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Blood stem cells age at the unexpected flip of a molecular switch

Blood stem cells age at the unexpected flip of a molecular switch | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Scientists report in Nature they have found a novel and unexpected molecular switch that could become a key to slowing some of the ravages of getting older as it prompts blood stem cells to age.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Impaired haematopoiesis in the elderly is due to the ageing of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Elevated expression of Wnt5a in aged HSCs, was found in mice, which caused stem-cell ageing.

Wnt5a treatment of young HSCs induces ageing-associated stem-cell apolarity and reduction of regenerative capacity.

Conversely, Wnt5a haploinsufficiency attenuates HSC ageing, whereas stem-cell-intrinsic reduction of Wnt5a expression results in functionally rejuvenated aged HSCs. 

This finding holds a promise for elevation of regenerative capacity of "old" cells and may have broad implementations in the future in regenerative medicine.


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12631.html

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Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine
News on stem cell research and cell-based therapy for tissue regeneration.
Curated by Ella Buzhor
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Stem Cells Reveal How Illness-Linked Genetic Variation Affects Neurons

Stem Cells Reveal How Illness-Linked Genetic Variation Affects Neurons | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Researchers report a genetic variation linked to some mental illnesses reduces synaptic growth in developing brains.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

New study, utilizing iPSCs derived from four members of a family with major psychiatric disorders involving DISC1 mutation, showed that mutant DISC1 causes synaptic vesicle release deficits in iPSC-derived neurons and dysregulates expression of many genes related to synapses.  This study provides a new insight into the molecular and synaptic etiopathology of psychiatric disorders.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13716.html

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Researchers Develop Muscle Powered Biorobots

Researchers Develop Muscle Powered Biorobots | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Researchers from the University of Illinois have produced a new generation of muscle-powered biological robots, or “bio-bots,” that can be stimulated to walk using electrical impulses. These robots not only represent a significant advancement in the field of soft biorobotics, but they may also eventually have uses in a variety of applications including drug screening and delivery systems. The study has been published in PNAS.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Amazing combination of 3D printing with tissue engineering. 3D printed hydrogel “bio-bots” powered by mammalian skeletal muscle strip and triggered by electrical stimulation are capable for locomotion.

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/06/26/1401577111

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Can stem cells restore the ability to hear?

Can stem cells restore the ability to hear? | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
TheHealthSite
Can stem cells restore the ability to hear?
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Spiral ganglion-derived stem cells might be utilized for regenerative therapies of inner ear. These cells form spheres, which have similar characteristics to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Spiral ganglion spheres can be differentiated into spiral ganglion mature cells and they develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells.

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/biores.2014.0016

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Stem cell dynamics in homeostasis and cancer of the intestine

Stem cell dynamics in homeostasis and cancer of the intestine | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are involved in many dynamical processes and replace each other in neutral events. Rapidly cycling ISCs and transit-amplifying progenitors are contained within intestinal crypt bottoms. ISCs potential refers to regeneration after tissue injury. It is assumed that mutations in ISCs can originate colorectal cancer (CRC), since crucial ISC-associated signaling pathways are often affected in CRCs (such as WNT signaling).

 

Full article publiched in Nature Reviews Cancer: http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nrc3744.html

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Fetal-cell revival for Parkinson’s

Fetal-cell revival for Parkinson’s | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Moratorium on controversial therapy lifted as stem cells emerge as alternative source of treatment.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Transplantation of fetal cells into Parkinson's disease patients is a controversial therapy due to varying results, very hard for interpretation.  Some patients responded well and others didn’t benefit at all. New multicenter clinical trial involving transplantation of fetal dopaminergic-neurons will monitor disease progression in 150 patients. Researchers believe that this procedure will be most effective in relatively young patients at an early stage of the disease.

