Cardiovascular and vascular imaging
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SIGNIFICANCE OF ISCHEMIA-MODIFIED ALBUMIN AS A SIMPLE MEASUR... : RETINA

SIGNIFICANCE OF ISCHEMIA-MODIFIED ALBUMIN AS A SIMPLE MEASUR... : RETINA | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Purpose: Oxidative stress (OXS) plays critical role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DRP)
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Electronic devices that melt in your brain

Electronic devices that melt in your brain | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it

Two implantable devices developed by American and Chinese researchers are designed to dissolve in the brain over time and may eliminate several current problems with implants.

 

University of Pennsylvania researchers have developed an electrode and an electrode array, both made of layers of silicon and molybdenum that can measure physiological characteristics (like neuron signals) and dissolve at a known rate (determined by the material’s thickness). The team used the device in anesthetized rats to record brain waves (EEGs) and induced epileptic spikes in intact live tissue.

 

In another experiment, they showed the dissolvable electronics could be used in a complex, multiplexed ECoG (intracranial electroencephalography) array over a 30-day period.

 

As the researchers note online in Nature Materials, this new technology offers equal or greater resolution for measuring the brain’s electrical activity, compared to conventional electrodes, while eliminating “the risks, cost, and discomfort associated with surgery to extract current devices used for post-operative monitoring,” according to senior co-author Brian Litt, MD, a professor of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Bioengineering at the Perelman School of Medicine.

 

Other potential uses of the dissolvable electronics include:

Disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, depression, chronic pain, and conditions of the peripheral nervous system. “These measurements are critically important for mapping and monitoring brain function during and in preparation for neurosurgery, for assisting in device placement, such as for Parkinson’s disease, and for guiding surgical procedures on complex, interconnected nerve structures,” Litt said.Post-operative monitoring and recording of physiological characteristic after minimally invasive placement of vascular, cardiac, orthopaedic, neural or other devices. At present, post-operative monitoring is based on clinical examination or interventional radiology, which is invasive, expensive, and impractical for continuous monitoring over days to months.Heart and brain surgery for applications such as aneurysm coiling, stent placement, embolization, and endoscopic operations. These new devices could also monitor structures that are exposed during surgery, but are too delicate to disturb later by removing devices.More complex devices that also include flow, pressure, and other measurement capabilities.

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Ra's curator insight, May 15, 2:31 AM
Just to repeat...MELT in your BRAIN
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The next AI is no AI

The next AI is no AI | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Artificial Intelligence is starting to turn invisible from the outside in -- and vice versa. The exact effects and workings of AI technologies are becoming..

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Head Turn Syncope: Rotational Vertebrobasilar Ischemia by David Newell, MD

Head Turn Syncope: Rotational Vertebrobasilar Ischemia was presented by David Newell, MD at the semi-monthly Spine Conference held at the Seattle Scienc
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Exosomes - History and Promise

