"This course is designed to develop a working level knowledge of: (1) chemistry fundamentals; and (2) the basic principles and concepts of environmental chemistry. The participant will also acquire a familiaritylevel knowledge of: (1) geochemistry; (2) atmospheric chemistry; (3) environmental microbiology; and, (4) water treatment. Prerequisite for this course is one year of college level chemistry. Based upon the bookEnvironmental Chemistry, by Professor Stanley Manahan, this course has been tailored to the needs of Environmental Restoration and Environmental Management career professionals by including case studies and applications from actual restoration sites. Satisfactorily completing this course will earn a total of 3 credits, in 3 modular segments, from Northern Arizona University and may be used toward degree programs in chemistry, waste management science or environmental engineering."
The Open Chemistry project is a collection of open source, cross platform libraries and applications for the exploration, analysis and generation of chemical data. The project builds upon various efforts by collaborators and innovators in open chemistry such as the Blue Obelisk, Quixote and the associated projects. We aim to improve the state of the art, and facilitate the open exchange of ideas and exchange of chemical data leveraging the best technologies ranging from quantum chemistry codes, molecular dynamics, informatics and visualization.
A high-throughput screening of a microbial natural product library led to the discovery of two novel compounds named nivetetracyclates A and B (1 and 2), which were produced byStreptomyces niveus designated as LS2151. The backbone of the compounds contains a hydrotetracyclate not previously reported from a natural source. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The nivetetracyclates exhibited activity against human HeLa cells
Caixia Chen †, Xueting Liu †, Wael M. Abdel-Mageed†‡, Hui Guo , Weiyuan Hou §, Marcel Jaspars , Li Li, Feng Xie †, Biao Ren †, Qian Wang †, Huanqin Dai†, Fuhang Song *†, and Lixin ZhangOrg. Lett., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/ol4027733Publication Date (Web): October 25, 2013
A Colorado State University chemistry professor has developed several patent-pending chemical processes that would create sustainable bioplastics from renewable resources for use on everything from optical fibers and contact lenses to furniture and automobile parts.
A chlorinated isocoumarin with an acetylenyl side chain and its 3,4-dihydro derivative, named gymnopalynes A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of a basidiomycete originating from the rain forest of Northern Thailand. The producing organism was identified as a species of Gymnopus (Marasmiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV/vis and NMR spectroscopy as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry as 3-(3-chloroprop-1-yn-1-yl)-1H-isochromen-1-one (1) and 3-(3-chloroprop-1-yn-1-yl)-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one (2). The absolute stereochemistry of 2 was assigned as S by CD spectroscopy. Both compounds showed weak to moderate antimicrobial and pronounced cytotoxic activities.
Benjarong Thongbai†, Frank Surup‡, Kathrin Mohr‡, Eric Kuhnert‡, Kevin D. Hyde†, and Marc StadlerJ. Nat. Prod., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/np400609fPublication Date (Web): October 31, 2013
In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.
Armin Bauer*a and Mark Brö Nat. Prod. Rep., 2014, Advance Article
Sixteen daphnane diterpenoids, trigothysoids A−P, along with 15 known ones, were isolated from the methanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Trigonostemon thyrsoideum. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The anti-HIV-1 activity of the compounds was also evaluated in vitro, and five compounds demonstrated potent anti-HIV-1 activity, with EC50 values of 0.015–0.001 nM and TI values of 1618–17,619.
Two new cyclic peptides, termed jahnellamides A and B, were isolated from the myxobacterium Jahnella sp. Their structures were solved by NMR, ESIMS, and chemical derivatizations. Jahnellamides are a new class of α-ketoamide-containing peptides comprised of nonproteinogenic amino acids, including α-keto-β-methionine and 4-hydroxyglutamic acid. Moreover, in silico analysis of the genome sequence along with feeding experiments allowed us to identify and annotate a candidate nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic gene cluster containing a polyketide synthase module involved in the formation of the α-ketoamide moiety.
Alberto Plaza, Konrad Viehrig, Ronald Garcia, and Rolf MüllerOrg. Lett., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/ol402967y
Natural products and their derivatives are used as treatments for numerous diseases. Many of these compounds are structurally complex, possessing a high percentage of sp3 hybridized carbons and multiple stereogenic centers. Due to the difficulties associated with the isolation of large numbers of novel natural products, lead discovery efforts over the last two decades have shifted toward the screening of less structurally complex synthetic compounds. While there have been many success stories from these campaigns, the modulation of certain biological targets (e.g. protein–protein interactions) and disease areas (e.g. antibacterials) often require complex molecules. Thus, there is considerable interest in the development of strategies to construct large collections of compounds that mimic the complexity of natural products. Several of these strategies focus on the conversion of simple starting materials to value-added products and have been reviewed elsewhere. Herein we review the use of natural products as starting points for the generation of complex compounds, discussing both early ad hoc efforts and a more recent systematization of this approach.
Karen C. Morrisona and Paul J. Hergenrother Show AffiliationsNat. Prod. Rep., 2014, Advance Article
The stereochemistry of the desulfurization products of chiral natural and synthetic 3,6-epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETPs) is specified inconsistently in the literature. Qualitative mechanisms have been put forward to explain apparently divergent stereochemical pathways, but the quantitative feasibility of such mechanistic pathways has not been assessed. We report a computational study revealing that desulfurization of ETPs should occur universally with retention of configuration. While the majority of stereochemically assigned and reassigned cases fit this model, until now desulfurization of the synthetic gliotoxin analogue shown has remained assigned as proceeding via inversion of configuration. Through detailed chiroptical studies comparing experimentally obtained optical rotation values, electronic circular dichroism spectra, and vibrational circular dichroism spectra to their computationally simulated counterparts as well as chemical derivatization studies, we have unambiguously demonstrated that contrary to its current assignment in the literature, the desulfurization of this synthetic ETP also proceeds with retention of configuration.
