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‘Pop-up’ fabrication technique trumps 3D printing

‘Pop-up’ fabrication technique trumps 3D printing | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it

3D silicon microstructures formed using concepts similar to those in children's pop-up books, shown here based on a colorized scanning electron micrograph.


Researchers at Northwestern University and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a simple new fabrication technique to create beautiful, complex 3D micro- and nanostructures with advantages over 3D printing for a variety of uses. The technique mimics the action of a children’s pop-up book — starting as a flat two-dimensional structure and popping up into a more complex 3D structure. Using a variety of advanced materials, including silicon, the researchers produced more than 40 different geometric designs, including shapes resembling a peacock, flower, starburst, table, basket, tent, and starfish.


“In just one shot you get your structure,” said Northwestern’s Yonggang Huang, one of three co-corresponding authors on the study. “We first fabricate a two-dimensional structure on a stretched elastic material. Then we release the tension, and up pops a 3-D structure. The 2-D structure must have some place to go, so it pops up.”


The pop-up assembly technique is expected to be useful in building biomedical devices, sensors and electronics. It is the current cover story in the Jan. 9 issue of the journal Science.


References:S. Xu, Z. Yan, K. Jang, W. Huang et al. Assembly of micro/nanomaterials into complex, three-dimensional architectures by compressive buckling. Science 9 January 2015: Vol. 347 no. 6218 pp. 154-159 DOI: 10.1126/science.1260960



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‘Text neck’ is becoming an ‘epidemic’ and could wreck your spine

‘Text neck’ is becoming an ‘epidemic’ and could wreck your spine | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it

The human head weighs about a dozen pounds. But as the neck bends forward and down, the weight on the cervical spine begins to increase. At a 15-degree angle, this weight is about 27 pounds, at 30 degrees it’s 40 pounds, at 45 degrees it’s 49 pounds, and at 60 degrees it’s 60 pounds.


That’s the burden that comes with staring at a smartphone — the way millions do for hours every day, according to research published by Kenneth Hansraj in the National Library of Medicine. The study will appear next month in Surgical Technology International. Over time, researchers say, this poor posture, sometimes called “text neck,” can lead to early wear-and-tear on the spine, degeneration and even surgery.


“It is an epidemic or, at least, it’s very common,” Hansraj, chief of spine surgery at New York Spine Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, told The Washington Post. “Just look around you, everyone has their heads down.”


Can’t grasp the significance of 60 pounds? Imagine carrying an 8-year-old around your neck several hours per day. Smartphone users spend an average of two to four hours per day hunched over, reading e-mails, sending texts or checking social media sites. That’s 700 to 1,400 hours per year people are putting stress on their spines, according to the research. And high-schoolers might be the worst. They could conceivably spend an additional 5,000 hours in this position, Hansraj said.


“The problem is really profound in young people,” he said. “With this excessive stress in the neck, we might start seeing young people needing spine care. I would really like to see parents showing more guidance.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Miloš Bajčetić's curator insight, January 13, 1:38 AM

Hansraj gave smartphone users tips to avoid pain:

 

- Look down at your device with your eyes. No need to bend your neck.

 

- Exercise: Move your head from left to right several times. Use your hands to provide resistance and push your head against them, first forward and then backward. Stand in a doorway with your arms extended and push your chest forward to strengthen “the muscles of good posture,” Hansraj said.

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Genome-wide detection of DNA double-stranded breaks induced by engineered nucleases - Nature Biotech.

Genome-wide detection of DNA double-stranded breaks induced by engineered nucleases - Nature Biotech. | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it

Frock et al, 2014

Although great progress has been made in the characterization of the off-target effects of engineered nucleases, sensitive and unbiased genome-wide methods for the detection of off-target cleavage events and potential collateral damage are still lacking. Here we describe a linear amplification–mediated modification of a previously published high-throughput, genome-wide, translocation sequencing (HTGTS) method that robustly detects DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) generated by engineered nucleases across the human genome based on their translocation to other endogenous or ectopic DSBs. HTGTS with different Cas9:sgRNA or TALEN nucleases revealed off-target hotspot numbers for given nucleases that ranged from a few or none to dozens or more, and extended the number of known off-targets for certain previously characterized nucleases more than tenfold. We also identified translocations between bona fide nuclease targets on homologous chromosomes, an undesired collateral effect that has not been described previously. Finally, HTGTS confirmed that the Cas9D10A paired nickase approach suppresses off-target cleavage genome-wide.


