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Annenberg Foundation, Sunnylands Classroom. Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886)

Annenberg Foundation, Sunnylands Classroom.     Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886) | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

The landmark case in which Yick Wo, a San Francisco Chinese laundryman, had the ruling against Chinese laundries being housed in wooden buildings was overturned by the U. S. Supreme Court.

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A documentary on Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886), in which the U.S. Supreme Court held that non-citizens had due process rights under the 14th Amendment. Length:20 minutes

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Chinese American history
Websites related to the history of Chinese in North America
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Two Curated Collections of Websites on Chinese American History, Past and Present

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A brief guide to my 2 curated collections of websites on Chinese American history, past and present, on Scoop.It, and how to search the collection by keyword topics by typing the term in the

FUNNEL-looking icon in the upper right corner of this page next to suggestions.

 

(The previous method of using the FILTER window has been eliminated)

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A coaching book used by a Paper Son

A coaching book used by a Paper Son | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
On the Records: Filled with details about life in southern China in 1923, a brown notebook may well be a “coaching” document intended to help an immigrant secure entry to the United States.
John Jung's insight:
During Chinese exclusion, Chinese resorted to trying to enter as paper sons, using documents belonging to someone entitled to immigrate. Here is an example of a coaching book used by a paper son to help him answer questions from Immigration officers to convince them he was the person he claimed to be.
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Education | Chinese American: Exclusion/Inclusion

Education | Chinese American: Exclusion/Inclusion | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
What does it means to be an American? Chinese American: Exclusion/Inclusion explores this question as it chronicles the long and complex history of Chinese Americans [...]
John Jung's insight:
An excellent downloadable pdf of visual material and documents from the 2015-16 exhibit at the New York Historical Society, "CHINESE AMERICAN EXCLUSION/INCLUSION. It's the next best thing to seeing the exhibit itself, which will soon be on permanent display at the Chinese Historical Society of America in San Francisco Chinatown. Under the menu bar, select EDUCATION, and then click on "Curriculum Materials."
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National Archives Prologue Magazine | Spring 2016

National Archives Prologue Magazine | Spring 2016 | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Prologue, Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration
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Using documents from immigration archives, Eddie Wong created a dramatization of the cases of 4 Chinese women who were brought to the U. S. by Chinese men under false promises that they would marry prosperous Chinese men. Instead they were forced into prostitution until they were able to escape and seek shelter and protection and eventually testify against their captors. Broken Blossoms reenacts their testimony.
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Chinese Americans in Oregon

Chinese Americans in Oregon | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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A comprehensive description and nuanced analysis of the historical, geographical, social, and economic factors affecting the lives and occupations of Chinese in Oregon starting from the early 1800s.  Excellent discussion of the increased heterogeneity of the cultural and geographical backgrounds, education levels, occupational skills, social class differences over time.  No longer exclusively from Cantonese villages, the Chinese in Oregon represent a diverse set of subgroups, sometimes at odds with each other.
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Chinatown Gangs, Tongs

Chinatown Gangs, Tongs | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Click here to edit the content
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Chinese were not only victims of racism but also harmed by bloody conflicts between rival gangs and tongs that terrorized Chinatowns around the country during the first quarter of the 20th century. This website focuses on the tong wars in Chicago but similar issues existed in other Chinatowns.
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Origins of Undocumented Immigration

Origins of Undocumented Immigration | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Patrick Ettinger talked about his book Imaginary Lines: Border Enforcement and the Origins of Undocumented Immigration, 1882-1930, in which he shares the…
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Patrick Ettinger discusses the history of immigration control policies and procedures starting in the late 19th century and points out that Chinese immigrants and their smugglers quickly learned to attempt entry through points along the Canadian and Mexican borders rather than through immigration stations at major ports.
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The Lawyer Who Beat Back a Racist Law, One Loophole at a Time - Who We Were - Zócalo Public Square

