Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments
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Sharks' Antibodies in Treatment of Breast Cancer

Sharks' Antibodies in Treatment of Breast Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Researchers in Scotland hope antibodies found in sharks' blood may be able to block key molecules found in cancer cells.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Scientists at Aberdeen University are beginning a three-year study to monitor how the antibody (IgNAR) which helps sharks fight off cancerous cells could do the same job in the human body.

The three-year study will look at two molecules - HER2 and HER3 - found on the surface of cancer cells. When these molecules pair-up on the surface of a cancer cell, they signal it to grow and divide. The study will investigate if shark IgNAR antibodies can be used to stop these two molecules from working and sending this signal.

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Natural Enzyme Therapy for Cancer Treatment

Enzymes used to destroy malignant cells
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Surgery and chemotherapy may extend the life of cancer patients, while at the same time producing side effects that may challenge overall health and may even be fatal. This may not be the chosen path of all cancer patients who may opt for quality of life instead.

There are several advocates of an alternate therapy based on a suggestion put forward by embryologist Dr. John Beard in 1906 that pancreatic proteolytic digestive enzymes represent the body's main defense against cancer, and that enzyme therapy would be useful as a treatment for all types of cancer.

Enzymes produced by the pancreas to help digest food were first discovered in the mid 1800s. Dr. Beard suggested that in addition to assisting in digestion these enzymes had capabilities as a treatment for cancer, which he showed in animal studies and clinical trials with cancer patients. It is suspected that the enzymes selectively attack the proteins on the membranes of cancer cells which are different to the proteins on normal cells.

To find out more for yourself about this natural therapy take a look at the website of Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez, M.D. who has been investigating nutritional approaches to cancer and other degenerative diseases since 1981 and uses individualized aggressive nutritional protocols to work with many types of cancer… http://www.dr-gonzalez.com/index.htm

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Graham Player Ph.D.'s comment, September 25, 2013 2:52 PM
In 1998, Nicholas Gonzalez, M.D. received National Cancer Institute (NCI) approval for a clinical trial to evaluate his nutritional-enzyme approach in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer. Problems plagued the study from its inception. The design discouraged patient participation; oncologists discouraged patients from joining and at times pressured those already admitted for nutritional therapy to change to conventional treatment.

Then in 2000 the NCI turned over all patient selection decisions to the Principal Investigator (PI), who as it turned out helped devise the chemotherapy regimen used as the control treatment. An evaluation by government scientists in early 2005 confirmed that so many patients had failed to follow the prescribed nutritional therapy that the data had little meaning. Despite such problems, without Dr. Gonzalez' knowledge the Principal Investigator published an article implying the study was properly run, patients complied fully and that the nutritional therapy had no effect.

In response, Dr. Gonzalez has written What Went Wrong, to bring the truth of this project to light, and show how bias, indifference, and at times incompetence undermined a promising research effort that, if properly run, might have ushered in a new direction in cancer treatment.
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Oxygenation of Tumors

Oxygenation of Tumors | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
A multidisciplinary team at UT Southwestern Medical Center has found that measuring the oxygenation of tumors can be a valuable tool in guiding radiation therapy, opening the door for personalized therapies that keep tumors in check with oxygen enhancemen...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

In a study based on magnetic resonance imaging it was found that smaller tumors were significantly better oxygenated than larger ones. This confirmed previous investigations that show a range of poorly oxygenated environments depending on the size of the tumor. Lung cancer tumors, for instance, are poorly oxygenated despite being located in the principal organ charged with oxygenating the blood.

This finding has the potential to offer new opportunities in tailoring therapies to a tumor’s characteristics.

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Cancer Care Delivery – A System in Crisis

Cancer Care Delivery – A System in Crisis | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The IOM examined the quality of cancer care in the United States and concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to a growing demand for cancer care, increasing complexity of treatment, a shrinking workforce, and rising costs.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine has completed a review of Cancer Care in the US and produced a report “Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis”.

The committee concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to a growing demand for cancer care, increasing complexity of treatment, a shrinking workforce, and rising costs. This conclusion comes as the number of those most susceptible to cancer - adults 65 and older - is expected to double by 2030, contributing to a 45 percent increase in the number of people developing cancer.

The report recommends ways to respond to these challenges and improve cancer care delivery, including by strengthening clinicians’ core competencies in caring for patients with cancer, shifting to team-based models of care, and communicating more effectively with patients.

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Natalie Palmer's curator insight, September 28, 2013 1:29 AM

A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine has completed a review of Cancer Care in the US and produced a report “Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis”.