Exosomes - History and Promise | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
It was discovered some time ago that eukaryotic cells regularly secrete such structures as microvesicles, macromolecular complexes, and small molecules into their ambient environment. Exosomes are one of the types of natural nanoparticles (or nanovesicles) that have shown promise in many areas of research, diagnostics and therapy. They are small lipid membrane vesicles (30-120 nm) generated by fusion of cytoplasmic endosomal multivesicular bodies within the cell surface. Exosomes are found throughout the body in such fluids as blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Furthermore, all types of cells secrete them in in vitro culture. It is believed that they have many natural functions, including acting as transporters of nucleic acids (mostly RNA), cytosolic proteins and metabolites to many cells, tissues or organs throughout the body. Much remains to be understood regarding how they are formed, as well as of their targeting and ultimate physiological activity. But many don’t realize that some activities have been rather thoroughly demonstrated─ such as their function in some sort of either local or more systemic intercellular communication.
Exosomes as ToolsGeneral interest in exosomes is now growing for many reasons. One is because of the observation of their natural activity with antigen-presenting cells and in immune responses in the body. Their potential as very powerful biomedical tools of both diagnostic and therapeutic value is now being more widely reported. Applications described include using them as immunotherapeutic reagents, vectors of engineered genetic constructs, and vaccine particles. They’ve also been described as tools in the diagnosis or prognosis of a wide variety of disorders, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Also, their potential in tissue-level microcommunication is driving interest in such therapeutic activities as cardiac repair following heart attacks. Their potential as biomarkers is being explored because their content has been described as a “fingerprint” of differentiation or signaling or regulation status of the cell generating them. For example, by monitoring the exosomes secreted by transplanted cells, one may be able to predict the status or potentially even the outcome of cell therapy procedures. Clinical trials are in progress for exosomes in many therapeutic functions, for many indications. One example is using dendritic cell-derived exosomes to initiate immune response to cancers.Exosome Manufacturing
Exosome product manufacturing involves many distinct areas of study. First of all, we are interested in their efficient and robust generation at a sufficient scale. Also, because they are found in such raw materials as animal serum, avoiding process-related contaminants is a concern. Finally, a variety of means of separating them from other types of extracellular vesicles and cell debris is under study. As exosomes are being examined in so many applications, their production involves many distinct platforms and concerns. First of all, an appropriate and effective culture mode is required for any cell line that is specifically required by the application. Also, one must consider the quality systems and regulatory status of the materials and manufacturing environment for the particular product addressed. Finally, a robust process must be described for the scale and duration of production demanded. As things exist now, their production can be described as 1) the at-scale expansion and culture of the parent cell-line, 2) the collection or harvest of the culture media containing the secreted exosomes, and 3) the isolation or purification of the desired exosomes from not only other macrovesicles, macromolecular complexes, and small molecules, but from such other process contaminants as cellular debris and culture media components.

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ACC: Still No Benefit to CABG, Mitral Valve Fix Combo

ACC: Still No Benefit to CABG, Mitral Valve Fix Combo | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
(MedPage Today) -- Endpoints at 2 years no better for combination procedure than at 1 year
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New Research Shows Abbott's High Sensitive Troponin Test First to Measure Impact of Mental Stress on the Heart - Apr 4, 2016

New Research Shows Abbott's High Sensitive Troponin Test First to Measure Impact of Mental Stress on the Heart - Apr 4, 2016 | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
RT @AbbottNews: Learn more about patients with stress-induced ischemia having higher levels of troponin #ACC16 https://t.co/lC3gRFuLNk.
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Europe Plans Giant Billion-Euro Quantum Technologies Project

Europe Plans Giant Billion-Euro Quantum Technologies Project | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Third European Union flagship will be similar in size and ambition to graphene and human brain initiatives

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Geoffrey Hinton, the 'godfather' of deep learning, on AlphaGo

Geoffrey Hinton, the 'godfather' of deep learning, on AlphaGo | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
The scientist who helped develop the neural networks behind Google's AlphaGo, which beat grandmaster Lee Sedol, on the past, present and future of AI

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How Google Plans to Solve Artificial Intelligence

How Google Plans to Solve Artificial Intelligence | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Mastering Go is just the beginning for Google DeepMind, which hopes to create human-like AI.

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Leukemia study reveals role of RNA binding protein in driving cancer

Leukemia study reveals role of RNA binding protein in driving cancer | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it

A study of gene expression in leukemia cells has identified an RNA binding protein that plays an important role in driving the development of cancer. The protein is normally active in fetal tissue and switched off in adults, but it is reactivated in some cancer cells. This expression pattern makes it an attractive target for cancer-fighting drugs, because blocking its activity is unlikely to cause serious side effects.

 

The new study, published March 14 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, focused on a particularly aggressive form of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the most prevalent type of leukemia in children and young adults. A team led by scientists at UC Santa Cruz and UCLA found an overabundance of the RNA binding protein known as IGF2BP3 in the cancer cells of this subset of B-ALL patients.

 

"This protein, IFG2BP3, has been correlated with many types of malignancies and with the worst prognoses," said coauthor Jeremy Sanford, associate professor of molecular, cell, and developmental biology at UC Santa Cruz. "What is exciting about this study is that it goes beyond correlation and shows causation, because we demonstrated for the first time that aberrant expression of this protein is sufficient to induce pathology."

 

The researchers identified genes that are directly regulated by this RNA binding protein, and many of them turn out to be oncogenes that have already been implicated in cancer. In particular, the protein enhances the expression of a well-characterized oncogene called MYC, which in turn regulates a large number of genes involved in cell proliferation.

