain, it provides a valuable comparison of similarities, and differences, between the life experiences of Chinese who emigrated to the United States and to the United Kingdom.
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