The committee concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to a growing demand for cancer care, increasing complexity of treatment, a shrinking workforce, and rising costs. This conclusion comes as the number of those most susceptible to cancer - adults 65 and older - is expected to double by 2030, contributing to a 45 percent increase in the number of people developing cancer.

The report recommends ways to respond to these challenges and improve cancer care delivery, including by strengthening clinicians’ core competencies in caring for patients with cancer, shifting to team-based models of care, and communicating more effectively with patients.

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Blood Test to Detect Lung Cancer

Blood Test to Detect Lung Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Blood tests that hunt for an enzyme that spikes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer may offer a cheaper and more reliable way to find and treat the nation's top cancer killer, a new study suggests.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

CT scanning is a normal diagnostic approach used in detecting lung cancer. However it has a high percentage of false positives.

A study in the journal Clinical Cancer Research says the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH 1) can be readily detected in the blood of patients with early non-small-cell lung cancer, and has fewer false positives than low-radiation CT scans.

Testing the blood for IDH 1 is inexpensive, does not require a high level of laboratory expertise, and requires a small amount of blood, the researchers said. And the measure can be made even more reliable in diagnosing lung cancer if labs also look for three other cancer markers alongside IDH 1, the researchers concluded.

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Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer

Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it

Results indicate that higher pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression.

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

This observational study indicates a relationship between coffee consumption and reduced prostate cancer occurrence.

Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. Their pattern of coffee and tea consumption was analyzed two years before their diagnosis of prostate cancer. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence and progression.

While this may be an interesting observation, it does not constitute a cause and effect relationship. Bear in mind that excess coffee consumption has been associated with many other health problems and concerns.

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New Target For Melanoma Treatment

New Target For Melanoma Treatment | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
A new target for melanoma treatment is an essential gene for metastasis
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Ze’ev Ronai, Ph.D., scientific director of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at La Jolla, and his team as well as collaborators at Yale University, show that without PDK1 expression, melanoma tumors were smaller in size, had a significant loss of metastasis, and a prolonged survival—in some cases survival time was increased to over 50 percent— in other cases melanoma was completely prevented.

The PDK1 gene was previously known to play an important role in normal cell processes, such as metabolism, protein translation, and cell survival under stress conditions. PDK1 was also implicated in some types of cancer, such as pancreatic cancer, but not others, such as non-small cell lung cancer. This is the first study that shows the negative role that PDK1 expression plays in melanocytes (cells that will transform to melanoma).

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Sugar Molecule Promotes Growth of Cancer

Sugar Molecule Promotes Growth of Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The process of glycosylation, where sugar molecules are attached to proteins, has long been of interest to scientists, particularly because certain sugar molecules are present in very high numbers in cancer cells.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

For over 30 years the importance of sugar molecules for cancer cell development has been known. Normal cells typically have long chains of sugar molecules. Cancer cells often have truncated, immature chains of sugar molecules.

In co-operation with a research group from Singapore, scientists at University of Copenhagen have shown that immature sugar molecules in the form of truncated O-glycans aid growth properties of cancer cells and cause the cancer to spread more aggressively.

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Baking Soda and Cancer

Baking Soda and Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The use of baking soda to treat cancer successfully has been well-documented, particularly by an Italian oncologist named Dr. Simoncini. Dr. Simoncini says, first of all, cancer is a fungus and ori...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The progression of cancer involves multiple steps, which are influenced by the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment. A highly acidic environment can alter gene expression leading to cell types that are adapted for growth and survival in low pH conditions.

While it maybe true that cancer cells can create acid, and make the small area in and around cancer cells more acidic, it does not necessarily make the entire body more acidic as a whole. The body controls acid balance very tightly. Small changes in acidity can occur, however the body cannot become significantly more acidic without serious side effects and illness.

One of the best ways to decrease acidity in the body overall is to follow a plant-based diet. In general, plant foods (vegetables, fruit, and legumes) make the body less acidic. Meat and protein foods tend to make the body more acidic. This can be measured in the urine. Studies suggest that vegetarians (people who do not eat any type of meat, including beef, chicken, fish, pork, and lamb) have less acidic urine than people who eat meat.

A diet high in acidic foods may lead to chronic inflammation, which many people believe is the root cause of many serious illnesses - including heart disease, many cancers, and Alzheimer's disease. Not only diet, but also stress, lack of exercise, genetic predisposition, and exposure to toxins (like secondhand tobacco smoke) can all contribute to chronic inflammation.

So while the theory of using baking soda to treat cancer may seem logical, I would first want to do further investigation into the subject. In any case a focus on an optimum diet would be mandatory.

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Childhood Cancer Awareness

Why Childhood Cancer Awareness? Because many don't understand the challenges that pediatric cancer researchers, doctors and patients are facing.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

This is an informative Infographic on the subject of Childhood Cancer.