 

Compared to other proteins involved in regulating gene activity, RNA binding proteins have not been well studied. When a gene is turned on or "expressed," an RNA copy is made of the gene's DNA sequence, and the genetic code carried by this "messenger RNA" is then translated into a protein that carries out some cellular function. Many factors are involved in controlling which genes get transcribed into messenger RNA and when, but RNA binding proteins interact with the messenger RNA itself to regulate gene expression after transcription has occurred. Scientists are only beginning to unravel the complexity of this post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

 

In the case of IGF2BP3 and B-cell leukemia, the overall effect of the RNA binding protein is to promote the proliferation of B cells by shifting the expression of a large number of genes, Sanford said.

 


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Gold chip ion-trap captures Science Photography Competition's top prize - EPSRC website

Gold chip ion-trap captures Science Photography Competition's top prize - EPSRC website | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
An image of a gold chip that traps ions for use in quantum computing has come first in EPSRC's third science photography competition.

 

 

‘Microwave ion-trap chip for quantum computation’, by Diana Prado Lopes Aude Craik and Norbert Linke, from the University of Oxford, shows the chip’s gold wire-bonds connected to electrodes which transmit electric fields to trap single atomic ions a mere 100 microns above the device’s surface. The image, taken through a microscope in one of the university's cleanrooms, came first in the Eureka category as well as winning overall against many other stunning pictures, featuring research in action, in the EPSRC competition – now in its third year.

 

Doctoral student Diana Prado Lopes Aude Craik, explained how the chip works: “When electric potentials are applied to the chip’s gold electrodes, single atomic ions can be trapped. These ions are used as quantum bits (‘qubits’), units which store and process information in a quantum computer. Two energy states of the ions act as the ‘0’ and ‘1’ states of these qubits.

 

Slotted electrodes on the chip deliver microwave radiation to the ions, allowing us to manipulate the stored quantum information by exciting transitions between the ‘0’ and ‘1’ energy states. “This device was micro-fabricated using photolithography, a technique similar to photographic film development. Gold wire-bonds connect the electrodes to pads around the device through which signals can be applied. You can see the wire-bonding needle in the top-left corner of the image. The Oxford team recently achieved the world’s highest-performing qubits and quantum logic operations.”

 

The development of the ion-trap chip was funded jointly by the EPSRC and the US Army Research Office.

The competition’s five categories were: Eureka, Equipment, People, Innovation, and Weird and Wonderful. Winning images feature:

A spectacular 9.5 meter wave created to wow crowds at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility at the University of EdinburghAn iCub humanoid robot learning about how to play from a baby as part of robotics research taking place at Aberystwyth UniversityThe intense, blinding light of plasma formed by an ultrafast laser being used to process glass at the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Ultra Precision at the University of CambridgeA beautiful rotating jet of viscoelastic liquid water resembling a spinning dancer that demonstrates the effect of adding a tiny amount of polymer to water and an example of fluid dynamics research at Imperial College London

 

One of the judges was Professor Robert Winston, he said: “This competition helps us engage with academics and these stunning images are a great way to connect the general public with research they fund, and inspire everyone to take an interest in science and engineering.”


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Genome Discovery Holds Key to Designer Organisms

Genome Discovery Holds Key to Designer Organisms | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Scientists are homing in on the fewest genes needed for an organism to survive.

Via Ben van Lier
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Cancer-patient big data can save lives if shared globally

Cancer-patient big data can save lives if shared globally | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it

Sharing genetic information from millions of cancer patients around the world could revolutionize cancer prevention and care, according to a paper in Nature Medicine by the Cancer Task Team of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH). Hospitals, laboratories and research facilities around the world hold huge amounts of this data from cancer patients, but it’s currently held in isolated “silos” that don’t talk to each other, according to GA4GH, a partnership between scientists, clinicians, patients, and the IT and Life Sciences industry, involving more than 400 organizations in over 40 countries. GA4GH intends to provide a common framework for the responsible, voluntary and secure sharing of patients’ clinical and genomic data.