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Fesquet didier's curator insight, December 19, 2014 5:53 AM

off target ou pas off targets...the debate is still on going...hope the wt has reported does not induce that much OT...can't believe

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Losartan No Better Than Atenolol in Marfan's Syndrome

Losartan No Better Than Atenolol in Marfan's Syndrome | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Beta-blockers have been the standard treatment for people with Marfan's syndrome, a rare inherited connective tissue disorder that affects about 1 in 5000 people.
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Beta-blockers failed to reduce mortality in patients with stable angina | Cardiology

Beta-blockers failed to reduce mortality in patients with stable angina | Cardiology | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Cardiology | CHICAGO — Beta-blocker use at discharge in patients with stable angina without prior history of MI or systolic HF undergoing elective PCI did not affect mortality at 30 days or 3 years, according to findings presented at the American ...
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Beta-blockers failed to reduce mortality in patients with stable angina - Healio

Beta-blockers failed to reduce mortality in patients with stable angina - Healio | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Cardiology | CHICAGO — Beta-blocker use at discharge in patients with stable angina without prior history of MI or systolic HF undergoing elective PCI did not affect mortality at 30 days or 3 years, according to findings presented at the American ...
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Content is king: easy & simple ways to curate relevant content

How to scale your Content Marketing strategy with Content Curation.


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Effects of acute angiotensin II on ischemia reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction

Effects of acute angiotensin II on ischemia reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Emergency Medicine Article: Effects of acute angiotensin II on ischemia reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction
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Most Stable Heart Patients Do Not Need Beta-Blockers - HCPLive

Most Stable Heart Patients Do Not Need Beta-Blockers - HCPLive | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Taking beta blockers—a common drug regimen for patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease (SCHD)—likely does not have a benefit or outweigh these drugs’ risk for most patients, a University of Florida team report.
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Beta blockers could benefit patients with HFPEF - Medical Xpress

Beta blockers could benefit patients with HFPEF - Medical Xpress | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
A novel registry study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden suggests that beta blockers may benefit also patients suffering from a relatively unknown form of heart failure called HFPEF, which today lacks well-established treatment.
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Discover myocardial ischemia therapeutic pipeline market review, H2 2014 - WhaTech

Discover myocardial ischemia therapeutic pipeline market review, H2 2014 - WhaTech | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Myocardial Ischemia, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration...
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Emergency Medicine Literature of Note: The Return of Metoprolol – for Anterior STEMI

Emergency Medicine Literature of Note: The Return of Metoprolol – for Anterior STEMI | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Slovis:Beta-blockers in MI.There are probably some times to use them.Carefully.Maybe we'll figure out in whom.#ACEP14 http://t.co/uVvLf48cUp
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Aspirin Advocate vs Skeptic: Any Common Ground? - Medscape

Aspirin Advocate vs Skeptic: Any Common Ground?
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Lin28A Accelerates Wound Healing, Hair Regrowth, and Turns Back The Aging Clock A Little

Lin28A Accelerates Wound Healing, Hair Regrowth, and Turns Back The Aging Clock A Little | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it

For centuries, biologists have wondered why an organism’s capacity for tissue repair and wound healing tends to decline as it gets older. The new study, which is published in the journal Cell, submits that this strange phenomenon may be the result of Lin28a – a gene whose protein product plays a crucial role in the early growth and development of a wide variety of animals. According to senior author George Daley, our gradual loss of regenerative powers may be symptomatic of a decline in Lin28a protein levels.


"It sounds like science fiction, but Lin28a could be part of a healing cocktail that gives adults the superior tissue repair seen in juvenile animals," he said in a press release.


To investigate the “fountain-of-youth” gene, the researchers reactivated it in adult mice. They found that the Lin28a protein accelerated the regeneration of cartilage, bone, and mesenchyme in a variety of injury models. Intriguingly, the gene also promoted faster regrowth of hair by stimulating anagen in the test subject’s hair follicles. Daley and his colleagues believe that Lin28a achieves these rejuvenating effects by stimulating metabolic processes otherwise associated with an organism’s embryo stage.