Some interesting facts:
- Cancer is the leading cause of death by disease in children under 15
- Everyday in the US 4 children will die from cancer
- Cancer in children is often found in different areas of the body to adults
- Childhood cancer often occurs due to changes in cell DNA before birth
- Cancer in children is not strongly linked to lifestyle or risk factors

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Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Shampoos

Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Shampoos | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The most updated news about cancer news, features, and medical information about medications and treatment.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A chemical compound which helps make bubbles, and thickens liquids, used in many shampoos, called cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA), was added on June 22, 2012 to the California Environmental Protection Agency list of CHEMICALS KNOWN TO THE STATE TO CAUSE CANCER OR REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY. The compound is a chemically modified form of coconut oil.

A recent study found that 98 shampoos, soaps, and other personal care products sold by major national retailers contained cocamide DEA. So be aware when buying products, and always read the labels.

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, September 11, 2013 1:20 PM

Labels carry important information...read yours!

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Doctor Stolen Money Meant for Cancer Research

Doctor Stolen Money Meant for Cancer Research | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
A former San Jose hospital radiologist has been charged with embezzling nearly $50,000 in federal grant money that was earmarked to pay for cancer research at Valley Medical Center.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Most people seem to be honest and trustworthy. However amongst us are those who are not. Whatever position or field a person is in, that person is still a human being like the rest of us.

However some people, often in positions of authority and respect, may assert their power and yet behave as if they were unaccountable to no-one. Unfortunately this seems to be a growing trend in society where, most likely due to examples of behavior from some people in senior positions of authority, the divide between right and wrong is becoming blurred.

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New 3D Mammograms Significantly Increase Your Radiation Exposure

New 3D Mammograms Significantly Increase Your Radiation Exposure | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
3D Tomosynthesis is a "new and improved" type of mammogram, which is basically a CT scan for your breasts.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It is important to educate yourself regarding the benefits and risks of mammograms. This is a good article to help you. In it you will learn the following.

Mammograms are often referred to as the best way to prevent breast cancer death. However studies suggest this may not be the case. The multi-millions of dollars spent on creating these invasive machines may have been better utilized for educating women about cancer prevention; and developing less dangerous technologies, such as ultrasound and infrared imaging; and inventing completely new and safer technologies.

One of the latest approaches introduced is a “new and improved” type of mammogram called 3D tomosynthesis, which is basically a CT scan for your breasts. Two of the greatest mammogram risks are high radiation exposure and compression of breast tissue, which potentially causes cancer cells to spread. 3D tomosynthesis does not reduce or eliminate either of these risks! In fact, radiation exposure using this new method is significantly greater than from standard mammograms.

The 3D mammogram requires multiple views in order to achieve three-dimensionality, so your total radiation exposure is considerably higher than from a standard 2D mammogram. With mammography, each breast is X-rayed at least twice—once from top to bottom and once diagonally from the outside in. With tomosynthesis, the X-ray tube rotates around the breast. Twenty-five exposures are taken, with up to two pictures per second. The multiple images result in higher radiation exposure.

3D mammography is not a stand-alone diagnostic test—it’s typically an add-on to the standard mammogram. So, not only do these 3D images prolong your exposure to radiation, but if you’ve already had a regular mammogram, they further compound your risk. This makes breast cancer screening even more dangerous than before.

A study published in Radiology Today states that – “Because the digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) exam requires two additional exposures over a standard mammogram, the total radiation dose from the combined 2D and tomosynthesis examination is three times that of a standard mammogram."

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, September 7, 2013 3:22 PM

Latest not always the greatest...do your research!

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FDA Strengthens Hepatitis B Warning on 2 Cancer Drugs - Arzerra and Rituxan

FDA Strengthens Hepatitis B Warning on 2 Cancer Drugs - Arzerra and Rituxan | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S.health regulators have strengthened the warnings on two blood cancer drugs to reflect the risk that they may reactivate the hepatitis B virus in patients previously infected...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It has been found that the use of two cancer drugs – Arzerra and Rituxan – have reactivated the hepatitis B virus in patients who have been previously infected with the disease, resulting in the death of some patients.

The FDA said it recommends that physicians screen all patients for hepatitis B infection before starting treatment with the drugs, and monitor patients with evidence of prior hepatitis B infection for signs that the virus has been reactivated, including for several months after therapy has stopped.

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Married Cancer Patients Fare Better Than Single Cancer Patients

Married Cancer Patients Fare Better Than Single Cancer Patients | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The burdens of cancer treatment take a greater toll on single patients than married patients, a new study shows.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Numerous studies have suggested that married people have better overall health than single people.