 

“Imagine if we could create a searchable cancer database that allowed doctors to match patients from different parts of the world with suitable clinical trials,” said GA4GH co-chair professor Mark Lawler, a leading cancer expert fromQueen’s University Belfast. “This genetic matchmaking approach would allow us to develop personalized treatments for each individual’s cancer, precisely targeting rogue cells and improving outcomes for patients.

 

“This data sharing presents logistical, technical, and ethical challenges. Our paper highlights these challenges and proposes potential solutions to allow the sharing of data in a timely, responsible and effective manner. We hope this blueprint will be adopted by researchers around the world and enable a unified global approach to unlocking the value of data for enhanced patient care.”

 

GA4GH acknowledges that there are security issues, and has created a Security Working Group and a policy paper that documents the standards and implementation practices for protecting the privacy and security of shared genomic and clinical data.

 

Examples of current initiatives for clinico-genomic data-sharing include the U.S.-based Precision Medicine Initiative and the UK’s 100,000 Genomes Project, both of which have cancer as a major focus.

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Herve Moal's curator insight, May 26, 4:47 AM

l'enjeu du partage des données

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Building AI Is Hard—So Facebook Is Building AI That Builds AI

Building AI Is Hard—So Facebook Is Building AI That Builds AI | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
By forcing computers to do more of the grunt work, the world's biggest tech companies are accelerating how quickly AI enters the everyday world.

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Scientists Create a 5-atom Quantum Computer That Could Make Today's Encryption Obsolete

Scientists Create a 5-atom Quantum Computer That Could Make Today's Encryption Obsolete | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
MIT scientists have developed a 5-atom quantum computer, one that is able to render traditional encryption obsolete.

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Elevated troponin linked to mental stress ischemia in heart disease patients

Elevated troponin linked to mental stress ischemia in heart disease patients | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
People who experience stress-induced ischemia tend to have higher baseline levels of troponin, a marker of recent damage or stress to the heart. Presented at American College of Cardiology meeting.
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Exosomes - History and Promise

Exosomes - History and Promise | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
It was discovered some time ago that eukaryotic cells regularly secrete such structures as microvesicles, macromolecular complexes, and small molecules into their ambient environment. Exosomes are one of the types of natural nanoparticles (or nanovesicles) that have shown promise in many areas of research, diagnostics and therapy. They are small lipid membrane vesicles (30-120 nm) generated by fusion of cytoplasmic endosomal multivesicular bodies within the cell surface. Exosomes are found throughout the body in such fluids as blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Furthermore, all types of cells secrete them in in vitro culture. It is believed that they have many natural functions, including acting as transporters of nucleic acids (mostly RNA), cytosolic proteins and metabolites to many cells, tissues or organs throughout the body. Much remains to be understood regarding how they are formed, as well as of their targeting and ultimate physiological activity. But many don’t realize that some activities have been rather thoroughly demonstrated─ such as their function in some sort of either local or more systemic intercellular communication.
Exosomes as ToolsGeneral interest in exosomes is now growing for many reasons. One is because of the observation of their natural activity with antigen-presenting cells and in immune responses in the body. Their potential as very powerful biomedical tools of both diagnostic and therapeutic value is now being more widely reported. Applications described include using them as immunotherapeutic reagents, vectors of engineered genetic constructs, and vaccine particles. They’ve also been described as tools in the diagnosis or prognosis of a wide variety of disorders, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Also, their potential in tissue-level microcommunication is driving interest in such therapeutic activities as cardiac repair following heart attacks. Their potential as biomarkers is being explored because their content has been described as a “fingerprint” of differentiation or signaling or regulation status of the cell generating them. For example, by monitoring the exosomes secreted by transplanted cells, one may be able to predict the status or potentially even the outcome of cell therapy procedures. Clinical trials are in progress for exosomes in many therapeutic functions, for many indications. One example is using dendritic cell-derived exosomes to initiate immune response to cancers.Exosome Manufacturing
Exosome product manufacturing involves many distinct areas of study. First of all, we are interested in their efficient and robust generation at a sufficient scale. Also, because they are found in such raw materials as animal serum, avoiding process-related contaminants is a concern. Finally, a variety of means of separating them from other types of extracellular vesicles and cell debris is under study. As exosomes are being examined in so many applications, their production involves many distinct platforms and concerns. First of all, an appropriate and effective culture mode is required for any cell line that is specifically required by the application. Also, one must consider the quality systems and regulatory status of the materials and manufacturing environment for the particular product addressed. Finally, a robust process must be described for the scale and duration of production demanded. As things exist now, their production can be described as 1) the at-scale expansion and culture of the parent cell-line, 2) the collection or harvest of the culture media containing the secreted exosomes, and 3) the isolation or purification of the desired exosomes from not only other macrovesicles, macromolecular complexes, and small molecules, but from such other process contaminants as cellular debris and culture media components.

