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Amazing Science: Chemistry Postings

Amazing Science: Chemistry Postings | Chemistry | Scoop.it

Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter. As it is a fundamental component of matter, the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, with particular focus on the properties of the chemical bonds formed between species. Chemistry is also concerned with the interactions between atoms or molecules and various forms of energy. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology.


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Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development

Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development | Chemistry | Scoop.it

In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

 

Armin Bauer*a and   Mark Brö Nat. Prod. Rep., 2014, Advance Article


DOI: 10.1039/C3NP70058E


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Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Natural products as starting points for the synthesis of complex and diverse compounds

Natural products as starting points for the synthesis of complex and diverse compounds | Chemistry | Scoop.it

Natural products and their derivatives are used as treatments for numerous diseases. Many of these compounds are structurally complex, possessing a high percentage of sp3 hybridized carbons and multiple stereogenic centers. Due to the difficulties associated with the isolation of large numbers of novel natural products, lead discovery efforts over the last two decades have shifted toward the screening of less structurally complex synthetic compounds. While there have been many success stories from these campaigns, the modulation of certain biological targets (e.g. protein–protein interactions) and disease areas (e.g. antibacterials) often require complex molecules. Thus, there is considerable interest in the development of strategies to construct large collections of compounds that mimic the complexity of natural products. Several of these strategies focus on the conversion of simple starting materials to value-added products and have been reviewed elsewhere. Herein we review the use of natural products as starting points for the generation of complex compounds, discussing both early ad hoc efforts and a more recent systematization of this approach.

 

Karen C. Morrisona and   Paul J. Hergenrother Show AffiliationsNat. Prod. Rep., 2014, Advance Article


DOI: 10.1039/C3NP70063A


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Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Eclectic Technology
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50 Awesome Chemistry Videos For The Busy Science Teacher

50 Awesome Chemistry Videos For The Busy Science Teacher | Chemistry | Scoop.it

If you are looking for some great videos about chemistry check out this post. The are split into the following categories:

* Amazing Reaction and Experiments

* Lectures

* Courses

* Fun

* Miscellaneous

Have fun exploring and sharing with your class!


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Ramanathan's curator insight, August 9, 2014 12:01 AM

Chemistry videos

Alfio Gangemi's curator insight, April 29, 2015 10:02 PM

Once again this contains great information for chemistry teachers. I think this is an excellent resource for engaging students and also trying to create new interest in chemistry. It has videos on a variety of the visually interesting and engaging chemistry experiments and their reactions. I will definitely use this resource in my classrooms at the beginning of and throughout the year to help generate interest and maintain engagement with my students. 

Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of All Known (−)-Agelastatin Alkaloids

Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of All Known (−)-Agelastatin Alkaloids | Chemistry | Scoop.it

The full details of our enantioselective total syntheses of (−)-agelastatins A–F (1–6), the evolution of a new methodology for synthesis of substituted azaheterocycles, and the first side-by-side evaluation of all known (−)-agelastatin alkaloids against nine human cancer cell lines are described. Our concise synthesis of these alkaloids exploits the intrinsic chemistry of plausible biosynthetic precursors and capitalizes on a late-stage synthesis of the C-ring. The critical copper-mediated cross-coupling reaction was expanded to include guanidine-based systems, offering a versatile preparation of substituted imidazoles. The direct comparison of the anticancer activity of all naturally occurring (−)-agelastatins in addition to eight advanced synthetic intermediates enabled a systematic analysis of the structure–activity relationship within the natural series. Significantly, (−)-agelastatin A (1) is highly potent against six blood cancer cell lines (20–190 nM) without affecting normal red blood cells (>333 μM). (−)-Agelastatin A (1) and (−)-agelastatin D (4), the two most potent members of this family, induce dose-dependent apoptosis and arrest cells in the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle; however, using confocal microscopy, we have determined that neither alkaloid affects tubulin dynamics within cells.

 

Sunkyu Han†, Dustin S. Siegel†, Karen C. Morrison‡, Paul J. Hergenrother‡, and Mohammad MovassaghiJ. Org. Chem., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/jo4020112
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Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Natural product chemistry
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Concepts and technologies for tracking bioactive compounds in natural product extracts: generation of libraries, and hyphenation of analytical processes with bioassays

Concepts and technologies for tracking bioactive compounds in natural product extracts: generation of libraries, and hyphenation of analytical processes with bioassays | Chemistry | Scoop.it

Since the advent of high-throughput screening (HTS) in the early 1990s, a wealth of innovative technologies have been proposed and implemented for the effective localization and characterization of bioactive constituents in complex matrices. The latest developments in this field are reviewed under the perspective of their applicability to natural product-based drug discovery. The approaches discussed here include TLC-based bioautography, HPLC-based assays with on-line, at-line and off-line detection, as well as affinity-based methods, such as frontal affinity chromatography, pulsed ultrafiltration mass spectrometry, imprinted polymers, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Selected practical examples are given to illustrate the strengths and limitations of these approaches in contemporary natural product lead discovery. In addition, compatibility issues of natural product extracts and HTS are addressed, and selected protocols for the generation of high quality libraries are presented.