The Lawyer Who Beat Back a Racist Law, One Loophole at a Time - Who We Were - Zócalo Public Square | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Recent politics is full of debates about erecting walls on the U.S.-Mexican border or barring Muslims from entering the U.S. But excluding groups of immigrants based on a particular background is nothing new—though the targets may change. It was in 1882 that Congress, for the first time in the history of the United States, passed legislation to prevent a specific ethnic group from entering the country. In effect from 1882 to 1943, the Chinese Exclusion Act forbade Chinese residents from naturalizing as U.S. citizens and forbade Chinese “laborers” from entering the country at all. The law was draconian and racist. It was also, often, ineffective. The Chinese population in the U.S. actually grew in total numbers during the census years of 1890, 1930, and 1940. Thousands of Chinese immigrants successfully challenged exclusion or tailored migration strategies to fit the demands and exploit the loopholes of exclusion laws. Leading this steady resistance to exclusion was Y.C. Hong, a largely unsung but …
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Born in San Francisco in 1898, You Chung “Y.C.” Hong was the son of Chinese laborers. After serving as a translator at the Bureau of Immigration, Hong attended night classes at USC to study law. In 1923, he was one of the first Chinese-Americans to pass the California state bar. From a poor family, and standing just 4-feet-6-inches tall because of an injury he suffered as a baby, Hong had the strong-willed optimism that can come from overcoming adversity.  

In addition to serving as president of the Chinese American Citizens Alliance, testifying before congressional committees about Chinese-American rights, and trying to sway politicians by befriending them, Hong helped immigrants fight back hard against exclusion. 

Some cases used a legal loophole in the Exclusion Act and subsequent legislation: Foreign-born sons and daughters of Chinese-American citizens were entitled to U.S. citizenship. As a result, Chinese immigrants challenged exclusion by claiming to be offspring of Americans. Some of them were indeed children of citizens, but others, eager to start a new life here, changed their names, identities, and family history to become “paper sons and daughters.”
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Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance

The Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance (CHLA) is a labor organization formed in 1933 to protect the civil rights of overseas Chinese living in North America and "to help Chinese laundry workers break their isolation in American society."

John Jung's insight:
"At the beginning of the Great Depression, New York City had approximately 3,550 Chinese laundries.[3] According to a first hand account: Chinese laundrymen relied on their hands. On the door of every Chinese laundry were these two big words in red paint, "Hand Laundry," meaning all ironing was done by hand. In New York, perhaps seven out of ten Chinese survived by working in Chinese Hand Laundries. At the end of almost every residential block or alley, there was always a Chinese laundry. A Chinese laundry was usually small — about the size of five dining tables, equipped only with an ironing board and a shelf to put cleaned, ironed clothes that were packaged and ready to go.

 With the support of white people in that same industry,[10] in 1933 the New York City Board of Aldermen passed a law intended to drive the Chinese out of the business. Among other things, it limited ownership of laundries to United States citizens.[3] 

When their efforts were unsuccessfully opposed by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, a "conservative Chinese social organization",[4] the openly leftist Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance was formed. Where the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association failed, the Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance successfully challenged this provision of the law, thereby preserving the livelihood of thousands of Chinese laundry workers. In the wake of that success, the Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance continued to advocate for the civil rights of Chinese in North America.[3] For both members and non-members, the cost to engage the aid of the organization was twenty five cents.[2]"
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On the Water - Ocean Crossings, 1870-1969: Liners to America

On the Water - Ocean Crossings, 1870-1969: Liners to America | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
1876 engraving of steerage class that most Chinese took to cross the Pacific from Hong Kong to San Francisco
John Jung's insight:
The Smithsonian Institute documented immigrant crossings to America across the Atlantic and the Pacific (this section occurs about half way down the site). It describes the vessels that were used from the mid 19th century to the mid 20th century. One intriguing revelation was that the main company, Pacific Mail Steamship initially hired only Chinese as crew because they were cheaper, but eventually they were dismissed due to objections of white workers.

For an in-depth study of the business of transporting immigrants from Hong Kong, see Elizabeth Shinn's authoritative book,  Pacific Crossing: California Gold, Chinese Migration, and the Making of Hong Kong.
http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AQHUUSE/ref=rdr_kindle_ext_tmb
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The Smithsonian Institute documented immigrant crossings to America across the Atlantic and the Pacific (this section occurs about half way down the site). It describes the vessels that were used from the mid 19th century to the mid 20th century. One intriguing revelation was that the main company, Pacific Mail Steamship initially hired only Chinese as crew because they were cheaper, but eventually they were dismissed due to objections of white workers.
 