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A new model of liver regeneration: Switch causes mature liver cells to revert back to stem cell-like state

A new model of liver regeneration: Switch causes mature liver cells to revert back to stem cell-like state | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Scientists have new evidence in mice that it may be possible to repair a chronically diseased liver by forcing mature liver cells to revert back to a stem cell-like state. The researchers happened upon this discovery while investigating whether a biochemical cascade called Hippo, which controls how big the liver grows, also affects cell fate. The unexpected answer is that switching off the Hippo-signaling pathway in mature liver cells generates very high rates of dedifferentiation. This means the cells turn back the clock to become stem-cell like again, thus allowing them to give rise to functional progenitor cells that can regenerate a diseased liver.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Hippo pathway activity found to be essential for the maintenance of the differentiated hepatocytes. Acute inactivation of Hippo pathway signaling in vivo causes dedifferentiation of adult hepatocytes into progenitor state cells. This phenotypic plasticity of mature hepatocytes may have implications in liver regeneration.

 

http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(14)00587-X

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Artificial blood made from human stem cells could plug the donations hole

Artificial blood made from human stem cells could plug the donations hole | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Donating blood is a part of life for many people. But donation services around the world struggle to meet the demand for blood in hospitals and surgeries. Artificial blood may be the solution.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Pluripotent stem cell- derived blood cells can eliminate the problem of donated blood units' deficiency. The derivation protocol needs to be improved in order to get large scale production of the blood. 

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Genetic tests suggest STAP stem cells ‘never existed’

Genetic tests suggest STAP stem cells ‘never existed’ | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it

Does the phenomenon, known as stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency, or STAP, exist?

The answer, according to Japanese media reports today on the results of genetic tests on the cells used in the STAP experiments, is no.

Ella Buzhor's insight:

Genetic analysis of STAP stem cell lines revealed their mismatch to the strain of mouse from which they supposedly have been derived, implying that STAP phenomenon was not real. Both controversial papers published in Nature and describing STAP technique have been retracted. 

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Laser light triggers stem cells to regrow teeth

Laser light triggers stem cells to regrow teeth | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
When you damage a tooth, your dentist usually uses a filling or a crown to patch it up. But eventually, researchers say that your dentist might just point a laser at it, encouraging the tooth to...
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Low-power laser is able to trigger dental stem cells to regrow teeth in rats. This technique can be implemented to activate an endogenous latent growth factor, TGF-β1, that subsequently promotes differentiation of resident stem cells for tissue regeneration.  

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/6/238/238ra69

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Stem cell and 'organ-on-a-chip' merger step forward for personalized meds

Stem cell and 'organ-on-a-chip' merger step forward for personalized meds | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
TheHealthSite Stem cell and 'organ-on-a-chip' merger step forward for personalized meds TheHealthSite stem-cell-page-upload Researchers have merged stem cell and 'organ-on-a-chip' technologies to grow, for the first time, functioning human heart...
Ella Buzhor's insight:

A mitochondrial disorder, Barth syndrome (BTHS) iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes provide insights into the pathogenesis of Barth syndrome and suggests new treatment strategies and advances iPSC-based in vitro modeling of cardiomyopathy.

http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.3545.html

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Scientists turn skin cells of infertile men into sperm precursors

Scientists turn skin cells of infertile men into sperm precursors | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
The Independent
Scientists turn skin cells of infertile men into sperm precursors
The Standard Digital News
In a study published in the U.S.
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Combined hydrogels that switch human pluripotent stem cells from self-renewal to differentiation

Combined hydrogels that switch human pluripotent stem cells from self-renewal to differentiation | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
DigitalJournal.com
Stem cell breakthrough
DigitalJournal.com
A research team think that they have an answer. This will be important for use in cell therapy.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Hydrogel system tailored to promote human pluripotent stem cell self-renewal with a chemical microenvironmental switch to direct differentiation. The timing of switching can promote specific lineage differentiation similar to in vivo. A great potential for implication in regenerative medicine.