 

Olivier Potterat and Matthias Hamburger Nat. Prod. Rep., 2013, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C3NP20094A


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Wearables will soon analyze your body chemistry to make you healthier

Wearables will soon analyze your body chemistry to make you healthier | Chemistry | Scoop.it

A lot of the focus in wearable computing has been on delivering products that help everyday users monitor some of the more basic activity traits, such as steps taken and heart rate. While these are certainly useful metrics for health monitoring, they do not paint the full picture.


Computational biologists instead study the chemical changes that occur in people’s bodies with the help of optical sensors, non-invasive devices that use the red-to-near-infrared spectral region to assess the chemical changes that occur in the user’s blood vessels, among other places.


By leveraging this cutting-edge technology and wearable computing, we are equipped to understand the changes that occur in a person’s body at a whole new level. The implications of this change span from improved training of athletes to better management of chronic diseases and healthcare.

 Some interesting recent cases in research that show the potential for disruption include:


Researchers at the National Technical University of Athens have helped individuals self-manage diabetes by stimulating the function of an artificial pancreas with fully embedded wearable systems.A paper in the Journal of Biomechanics shows promising results for wearables in athletic training. Scientists mapped out the physiology of athletes’ ski-jumps in order to determine the biological constraints of each individual’s approach. By comparing data across 22 different skiiers, the scientists were able to determine that the wearable system was a very promising tool for training that captured information beyond the capacity of a traditional camera.Researchers at Texas A&M University are investigating the use of optical sensors to interact with dermally-implanted microparticle sensors. This technology could enable cost cutting and continuous blood chemistry monitoring.Optical sensors used to monitor both athletic performance and overall health by researchers at the Dublin Institute of Technology. The sophisticated sensors interpret user’s sweat particles in order to deduce what is going on at a biological level. One of the sensors measured pH levels of sweat particles in order to deduce dehydration while athletes were running. This is a huge stride for activity tracking because it represents real time monitoring of athletic performance and biological signals
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Sue Gould's curator insight, October 11, 2013 1:43 AM

Wearable computers are here.  

Dan Baxter's curator insight, October 12, 2013 11:20 AM

The next step for quantified and teleheath sensors

Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Drugs, Society, Human Rights & Justice
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VIDEO: "You can ban drugs, but you can't ban chemistry" by @mrmichaelpowe

From the Silk Road to Shanghai legal highs labs, drugs of all kinds have never been easier to get -- and it's all thanks to the web. Speaking at the HIT Hot ...

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Basic Rules of Chemistry Can Be Broken Under High Pressure, Calculations Show

Basic Rules of Chemistry Can Be Broken Under High Pressure, Calculations Show | Chemistry | Scoop.it
A study suggests atoms can bond not only with electrons in their outer shells, but also via those in their supposedly sacrosanct inner shells

 

Inside atoms, electrons are organized into energy levels, called shells, which can be thought of as buckets of increasing size that can each hold only a fixed number of electrons. Atoms prefer to have filled buckets, so if their outer shell is missing just one or two electrons, they are eager borrow form another atom that might have one or two to spare. But sometimes, a new study suggests, atoms can be incited to share not just their outer valence electrons, but those from their full inner shells. “It breaks our doctrine that the inner-shell electrons never react, never enter the chemistry domain,” says Mao-sheng Miao, a chemist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and the Beijing Computational Science Research Center in China. Miao predicted such bonds using so-called first-principles calculations, which rely purely on the known laws of physics, and reported his findings in a paper published September 23, 2013, in Nature Chemistry. Such bonding has yet to be demonstrated in a lab. Nevertheless, “I’m very confident that this is real,” he says.


His calculations show that two possible molecules could form between cesium and fluorine atoms under extremely high pressure—about 30 gigapascals (higher than the pressure at the bottom of the ocean, but less than at Earth’s center). Cesium, all the way on the left side of the periodic table, has one superfluous electron in its outer, or sixth shell. Fluorine, on the other hand, is toward the far right of the table, just next to the column of noble gases with completely full shells (which is why noble gases are notoriously unreactive—they have little incentive to gain or lose electrons) and is one electron short of a full outer shell. “Under normal pressure, cesium gives an electron completely to fluorine and they bind together,” Miao says. “But under high pressure, the electrons from cesium’s inner shells start to form molecules with fluorine.”

 

Miao identified two compounds that could form and remain stable up to very high pressures: cesium trifluoride (CsF3), where cesium has shared its one valence electron and two from an inner shell with three fluorine atoms, and cesium pentafluoride (CsF5), where cesium shares its valence electron and four inner-shell electrons to five fluorine atoms. “That forms a very beautiful molecule, like a starfish,” Miao says. Both the shape of the resulting molecules and the possibility of their formation are “very surprising,” says chemist Roald Hoffmann, a professor emeritus at Cornell University, who was not involved in the calculations. “This is the first clear case of an alkali metal not only losing its single easily ionized valence electron in bonding, but also ‘breaking into the core’ in its bonding with several fluorines.”



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Rescooped by Nicolás Rosales from Artículos CIENCIA-TECNOLOGIA
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The chemistry of cookies - Stephanie Warren

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-chemistry-of-cookies-stephanie-warren You stick cookie dough into an oven, and magically, you get a plate of ...

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