For an in-depth study of the business of transporting immigrants from Hong Kong, see Elizabeth Shinn's authoritative book,  Pacific Crossing: California Gold, Chinese Migration, and the Making of Hong Kong.
http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AQHUUSE/ref=rdr_kindle_ext_tmb
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Encyclopedia of San Francisco

Encyclopedia of San Francisco | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Searchable index of San Francisco history. Features include a Timeline, Biography of the Day and Today in San Francisco History.
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Story of Donaldina Cameron, the larger than life rescuer of countless Chinese girls and women who were sex slaves in the early 20th century San Francisco Chinatown.
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The Sour Side of Chinese Restaurants

The Sour Side of Chinese Restaurants - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.


An overview of difficulties that Chinese faced in operating restaurants starting with the initial disdain and contempt for Chinese food. Racial discrimination, legal problems, financial issues, and competition were obstacles that blocked success for many operators. Robbery, assault, and even homicide were constant threats. The work was arduous and the hours were long. These factors left a sour taste for many Chinese restaurateurs and their families.

[A condensed version is published in the Chinese American Forum, July, 2013]

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Three letters 1946­-1948 between a Chinese-­American husband and wife (in Chinese with English translations).

Three letters 1946­-1948 between a Chinese-­American husband and wife (in Chinese with English translations). | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
This document is part of 'Early Chinese Immigration to the US', a primary source set for educational use.
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Three letters (in Chinese with English translation) (1948) between Charles Wong (Wong Mingzhu) and Flora Wong (born Lee Jong Hai). They were Chinese-Americans who owned a grocery on South Main St in Helena, Montana. The letters document the bureaucratic difficulties the couple had in getting Flora's exit papers from China. Their plight was similar to that of countless other Chinese couples separated by immigration problems until they could be reunited. The collection is part of an educational project about the difficulties of Chinese immigration.
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New York Chinatown's Historic Public School 23

In 1984 the New York Chinatown History Project took up residence in four rooms of 70 Mulberry Street. The museum was on the second floor; its gallery space designed by the NYC architects Billie Tsien and Tod Williams. 70 Mulberry Street was formerly Public School 23. The Norman Romanesque Revival building was constructed in 1892, and was one of the first school buildings designed by C.B.J. Snyder, a noted architect and Superintendent of School Buildings for the New York City Board of Education from 1891 to 1923. Schools designed by Snyder in other parts of the city have been landmarked (see the Census listing for P.S. 64/ El Bohio). Until it closed in 1976, many of Chinatown's children attended school at P.S. 23. The New York Chinatown History Project, which was subsequently named the Museum of Chinese in America (MoCA), hosted an exhibit called What Did You Learn In School Today? P.S. 23, 1893-1976.
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McGettrick Certificates

McGettrick Certificates | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The McGettrick Certificate ListsThe USCIS History Office and Library has digitized and made available online the 1906 Bureau of Immigration publication McGettrick Certificates: List of Chinese Cases T
John Jung's insight:
The McGettrick Certificates (named after an Immigration Commissioner who heard cases of about 1,000 Chinese immigrants who crossed into northeastern U. S. from Canada around the 1890s), was not easily available until now.   

Each of the migrants listed claimed to be a U.S.-born citizen and the majority of them, after a hearing in front of U.S. Commissioner Felix W. McGettrick, received a “Certificate of Discharge” which could be used as proof of citizenship. Though many of these claims to citizenship were questionable the list of McGettrick Certificates should be of interest to anyone interested in the migration of Chinese to the east coast of the U.S.

On Thursday June 30, 2016 at 1 pm, Eastern Time there will be a webinar (it will NOT be taped) on how to use these documents.
 
To access the webinar, go to:  https://www.uscis.gov/HGWebinars ;
shortly before the scheduled start time and follow the “Attend Session” link under “Guide to I&N Research.”

You can also access the certificate files at:  http://u95007.eos-intl.net/U95007/OPAC/Details/Record.aspx?BibCode=9170556

Here is a sample of the men and their "fate"
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Boston Chinatown Atlas

Boston Chinatown Atlas | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
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An informative and comprehensive website, Boston Chinatown Atlas,  gives highlight of an ongoing project to present the story of Chinatown’s history, dynamics, and context, and to encourage future generations to appreciate the traditions and to preserve the community’s vitality. 