Study author Shyh-Chang Ng believes that the “fountain-of-youth” gene could be integrated into a number of different therapies. "We were surprised that what was previously believed to be a mundane cellular 'housekeeping' function would be so important for tissue repair," he told reporters. "One of our experiments showed that bypassing Lin28a and directly activating mitochondrial metabolism with a small-molecule compound also had the effect of enhancing wound healing, suggesting that it could be possible to use drugs to promote tissue repair in humans."


The current study is the latest in a growing series of inquiries into regeneration – a fascinating biological phenomenon that is observed across the entire evolutionary spectrum of organisms. Earlier this year, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics showed that a single knocked-out gene allows planarian flatworms to regenerate their head and brain. A more recent study describes a so-called bio patch thatpromotes and sustains local bone growth in weakened and damaged areas. Like the current study, these research efforts remind us that when it comes to biotechnology and medicine, the line between science fiction and reality is not always clear.  


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The next level of gene regulation: Convergent evolution of complex regulatory landscapes

The next level of gene regulation: Convergent evolution of complex regulatory landscapes | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Scientists at EPFL and University of Geneva have discovered how the same genes under the same regulation can still produce different organs in the developing fetus. The discovery brings a new understanding of how genes have evolved and how they are controlled by extremely precise mechanisms.

Some genes are involved in the development of the fetus. However, studies have shown that the same genes control different body parts, e.g. digits and genitals. Furthermore, these genes are also regulated in the same way, which makes it even harder to know how the same genes give rise to two distinct types of organs. In a breakthrough study published in Science, EPFL and University of Geneva scientists have shown that a family of developmental genes called the “Hox genes” are regulated by a nearby, long DNA sequence. This sequence loops around and covers the Hox genes, allowing only certain genes to be active at a time.

One of the greatest revelations that came from mapping the human genome in 2001 was that, despite our body’s complexity, we actually don’t have many more genes than simpler animals like worms. The reason is that, in mammals, genes are used and re-used many times for different purposes. This phenomenon is particularly true for genes that regulate the development of a fetus, such as the family of Hox genes. These are a group of 39 related genes that produce the complete blueprint, or body plan, of an animal by regulating the placement of segment structures in early embryonic development; in other words, Hox genes dictate where body parts will go.

The Hox genes sit clustered together in the cell’s DNA, surrounded by long sequences of DNA that contain no genes whatsoever. However, these seemingly empty spaces of DNA actually contain small, discrete sequences that have been shown to bind and interact with the Hox gene cluster and regulate the Hox genes. The question is, since Hox genes are responsible for different tissues and organs, are they controlled in the same way?

An EPFL team of researchers led by Denis Duboule has now shown that these long DNA sequences actually enable Hox genes to be expressed in multiple tissues in the fetus. This allows the Hox genes to produce diverse organs of the developing body. The researchers call the long DNA sequences a “regulatory archipelago”, while the small, discrete sequences are “islands”. The idea is that the archipelago folds over the cluster of Hox genes and binds to them with its “islands”. Then it subtly shifts around to activate the Hox genes needed for that particular tissue or organ.

To go into more detail, when the archipelago covers the Hox genes, it forms a DNA complex. This is in turn controlled by chemical signals coming from surrounding cells. These signals act on the 3D structure of the DNA complex, causing changes in its structure. Though subtle, the changes nonetheless determine which combinations of Hox genes are going to be expressed at any given time. In this way, the same Hox genes can be used to regulate different structures in the body.

In this study, lead author Nicolas Lonfat focused on one member of the Hox gene family, Hoxd13, which controls the development of digits (fingers) and genitals in mice. He discovered two DNA “island” sequences, one interacting only with Hoxd13 in digits, while the other in exclusively in genitals. This way, he was able to connect each “island” with the part of the body it controlled.

The study has significant implications of how we understand the evolution of gene regulation. “Since animals with four limbs are late in terms of evolution, it would seem as if nature ‘hijacked’ some of these genes to make genitals and digits,” says Denis Duboule. In addition, the findings help explain how congenital diseases and deformities arise, such as hand-foot-genital syndrome, which results when a Hox gene is incorrectly regulated. As Duboule explains: “The ‘regulatory archipelago’ is a very precise mechanism that allows tremendous efficiency for the cell. The downside, however, is that is it is fragile and susceptible to errors.”