Fanny L. Cherblanc†, Ya-Pei Lo†, Wouter A. Herrebout‡, Patrick Bultinck§, Henry S. Rzepa*†, and Matthew J. FuchterJ. Org. Chem., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/jo401316aPublication Date (Web): September 27, 2013
It is well known that as molecules become progressively more proton-deficient, structure elucidation becomes correspondingly more challenging. When the ratio of 1H to 13C and the sum of other heavy atoms falls below 2, an axiom that has been dubbed the “Crews rule” comes into play. The general premise of the Crews rule is that highly proton-deficient molecules may have structures that are difficult, and in some cases impossible, to elucidate using conventional suites of NMR experiments that include proton and carbon reference spectra, COSY, multiplicity-edited HSQC, and HMBC (both 1H–13C and 1H–15N). However, with access to modern cryogenic probes and microcyroprobes, experiments that have been less commonly utilized in the past and new experiments such as inverted 1JCC 1,n-ADEQUATE are feasible with modest sized samples. In this light, it may well be time to consider revising the Crews rule. The complex, highly proton-deficient alkaloid staurosporine (1) is used as a model proton-deficient compound for this investigation to highlight the combination of inverted 1JCC 1,n-ADEQUATE with 1.7 mm cryoprobe technology.
Mary M. Senior†, R. Thomas Williamson‡, and Gary E. MartinJ. Nat. Prod., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/np400562uPublication Date (Web): November 6, 2013
The first mobile phone battery to be directly charged by microbial fuel cells feeding on neat urinehas been reported by scientists in the UK.
Back in 2011 we covered the urine-powered fuels cells being developed by Ioannis Ieropoulos and colleagues at Bristol Robotics Laboratory. They had shown that urine was an excellent fuel for direct electricity generation. As a bonus, the cells can reclaim essential nutrients from the urine, making waterwater treatment easier.
This latest study is the first time a commercially available mobile phone has been powered by urine-powered fuel cells. Cascades of electrically connected fuel cells use bacterial action to convert chemical energy in organic matter in urine into electricity.
The team hope their work will lead to emergency charging devices for remote locations.
The original resaerch here I A Ieropoulos et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, DOI: 10.1039/c3cp52889h
DOI: 10.1039/C3NP70071B Copper-catalyzed Ullmann–Goldberg-type cross-coupling reactions have undergone nothing short of a renaissance over the last decade and an impressive number of procedures are now available for the formation of C–N, C–O and C–S bonds with remarkable efficiencies and surgical precision. These reactions have been recently integrated into natural product synthesis, which clearly resulted in the emergence of new retrosynthetic paradigms and bond disconnections. The impact of copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in natural product synthesis will be overviewed in this article with an emphasis on the evolution of strategies due to copper catalysis, mostly by comparison with alternative tactics and their relative efficiencies.
The methyl group is one of the most commonly occurring carbon fragments in small-molecule drugs. This simplest alkyl fragment appears in more than 67 % of the top-selling drugs of 2011 and can modulate both the biological and physical properties of a molecule. This Review focuses on so-called magic methyl effects on binding potency, where the seemingly mundane change of CH to CMe improves the IC50 value of a drug candidate more than 100-fold. This discussion is followed by a survey of recent advances in synthetic chemistry that allow the direct methylation of C(sp2)H and C(sp3)H bonds. It is our hope that the relevance of the meager methyl group to drug discovery as presented herein will inspire reports on new CH methylation reactions.
Dr. Heike Schönherr2,Dr. Tim CernakAngewandte Chemie International Edition
It happens all the time. You walk into a meeting anticipating a clear resolution only to encounter someone who asks to bring others into the equation; or someone who insists on crunching more data; or someone who simply has a better idea. Sound familiar? As CFO, juggling such diverse stakeholder personalities comes with the territory.
Luckily, there are clues to deciphering personalities in business that can help CFOs better relate to others. Termed “Business Chemistry,” the framework identifies distinct patterns of behavior that can be harnessed to not only improve individual interactions, but also to influence strategy.
Download the CFO Insights article, "The Power of Business Chemistry," to learn more..
Hypocrolide A (1), a botryane metabolite with a new hexacyclic skeleton, was isolated from cultures of the entomogenous fungus Hypocrea sp. The proposed structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallography using Cu Kα radiation. The mixed-biogenetic skeleton could be derived from the hypothetical precursors related to coumarin and dihydrobotrydiol, and the latter may be derived from the coisolated 10-oxodehydrodihydrobotrydial (2) or a similar analogue.
Yafei Yuan †§, Yu Feng †§, Fengxia Ren ‡, Shubin Niu †, Xingzhong Liu †, and Yongsheng Che Org. Lett., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/ol402953k
Keeping it basic: Arginine provides the exotic 4-guanidinobutanoate starter unit for two different types of zwitterionic polyketide (an example for one type is shown in the picture) produced by the same Streptomyces bacterium. The three-step precursor pathway is initiated by a remarkable decarboxylating monooxygenase with high specificity for arginine.
Dr. Hui Hong1,*,Taicia Fill2,Prof. Peter F. Leadlay