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Biomedical Laboratory Science: High troponin levels may account for mental stress ischemia in cardiac patients.

Biomedical Laboratory Science: High troponin levels may account for mental stress ischemia in cardiac patients. | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
High troponin levels may account for mental stress ischemia in cardiac patients. https://t.co/gB0MzlobMc
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Tweet from @elisrivac

Tweet from @elisrivac | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Atrial Fib w/ RVR; Infero-Lateral wall ischemia; Left Ventricular Hypertrophy https://t.co/rA5BOxUtcD
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Machines are becoming more creative than humans

Machines are becoming more creative than humans | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it

Can machines be creative? Recent successes in AI have shown that machines can now perform at human levels in many tasks that, just a few years ago, were considered to be decades away, like driving cars, understanding spoken language, and recognizing objects. But these are all tasks where we know what needs to be done, and the machine is just imitating us. What about tasks where the right answers are not known? Can machines be programmed to find solutions on their own, and perhaps even come up with creative solutions that humans would find difficult?

 

The answer is a definite yes! There are branches of AI focused precisely on this challenge, including evolutionary computation and reinforcement learning. Like the popular deep learning methods, which are responsible for many of the recent AI successes, these branches of AI have benefitted from the million-fold increase in computing power we’ve seen over the last two decades. There arenow antennas in spacecraft so complex they could only be designed through computational evolution. There are game playing agents in Othello, Backgammon, and most recently in Go that have learned to play at the level of the best humans, and in the case of AlphaGo, even beyond the ability of the best humans. There are non-player characters in Unreal Tournament that have evolved to be indistinguishable from humans, thereby passing the Turing test— at least for game bots. And in finance, there are computational traders in the stock market evolved to make real money.

 

Many new applications have suddenly come within our reach thanks to computational creativity — even though most of us do not realize it yet. If you are facing a design problem where potential solutions can be tested automatically, chances are you could evolve those solutions automatically as well. In areas where computers are already used to draft designs, the natural next step is to harness evolutionary search. This will allow human designers to gain more traction for their ideas, such as machine parts that are easier to manufacture, stock portfolios that minimize risk, or websites that result in more conversions. In other areas, it may take some engineering effort to define the design problem for the computer, but the effort may be rewarded by truly novel designs, such as finless rockets, new video game genres, personalized preventive medicine, and safer and more efficient traffic.


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Scientists publish the first RNA interactome of the human nucleus

Scientists publish the first RNA interactome of the human nucleus | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it

Studying sequence and function of DNA has been in the focus of life sciences for decades, but now the interest of many researchers has turned to the RNA. Today, many scientists believe that RNA molecules, together with a variety of different proteins, play a regulatory or structural role in virtually all cellular processes. However, the mechanisms underlying these RNA-protein interactions are still largely unknown. A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin has now successfully identified hundreds of proteins that interact with RNA molecules in the nucleus of human cells. The researchers present the first RNA interactome of a human nucleus and describe how they have identified the bulk of RNA-binding proteins in the nucleus of human cells, using their newly developed method of "serial RNA interactome capturing".

 

For decades, proteins have been regarded as the main functional components in living cells. However, in recent years their paramount importance for cellular processes has been rivaled by the growing knowledge about the involvement of RNA molecules. RNA in the shape of messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) has been believed to act as a mere mediator between the DNA, carrying the genetic information, and the proteins, being the building blocks of the cell. But for a few years it has been shown now, that in addition to being a messenger for the genomic information, the RNA mediates several other functions. These non-coding functions of RNA include tasks in the regulation of gene transcription and protein production as well as the determination of the positions of other molecules within the cell.

 

Elucidating the interplay between proteins and RNA has therefore become crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the development of organisms and the emergence of diseases.