 Personal stories, photos, maps, and interactive features on the website provide an engaging view of Chinatown’s growth and change over more than a century.

The Chinatown Atlas concept originated more than 20-years ago between Tunney Lee and Randall Imai through a series illustrations of Chinatown.
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Discrimination against Chinese Americans and Asians

Discrimination against Chinese Americans and Asians | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Anti-Chinese USA: a long history of US policies and race laws sanctioning discrimination and the systematic persecution of ethnic Chinese and Asian immigrants.
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A detailed timeline and thoughtful discussion of history of discrimination against Chinese Americans, and other Asians.  Author concludes: 

"The mass media continue to project contradictory images that either dehumanize or demonize the Chinese, with the implicit message that they represent either a servile class to be exploited, or an enemy force to be destroyed. This has created and continues to create identity issues for generations of American-born Chinese: a sense of being different, or alien, in their own country; of being subjected to greater scrutiny and judged by higher standards than the general populace."
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Chinese Prostitution in America in the Late 1800s & Social Perception in Regards to Cultural Attitudes and Filial Piety

Chinese Prostitution in America in the Late 1800s & Social Perception in Regards to Cultural Attitudes and Filial Piety | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Filial piety describes a view common in Confucian and Buddhist thought of an overall respect,  love, and moral obligation to one's parents. More specifically, it specifies “to take care of one's parents;  not be rebellious; show love, respect and support; display courtesy; ensure male heirs; uphold fraternity among brothers; wisely advise one 's parents; conceal…
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"Women, however, occupied an inferior social status, whose purpose was to maintain their husband’s family, not their own; therefore they were less valuable to parents, and female infanticide was common. Women were considered property, a sell-able, trade-able luxury or commodity, owned by the overriding family patriarch....Chinese women were utilized by men in the United States to satisfy their needs, and within this social context that it was allowed to flourish and grow to such magnitude."
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Frederick Bee, Unheralded defender of Chinese immigrants

Frederick Bee, Unheralded defender of Chinese immigrants | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Frederick Bee History Project
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Anthony Oertel, a local historian in Martinez, CA created an archive of historical documents related to Frederick Alonzo Bee, a little known fierce advocate for Chinese immigrants in the late 19th century.

Frederick Alonzo Bee was early opponent of Anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States. He was a California Gold Rush pioneer, miner, merchant, manager of the Pony Express, builder of the telegraph over the Sierras, developer of Sausalito, California, lobbyist for the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, official at the Chinese Consulate, and vineyardist near Martinez, California. 

 Bee was appointed as Consul by the Chinese government after he effectively represented the interests of the Chinese community in front of a Congressional committee and settled disputes in Chinatown. Bee acted in an official capacity to represent the interests of Chinese immigrants, and appeared in federal court cases; his efforts to preserve harmony were recognized by the Emperor of China.

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Chinese American Genealogy

Live broadcast: 1/21/2016 Presented by: Alice Kane Chinese-American family history research can be conducted using standard genealogical resources such a
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After a 15 minute overview of Chinese immigration history to the U. S. ,  Alice Kane, a genealogical researcher, gives a presentation on resources and techniques for tracing Chinese American geneaology. 

 
(If you already are familiar with this history, you might want to  skip ahead 15 mins. to get to the genealogical material)
    
Chinese-American family history research can be conducted using standard genealogical resources such as censuses, city directories, and land transactions. There are, however, other resources that can be especially helpful, such as grave markers, records produced from the Chinese Exclusion Acts, and jiapu (collected family histories).
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City of San Bernardino - Chinatown

City of San Bernardino - Chinatown | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Early Chinatown, San Bernardino, CA
John Jung's insight:
"According to author/historian Richard Thompson, in his article, The Founding of San Bernardino's Chinatown, published in 1978, the first Chinese arrived in this area in August of 1867. The U.S. census records for 1870 indicated there were 16 young males. The oldest was Ah Wing at age 31 and the youngest was Jim Kang at 19. Their occupations were listed as laundry men, cooks, and houseboys.

In its heyday during the late 1890's, San Bernardino's Chinatown boasted between 400 and 600 residents. In addition to rather crudely constructed wooden "shack" homes, there were a number of business establishments as well. These included groceries, restaurants, and mercantile shops. 

