Group 25: Case 1 "I've hurt my knee doctor!"
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How endothelial cells move apart to allow extravasation of leukocytes

From Underwood's Pathology, 6th Ed, Simon S.  Cross, Chp 9 - Acute Inflammation pg.168

"

The ultrastructural basis of increased vascular permeability was originally determined using an experimental model in which histamine, one of the chemical mediators of increased vascular permeability, was injected under the skin. This caused transient leakage of plasma proteins into the extravascular space. Electron  microscopic examination of the venules and small veins during this period showed that gaps of 0.1 - 0.4 micrometres in diameter had appeared between endothelial cells. ... The endothelial cells are not damaged in this process. They contain contractile proteins such as actin, which, when stimulated by the chemical mediators of acute inflammation, cause contraction of the endothelial cells, pulling open the transient pores."

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The inflammatory response

I've found a great library book with a dedicated section on inflammation, unlike the other books I've tried this has split the topic into 2 catagories (as we did for our LOs)

- Chemical mediators of inflammation

- Cells of inflammation

Chapter 4 "Basic Pathology: an intro to the mechanisms of disease" Lakhani, Dilly and Finlayson

Don't know if helps, but I thought I'd share...

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Johannes Marais's comment, January 27, 2014 6:26 PM
Thanks that's really helpful
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Knee Joint - Part 1 - 3D Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on knee joint using the Zygote Body Browser (http://www.zygotebody.com). Join the Facebook page for updates: h...

Via AnneMarie Cunningham, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Imogen John
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AnneMarie Cunningham's curator insight, May 21, 2013 1:04 PM

This is a really nice introduction to the anatomy of the knee made by Peter de Souza, a Bristol medical student. 

Cardiff University School of Medicine's curator insight, January 5, 2014 10:23 PM

This is a really nice introduction to the anatomy of the knee made by Peter de Souza, a Bristol medical student. 

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REMS: examination of the knee - YouTube

Examination of the knee


Via Cardiff University School of Medicine, Shaun
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Shaffi B*'s curator insight, January 14, 2014 8:00 PM

I'll probably need this at some point...

James Brook's curator insight, January 15, 2014 8:20 AM

REMS: examination of the knee. Should be helpful for Case 1 and for the GALS examination that we have learned in Clinical Skills.

Kate Gregory's curator insight, January 12, 2015 12:34 PM

Useful video showing how to clinically examine the knee

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GALS screening examination - YouTube

Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine musculoskeletal screening examination

Via Dr Alan Stone
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Dr Alan Stone's curator insight, January 3, 2014 10:23 AM

This is a good video on performing the GALS screening tests

Talea Roberts's curator insight, January 14, 2014 8:49 AM

Clinical skills

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The musculoskeletal history | Arthritis Research UK

The musculoskeletal history | Arthritis Research UK | Group 25: Case 1 "I've hurt my knee doctor!" | Scoop.it
This section of Arthritis Research UK's guide for medical students and healthcare professionals describes the key questions that should be covered when taking a history of a musculoskeletal problem.

Via Dr Alan Stone
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Dr Alan Stone's curator insight, January 3, 2014 10:10 AM

This is a useful insight into history taking for musculo-skeletal problems.

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Anatomy and physiology of pain

Anatomy and physiology of pain | Group 25: Case 1 "I've hurt my knee doctor!" | Scoop.it
A comprehensive guide to the anatomy and physiology of pain management

Via Anne Marie Cunningham
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Anne Marie Cunningham's curator insight, January 15, 2014 8:26 PM

Nice brief introduction to how we feel pain. Referenced and clearly states author. 

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Clotting Cascade | Group 26

Clotting Cascade | Group 26 | Group 25: Case 1 "I've hurt my knee doctor!" | Scoop.it
Sioned Edwards's insight: Haemostasis revision (Clotting Cascade | @scoopit http://t.co/qFaHNsfVTE -you've been scooped by #cdfmed @almostadoctor Thanks!
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Learning Outcomes Week 2

Learning outcomes from Case 1 Week 2

 

- look up how to distinguish between a laceration and a cut.

