Drugs that are used in the clinic to treat some forms of breast and kidney cancer and that work by inhibiting the signaling molecule mTORC1 might have utility in treating some of the more than 15 percent of human cancers driven by alterations in the Myc gene, according to data from a preclinical study published inCancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
As a result of mammographic screening programs, as many 1.3 million women over age 40 were overdiagnosed with breast cancer over 3 decades, researchers reported. (See video of discussants)
This study examined trends from 1976 through 2008 in the incidence of early-stage breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ and localized disease) and late-stage breast cancer (regional and distant disease) among women 40 years of age or older.
The investigators interpret the data to suggest that there is substantial overdiagnosis, accounting for nearly a third of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, and that screening is having, at best, only a small effect on the rate of death from breast cancer.
In this large-scale randomized trial of 14 641 middle-aged and older men, a daily multivitamin supplement significantly but modestly reduced the risk of total cancer during a mean of 11 years of treatment and follow-up. Although the main reason to take multivitamins is to prevent nutritional deficiency, these data provide support for the potential use of multivitamin supplements in the prevention of cancer in middle-aged and older men.
(MedPage Today) -- Alternatives to screening colonoscopy demonstrated similar accuracy for detecting colorectal cancer at a lower cost in people who have an initial negative colonoscopy, according to a computer simulation of screening strategies.
Researchers in France are taking advantage of the progress in genetic and molecular profiling to analyse the make-up of individual cancer patients’ tumours and, using this information, assign them to particular treatments and phase I clinical...
Stem cell researchers have discovered a new "master control gene" for human blood stem cells and found that manipulating its levels could potentially create a way to expand these cells for clinical use.
Cancer trials can lack clear information on biopsies. People participating in cancer drug trials aren't always given the most straightforward explanation of possible risks and benefits from invasive procedures that may be involved, according...
Working with cell lines of glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal type of brain tumor, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School, and some now at The University of Texas MD Anderson ...
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Cancer Commons's insight:
Cancer chromosomal instability (CIN) results in an increased rate of change of chromosome number and structure and generates intratumour heterogeneity. CIN is observed in most solid tumours and is associated with both poor prognosis and drug resistance. Understanding a mechanistic basis for CIN is therefore paramount. Here we find evidence for impaired replication fork progression and increased DNA replication stress in CIN+ colorectal cancer (CRC) cells relative to CIN- CRC cells, with structural chromosome abnormalities precipitating chromosome missegregation in mitosis. We identify three new CIN-suppressor genes (PIGN (also known as MCD4), MEX3C (RKHD2) and ZNF516 (KIAA0222)) encoded on chromosome 18q that are subject to frequent copy number loss in CIN+ CRC. Chromosome 18q loss was temporally associated with aneuploidy onset at the adenoma-carcinoma transition. CIN-suppressor gene silencing leads to DNA replication stress, structural chromosome abnormalities and chromosome missegregation. Supplementing cells with nucleosides, to alleviate replication-associated damage, reduces the frequency of chromosome segregation errors after CIN-suppressor gene silencing, and attenuates segregation errors and DNA damage in CIN+ cells. These data implicate a central role for replication stress in the generation of structural and numerical CIN, which may inform new therapeutic approaches to limit intratumour heterogeneity.
“The European Medicines Agency is committed to proactive publication of clinical-trial data, once the marketing-authorisation process has ended. We are not here to decide if we publish clinical-trial data, but how.” This is how Guido Rasi, Executive Director of the Agency, opened the workshop on access to clinical-trial data and transparency held on 22 November 2012.
This event marks the first step in the process to proactive publication of clinical-trial data, a decision the Agency made earlier this year. This decision aims to build trust and confidence in the system by allowing re-analysis of clinical-trial data by stakeholders.
The Agency is aware that there are practical issues and other considerations that need to be addressed and resolved. The workshop allowed the Agency to gather the views, interests and concerns from a broad range of institutions, groups and individuals.
Based on these discussions, Hans-Georg Eichler, Senior Medical Officer at the Agency, presented the next step of the process. The Agency will establish policies in close dialogue with its stakeholders in five different areas identified during the workshop. These are:
protecting patient confidentiality; clinical-trial-data formats; rules of engagement; good analysis practice; legal aspects.
Vemurafenib, a selective RAF inhibitor, extends survival among patients with BRAF V600E–mutant melanoma. Vemurafenib inhibits ERK signaling in BRAF V600E–mutant cells but activates ERK signaling in BRAF wild-type cells. This paradoxical activation of ERK signaling is the mechanistic basis for the development of RAS-mutant squamous-cell skin cancers in patients treated with RAF inhibitors. We report the accelerated growth of a previously unsuspected RAS-mutant leukemia in a patient with melanoma who was receiving vemurafenib. Exposure to vemurafenib induced hyperactivation of ERK signaling and proliferation of the leukemic cell population, an effect that was reversed on drug withdrawal.
(MedPage Today) -- A patient with BRAF-positive melanoma had proliferation of leukemic cells associated with activation of a signaling pathway by treatment with a BRAF inhibitor, authors of a case study reported.
Preliminary findings from the first trial of a new drug for patients with mesothelioma show that it has some success in preventing the spread of the deadly disease in patients lacking an active tumour suppressor gene called NF2.
Sanofi Halves Price of Cancer Drug Zaltrap After Sloan-Kettering RejectionNew York TimesIn an unusual move, a big drug company said on Thursday that it would effectively cut in half the price of a new cancer drug after a leading cancer center said...
Mancunian Matters'Controversial' acupuncture study for women battling cancer sparks debate ...Mancunian MattersThe three-year study, led by the University of Manchester, last week revealed that patients suffering from mental and physical exhaustion...
The AtlanticStudy: Statins Appear to Improve Cancer SurvivalThe AtlanticPROBLEM: Statins -- like the brand names Lipitor, Zocor, and Crestor -- are the most commonly prescribed medications for lowering cholesterol.
New understanding of how drugs called PARP inhibitors, which have already shown promise for the treatment of women with familial breast and ovarian cancers linked to BRCA mutations, exert their anticancer effects has led to the identification of...
Brain cancer treatment is also the target of several medical device companies including NovoCure, which had its noninvasive device approved last year for glioblastoma multiforme, and Monteris Medical, which developed a ...
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