 

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/03/26/1319685111

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Stem cell-derived pancreatic cells treat diabetes in mice

Stem cell-derived pancreatic cells treat diabetes in mice | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) and UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers have shown that by encapsulating immature pancreatic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and implanting them under the skin in animal models of diabetes, sufficient insulin is produced to maintain glucose levels without unwanted potential trade-offs of the technology.
P

Ella Buzhor's insight:

The TheraCyte™ is a thin membrane bound polymeric chamber, designed to encapsulate and protect allogeneic cells from rejection by the recipient and, when implanted subcutaneously, induce the development of blood capillaries close to the membranes. ESC-derived islet progenitors encapsulated is this envelope and transplanted into mice demonstrated insulin secretion levels  sufficient to ameliorate alloxan-induced diabetes.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1873506114000300?via=ihub

 
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Joshua Hunsberger's curator insight, April 3, 12:32 PM

Encapsulating immature pancreatic cells may prove useful for treating diabetes.

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Master Switch for Myelination in Human Brain Stem Cells is Identified

Master Switch for Myelination in Human Brain Stem Cells is Identified | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Finding is key to developing MS treatments using stem cells. Scientists at the University at Buffalo have identified the single transcription factor or “master switch” that initiates the critical myelination process in the brain.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

SOX10 is required for neural stem/progenitor cells commitment toward oligodendrocytes.

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/06/25/1408295111

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CCL2 Chemokine Enhances Stem Cell Pluripotency

CCL2 Chemokine Enhances Stem Cell Pluripotency | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
CCL2 Chemokine Enhances Stem Cell Pluripotency Genetic Engineering News Researchers from the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (CLST) in Japan say they have gained new insight into the role of CCL2, a chemokine known to be involved in the...
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Chemokine CCL2 enhances the expression of pluripotent marker genes through the STAT3 phosphorylation. Usually iPSCs are cultured in presence of bFGF to maintain the pluripotent state; however this is not enough to maintain them in naïve ESCs state. iPSCs cultured with CCL2 have higher differentiation efficiency and can be maintained in feeder-free conditions in the absence of LIF.

 

http://www.nature.com.rproxy.tau.ac.il/srep/2014/140624/srep05228/full/srep05228.html

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Facilitating neural stem/progenitor cell niche calibration for neural lineage differentiation by polyelectrolyte multilayer films

Facilitating neural stem/progenitor cell niche calibration for neural lineage differentiation by polyelectrolyte multilayer films | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Niche-modulated system comprised of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films was developed for investigation of surface effects on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC) differentiation. NSPCs were inducible on PEM films up to 8 alternating layers. Quantity and quality of the differentiated neurons were enhanced as the number of layers increased. This culturing stem enables high percentage functional neurons derivation without needed of any growth factors.

 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927776514002689

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Mini-Retina Created with Stem Cells

Mini-Retina Created with Stem Cells | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Using stem cells, scientists have grown human retinal tissue in lab dishes, which they say could one day lead to a better understanding of vision disorders, or even treatments for people with such conditions.
Ella Buzhor's insight:

hiPSC can recapitulate retinal development in vivo and form 3-D retinal cups that contain all major retinal cell types. hiPSC-derived photoreceptors achieved maturation and photosensitivity. These cells can be utilized for disease modelling and regenerative medicine of retinal diseases.

Article:

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140610/ncomms5047/full/ncomms5047.html

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Evidence for CD34 as a Common Marker for Diverse Progenitors

Evidence for CD34 as a Common Marker for Diverse Progenitors | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Ella Buzhor's insight:

CD34 is associated with the selection of HSCs. This concise review, published in Stem Cells journal, demonstrates a common misconception regarding CD34+cells in non-hematopoietic samples to represent hematopoietic contamination. This review summarizes CD34 expression in numerous non-hematologic cell types, such as: MSCs, muscle satellite cells, corneal keratocytes, interstitial cells, epithelial progenitors, and vascular endothelial progenitors. In these cell types, the CD34+ cells represent a small sub-population with enhanced progenitor activity. 