- look up the duration of pain from stimuli through an Adelta fibre and C fibres.

- Revise anatomy of nerves

- Why do we feel a tingling sensation on nerve compression

- Revise chemical mediators and cellular components of acute inflammation and healing

 

 

 

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The Inflammatory Response


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Anne Marie Cunningham's curator insight, January 20, 2014 7:06 PM

Short animation of the inflammatory response. 

Alice Cains's curator insight, January 23, 2014 1:23 PM

Short video - watch

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Knee Joint - Part 2 - 3D Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the knee joint using the Zygote Body Browser (http://www.zygotebody.com). .


Via AnneMarie Cunningham, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Imogen John
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AnneMarie Cunningham's curator insight, May 21, 2013 1:08 PM

This second video focuses on the ligaments which support the knee joint. 

Cardiff University School of Medicine's curator insight, January 5, 2014 10:24 PM

This second video focuses on the ligaments which support the knee joint. 

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Spinothalamic Pathway (Pain & Temperature) From Foot (1 of 9) - YouTube

For a free fully interactive version of this material please go to http://axoncomplete.appspot.com/index.html (please note this currently only runs in Safari...

Via Cardiff University School of Medicine
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Cardiff University School of Medicine's curator insight, January 8, 2014 4:16 PM

This is one of a series of high quality videos explaining pain pathways produced by UCD medical school. Does it help you understand why you feel pain?

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Lower Limb - YouTube

By Robert Acland

A helpful suggestion.
Many things led up to my decision to make the Video Atlas, but the immediate cause was a conversation that happened in the fall of 1993. I had just given a clinical correlation lecture to our medical students about the importance of anatomy to me in my career as a surgeon.

One student, Suzanne l'Ecuyer, said, "You can't imagine how helpful it would be if you could make videos as beautiful as the slides you just showed us." Overhearing her, one of our senior anatomists said "Bob, you've been talking about doing that for years, it's time you did it." Within two weeks I had committed myself to making a major series of anatomical videos for students.


Via Emily Hughes, Anne Marie Cunningham
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Emily Hughes's curator insight, January 15, 2014 11:51 AM

The knee is covered at about 45 mins in - Acland anatomy

Anne Marie Cunningham's curator insight, January 15, 2014 9:04 PM

Robert Acland has very kindly made this video atlas freely available with the support of several funders, Here you can view the entire video of the lower limb. The knee starts at about 46 mins in and is about 30 minutes in total, so this is more detailed than many of the other online videos you willc ome across. 

The above quote is taken from the Acland Atlas website. here is the section on the knee http://aclandanatomy.com/browse/102/4010003 ;

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Knee injury ,Injuries - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim - YouTube

knee injury ,injuries video describing the anatomy and associated injury / injuries of the knee joint. from sprain ligament to muscle damage .symptoms are pa...

Via Sioned Davies
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Case Scenario

Case Scenario

MeghanDoherty's insight:

Week 1                                                               

 

Jake is a 17-year-old boy who has injured his right knee, while on his skateboard at the local skate park. You are in the Emergency Unit on placement and go to see him to find out what has happened.

 

Jake: “I missed a jump off the half-pipe and fell forwards and landed on the outside of my right knee”

 

Jake: “My right knee really hurts and it’s hard to bend. I get a sharp pain when I try to move and it aches when I am still. My right foot feels funny as well”

 

You can see that he has a swollen right knee and several lacerations and grazes of the skin covering his knee. You also see that he can’t move his right foot very well.

 

 

Week 2

 

It is now 7 days since Jakes injury and he has come back for a check up.  You ask him how he has been over the last week.

 

Jake: “Not too bad.  The pain was pretty bad for the first 3 days even with the tablets the doctor prescribed for me”.

 

You see that one of the lacerations has been sutured and there is a slight discharge from the wound.  The grazes are still red but appear to be healing.  He is still in pain when he tries to bend his knee but he can now move his foot.

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