 Some of the residents were farmers who raised vegetables east of Waterman Avenue. From "Chinese Gardens" they peddled their produce in carts. Janet Miles reminisced about the Chinese farmers in The Memoirs of Janet Miles: San Bernardino 1901-1994, written in 1994.
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"According to author/historian Richard Thompson, in his article, The Founding of San Bernardino's Chinatown, published in 1978, the first Chinese arrived in this area in August of 1867. The U.S. census records for 1870 indicated there were 16 young males. The oldest was Ah Wing at age 31 and the youngest was Jim Kang at 19. Their occupations were listed as laundry men, cooks, and houseboys.
 
In its heyday during the late 1890's, San Bernardino's Chinatown boasted between 400 and 600 residents. In addition to rather crudely constructed wooden "shack" homes, there were a number of business establishments as well. These included groceries, restaurants, and mercantile shops. 
 
 Some of the residents were farmers who raised vegetables east of Waterman Avenue. From "Chinese Gardens" they peddled their produce in carts. Janet Miles reminisced about the Chinese farmers in The Memoirs of Janet Miles: San Bernardino 1901-1994, written in 1994.
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Pacific Mail Steamship Company & Chinese immigration - FoundSF

Pacific Mail Steamship Company & Chinese immigration - FoundSF | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Main Office at First and Market Streets, San Francisco
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Pacific Mail Steamship Company was the backbone of trans-Pacific shipping during the 1860s and 1870s. Not only did Pacific Mail have a guaranteed contract from the U.S. government to carry mail across the seas, they were also the primary carrier of immigrant Chinese labor. 
The company was staunch in defending the rights of Chinese crew members and workers. In 1877 during three days of riots by unemployed white workers,  deputized members of the “Pick-Handle Brigade” fought off rioters intent on setting these docks aflame to deter further Chinese immigration. Repelled, the rioters set a nearby lumberyard on fire, probably on Mission Creek.

Pacific Mail transitioned into Dollar Line, and in 1938, Dollar Line's name was changed to American President Lines ( a global container-shipping company today).
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Edward Bing Kan: The First Chinese-American Naturalized after Repeal of Chinese Exclusion

Edward Bing Kan: The First Chinese-American Naturalized after Repeal of Chinese Exclusion | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
May 17, 2013Edward Bing Kan’s Certificate of Naturalization(click image to enlarge)On December 17, 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law an Act to Repeal the Chinese Exclusion Acts.[
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Fascinating behind the scene story of the first Chinese to become a naturalized American citizen after the 1943 repeal of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.

"Kan’s status as the first to naturalize was not the result of chance—for 35 years he had served as an interpreter in the Immigration and Naturalization Service’s (INS) Chicago office.

Kan, the son of a vegetable peddler, entered the U.S. as a student in 1892 at age 13 under his original name, Kan Kwong Bing.[v]He settled in Portland, Oregon and in 1900 married Katherine Wong, a U.S. born citizen of Chinese descent. Under some interpretations of U.S. nationality law at that time Edward’s noncitizen status effectively divested Katherine of her U.S. citizenship upon marriage.[vi]Edward’s status as an “alien ineligible for citizenship” prevented him from naturalizing, leaving Katherine’s citizenship status in doubt."
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Chinese Laundries in Massachusetts Oral History Project - University of Massachusetts Boston

Chinese Laundries in Massachusetts Oral History Project - University of Massachusetts Boston | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

The Institute for Asian American Studies, in partnership with the Chinese Historical Society of New England, has been interviewing Chinese Americans who owned, or whose parents owned, a laundry in Massachusetts.

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Salinas Chinatown

Salinas Chinatown | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

The Asian Cultural Experience (A.C.E.) is a multi-ethnic non-profit organization (501c3) dedicated to the historical and cultural preservation of Salinas Chinatown founded and incorporated in 2008.


It is committed to preserving, recording, documenting and exhibiting the history and culture of the Salinas Chinatown area where several ethnic groups have lived, worked, and gathered together since 1872. Chinatown is a historical “gold mountain" holding a rich multi-ethnic history of agricultural development, labor movements, daily life and low life, collaboration and tension, discrimination and solidarity. 

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