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Stepwise Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Osteoblasts Using Four Small Molecules under Serum-free and Feeder-free Conditions

Stepwise Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Osteoblasts Using Four Small Molecules under Serum-free and Feeder-free Conditions | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Effective and mass-producing protocol for the stepwise differentiation of PSC-derived osteoblasts using four small molecules (CHIR, cyclopamine, SAG and TH) under serum-free and feeder-free conditions. The protocol involves mesoderm induction, osteoblast induction, and osteoblast maturation phases. This strategy can be implemented for bone-augmentation drug screening and skeletal regeneration.

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Columbia University team grows human cartilage from stem cells

Columbia University team grows human cartilage from stem cells | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Perched on the end of the scientist’s green glove, the tiny oblong-shaped object looks like a small jewel. It is in fact artificially-grown human cartilage, developed from human stem cells in…
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Human stem cell- derived cartilage possess therapeutic potential for joint disorders.

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GeneAnalytics - Assessing stem cell differentiation protocols and evaluating derived cell fate

In this demonstration we will show how GeneAnalytics can be used to assess stem cell differentiation protocols and evaluate the fate of derived cells
Ella Buzhor's insight:

GeneAnalytics is a powerful and easy-to use gene set analysis tool, which aims to interpret your gene sets and bring them into context, enhancing your research and biological discovery. Powered by LifeMap Discovery, it leverages our extensive, manually curated, gene expression data for tissues and cells.

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Stem cells help mice with multiple sclerosis to walk

Stem cells help mice with multiple sclerosis to walk | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
In the fall of 2010, a team of scientists in California injected human stem cells into the spinal cords of mice with a condition similar to multiple sclerosis, expecting the mice to reject the cells like they might an organ transplant. That was the point of the research — to better understand the common problem of stem cell rejection, explained Tom Lane, a University of California, Irvine pathologist now working ...
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Spinal cord transplantation of  human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hNPCs) results in recovery in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS).

http://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/abstract/S2213-6711(14)00112-X

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Human stem cells used to repair damaged monkey hearts

Human stem cells used to repair damaged monkey hearts | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Researchers have successfully repaired damaged tissue in monkey hearts using cells created from human embryonic stem cells. The findings demonstrate an abil...
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Human ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) can remuscularize substantial amounts of the infarcted monkey heart, still arrhythmic complications need to be overcome.


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13233.html

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First-in-Man Study Demonstrates Safety, Feasibility of Adipose-Derived Cell Therapy for Heart Failure

First-in-Man Study Demonstrates Safety, Feasibility of Adipose-Derived Cell Therapy for Heart Failure | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
Pilot study evaluates giving chronic heart disease patients regenerative cells harvested from their own abdominal fatProcedure generally safe, well-tolerated with signals of functional benefitAdipose-derived cells less variable, more potent than bone-marrow cells, researcher contends
Ella Buzhor's insight:
The PRECISE trial results indicate that trans-endocardial injection of autologous ADRCs is safe and feasible for chronic heart disease patients. ADRCs may preserve ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, and exercise capacity in these patients.

http://www.ahjonline.com/article/S0002-8703(14)00168-9/abstract

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Scientists smash barrier to growing organs from stem cells

Scientists smash barrier to growing organs from stem cells | Cell Therapy & Regenerative Medicine | Scoop.it
(Phys.org) —Scientists at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have overcome one of the greatest challenges in biology and taken a major step toward being able to grow whole organs and tissues from stem cells. By manipulating the appropriate signaling, the U.Va. researchers have turned embryonic ...
Ella Buzhor's insight:

Signaling that involves opposing gradients of BMP and Nodal can induce molecular and cellular organization of uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula into a well-developed embryo, in vivo or in vitro. Those findings may have implication in formation of tissues and/or organs by controlling signal locations and concentrations, holding a great promise for regenerative medicine.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6179/87

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