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Did Microbes Shape the Human Life Span?

Did Microbes Shape the Human Life Span? | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
The human microbiome may have evolved to selectively target older humans, thereby enabling an extended childhood in our earliest human ancestors.

 

The age structure of human populations is exceptional among animal species. Unlike with most species, human juvenility is extremely extended, and death is not coincident with the end of the reproductive period. If we examine the age structure of early humans with models that reveal an extraordinary balance of human fertility and mortality. A research team now hypothesizes that the age structure of early humans was maintained by mechanisms incorporating the programmed death of senescent individuals, including by means of interactions with their indigenous microorganisms.

 

First, before and during reproductive life, there was selection for microbes that preserve host function through regulation of energy homeostasis, promotion of fecundity, and defense against competing high-grade pathogens. Second, the scientists hypothesized that after reproductive life, there was selection for organisms that contribute to host demise. While deleterious to the individual, the presence of such interplay may be salutary for the overall host population in terms of resource utilization, resistance to periodic diminutions in the food supply, and epidemics due to high-grade pathogens. In their work, the team provides deterministic mathematical models based on age-structured populations that illustrate the dynamics of such relationships and explores the relevant parameter values within which population viability is maintained. They argue that the age structure of early humans was robust in its balance of the juvenile, reproductive-age, and senescent classes.

 

These concepts are relevant to issues in modern human longevity, including inflammation-induced neoplasia and degenerative diseases of the elderly, which are a legacy of human evolution.


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Dr. Mercola Interviews Dr. Saul About Beta-Blockers

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/01/29/beta-blockers-death.aspx Natural health expert and Mercola.com founder Dr. Joseph Mercola inter...
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Beta Blockers for Anxiety and Social Phobia | Elite Envy - Success Magazine

Beta Blockers for Anxiety and Social Phobia | Elite Envy - Success Magazine | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
RT @CEOlNG: Dread meetings and presentations? Try beta blockers:
http://t.co/VRJrrpJ6lJ http://t.co/l7546Ehv4P
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10 Ideas That Are About To Revolutionize Medicine

10 Ideas That Are About To Revolutionize Medicine | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
These are so much more important than doctors wearing Google Glass.

Via ReactNow, Laurentiu Bogdan, dbtmobile
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Matt Coleman's curator insight, December 19, 2014 3:24 AM

Let's hope some of these amazing new options make it to market in 2015

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Phosphatase Wip1 as a new therapeutic target for intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, Informa Healthcare

Phosphatase Wip1 as a new therapeutic target for intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, Informa Healthcare | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Phosphatase Wip1 as a new therapeutic target for intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury: Expert Review of Clin... http://t.co/mTip94thIE
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miR-361-regulated prohibitin inhibits mitochondrial fission and apoptosis and ... - Nature.com

miR-361-regulated prohibitin inhibits mitochondrial fission and apoptosis and ...
Nature.com
MiR-361 cardiac-specific transgenic mice represent elevated mitochondrial fission and myocardial infarction sizes upon myocardial ischemia injury.
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Natural Beta Blockers: 8 Possible Alternatives to Pharmaceuticals - Newsmax.com

Natural Beta Blockers: 8 Possible Alternatives to Pharmaceuticals - Newsmax.com | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Some people who want to avoid prescribed pharmaceuticals for high blood pressure, anxiety, and other conditions are increasingly looking for alternative or natural sources of beta blockers.
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Post-traumatic stress disorder: revisiting adrenergics, glucocorticoids ... - Nature.com

Post-traumatic stress disorder: revisiting adrenergics, glucocorticoids ... - Nature.com | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Clinical & Translational Immunology focuses on the general functioning of the immune system in its broadest sense, with a particular emphasis on its cell biology.
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Bioheart Announces First Intracoronary Implantation of Adipose Stem Cells in ... - Stockhouse

Bioheart Announces First Intracoronary Implantation of Adipose Stem Cells in ... - Stockhouse | Cardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY | Scoop.it
Bioheart Announces First Intracoronary Implantation of Adipose Stem Cells in ...
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Bioheart, Inc.
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John David Howe - In 1962, Sir James W. Black found the... | Facebook

In 1962, Sir James W. Black found the first clinically significant beta blockers—propranolol and pronethalol; it revolutionized the medical management of...
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