 

A research group headed by Ulf Andersson Ørom at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin has now for the first time created an overview of the numerous interactions between RNA molecules and proteins in a human nucleus. For this, the scientists had to modify the "RNA interactome capture technique" for analyzing RNA-protein interactions at first, so that they could use it to identify the RNA-protein interactions inside specific compartments of the cell, e.g., the nucleus. With the modified method, the researchers investigated the nuclei of a total of one billion cells in order to capture and catalogue all possible RNA-protein interactions in the nucleus.

 

"It has been particularly interesting for us that many of the discovered RNA-binding proteins do not only control the activity of genes and the fate of the resulting RNA molecules, but are also involved in the detection and repair of damaged DNA", Ørom explains. DNA damage such as false or missing bases or breakage of one or both strands of the DNA double helix can occur as a consequence of reactive oxygen species, UV-radiation or other external or internal stimuli. DNA-damage occurs thousands of times each day within every cell in the body. The cell responds with a complex repair process involving numerous proteins and RNA molecules that specifically repair damaged DNA, thus maintaining the functionality of the cell.

 

"A role for RNA in the repair of damaged DNA has been suspected for some time, but how RNA can impact on this process has remained unknown", says Ørom. "By identifying the protein factors that link RNA to the DNA damage response, this study contributes to a better understanding of these mechanisms." The scientists hope that their findings will contribute to a better understanding of the emergence of human diseases and the development of new therapies against cancer.


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Interconnectivity and the IoT revolution - raconteur.net

A global network of interconnected devices linked to the internet is about to revolutionise the way we live and work

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Nature-inspired precisely assembled nanotubes

Nature-inspired precisely assembled nanotubes | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it

Berkeley Lab scientists discovered a polymer composed of two chemically distinct blocks (shown in orange and blue) that assembles itself into complex nanotubes.

 

When placed in water, this new family of nature-inspired polymers spontaneously assemble into hollow crystalline nanotubes up to 100 nanometers long with the same diameter.

 

“Creating uniform structures in high yield is a goal in nanotechnology,” says Ron Zuckermann, who directs the Biological Nanostructures Facility in Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, where much of this research was conducted. “For example, if you can control the diameter of nanotubes, and the chemical groups exposed in their interior, then you can control what goes through — which could lead to new filtration and desalination technologies, to name a few examples.”

 

Creating a large quantity of nanostructures with the same trait, such as millions of nanotubes with identical diameters, has been difficult. For the past several years, the Berkeley Lab scientists studied a polymer that is a member of the peptoid family. Peptoids are rugged synthetic polymers that mimic peptides, which nature uses to form proteins.

 

The researchers studied a particular type of peptoid, called a diblock copolypeptoid, because it binds with lithium ions and could be used as a battery electrolyte. In their research, they serendipitously found these compounds form nanotubes in water. They don’t know how exactly, but the important thing with this new research is that it sheds light on their structure, and hints at a new design principle that could be used to precisely build nanotubes and other complex nanostructures.

 


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Learning to Program Cellular Memory

Learning to Program Cellular Memory | Cardiovascular and vascular imaging | Scoop.it
Combining synthetic biology approaches with time-lapse movies, a team led by Caltech biologists has determined how some proteins shape a cell's ability to remember particular states of gene expression.

 

What if we could program living cells to do what we would like them to do in the body? Having such control—a major goal of synthetic biology—could allow for the development of cell-based therapies that might one day replace traditional drugs for diseases such as cancer. In order to reach this long-term goal, however, scientists must first learn to program many of the key things that cells do, such as communicate with one another, change their fate to become a particular cell type, and remember the chemical signals they have encountered.

 

Now a team of researchers led by Caltech biologists Michael Elowitz, Lacramioara Bintu, and John Yong (PhD '15) have taken an important step toward being able to program that kind of cellular memory using tools that cells have evolved naturally. By combining synthetic biology approaches with time-lapse movies that track the behaviors of individual cells, they determined how four members of a class of proteins known as chromatin regulators establish and control a cell's ability to maintain a particular state of gene expression—to remember it—even once the signal that established that state is gone.

 

The researchers reported their findings in the February 12 issue of the journal Science.


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