A recent study published in The Journal of Clinical Oncology focused on what happens to married and single people who become ill with cancer, rather than general health. The findings highlight the burden that cancer treatments impose on patients, particularly those who are single.

Researchers analyzed nearly 735,000 people who received a cancer diagnosis between 2004 and 2008, and found that single patients were 53% less likely to receive appropriate therapy than married patients. This suggests that maintaining grueling chemotherapy and radiation schedules and taking medication as prescribed is easier for people who have help from a spouse compared with single people who must manage the logistics of cancer treatment on their own.

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Is Affluence the Root Cause of Cancer?

Is Affluence the Root Cause of Cancer? | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Cancer rates are soaring, but why? Harvard professor Daniel Lieberman says it is the result of human evolution clashing with modern life – and explains how to cut the risk
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

There is no doubt that cancer is more prevalent today than in the past. The cause of this could be the subject of lengthy debate. However it is likely most would agree that an increase in the rates of obesity and a decrease in physical activity are two important factors that contribute considerably to this situation.

If that is the case then cancer rates could be significantly reduced through more physical activity and changes in diet.

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Dogs Trained to Detect Bladder Cancer

Dogs Trained to Detect Bladder Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Dogs' smell abilities may be able to diagnose bladder, ovarian and lung cancer and is providing inspiration for "electronic nose" tech
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

In past months there have been several reports of the success of dogs in detecting cancer in humans.

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Cancer Cells are Supported by Normal Cells in Their Local Environment

Cancer Cells are Supported by Normal Cells in Their Local Environment | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Investigators at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) today report important progress in research aimed at finding ways to fight cancer by targeting the local environment in which tumors grow and from which they draw sustenance.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

This is an interesting study of the interaction between tumor cells and normal cells in the local vicinity of the tumor cells. It reveals a communication that enlists the support of the normal cells to foster the development of the tumor cells in terms of contributing to cancer cell survival, proliferation, and inflammation and growth of local blood vessels.

Experiments showed that when several of these communication signals were blocked at once, the inhibiting effect on tumor growth was greater than when individual signals were blocked.

One of the investigators, Scott Powers, Ph.D., commented "This tells us that tumor and normal cells interact as a complex network and that the hope of finding a 'single most important interaction' for therapeutic targeting is misguided." …"When dealing with something that is this biologically complex, it is really important to assess the entire set of signals involved, rather than just one."

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Network of Genes in Cells Enforces Cooperation to Avoid Cancer

Network of Genes in Cells Enforces Cooperation to Avoid Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

If we consider that the human body consists of many systems that must work and integrate together in harmony to maintain health, it is certainly feasible to extend that consideration to the cellular level. If cells and genes don’t cooperate together then sickness may prevail.

This approach is supported with experimental evidence by researchers at The Mount Sinai Medical Center. The researchers show a network of genes in cells, which includes the powerful tumor suppressor p53, which enforce a cooperative state within cells. Disease or disorder occurs when these enforcer genes are mutated, allowing competition between cells to ensue.

"Both competition and cooperation drive evolution, and we are wired for cooperation all the way down to our genes," says the study’s senior investigator, Thomas P. Zwaka, MD, PhD. Understanding the genetic basis of cooperative and competitive cellular behaviors could explain how cancer and immune system dysfunction develops, he says. "If a cell has lost a gene that fosters communication among cells, it may dominate other cells by ignoring signals to stop proliferating. It also makes sense that the immune system might detect and attack cells that are not cooperating.”

It is indeed logical to assume that the development and healthy function of complex organisms (such as us) depends very much on the interdependency of harmonious cellular cooperation and optimum gene expression in response to the prevailing nourishment, conditions and stressors that we are exposed to.

This realization could mean that the contemporary approach to identify and focus on single genes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer may be the wrong way to be looking at the problem. Instead, it could be that the interplay and cooperation of multiple factors at the cellular and genetic level is the basis of health. When that cooperation fails and cannot be brought back into line, then diseases such as cancer may take hold.

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Death from Cancer May be Largely Avoidable

Death from Cancer May be Largely Avoidable | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The latest status report from the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) shows that most cancer deaths are avoidable.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Deaths from preventable disease continue to plague not just the U.S. but populations worldwide.

 

Half of all cancer deaths are avoidable by reducing exposure to the sun, quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy weight, according to the latest status report from the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR).

One third of cancer deaths in the U.S. is caused by tobacco, and another third are associated with obesity, a still emerging risk factor for cancer that much of the public has yet to appreciate.

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, September 18, 2013 5:44 PM

"Half of all cancer deaths are avoidable by reducing exposure to the sun, quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy weight. One third of cancer deaths in the U.S. is caused by tobacco, and another third are associated with obesity, a still emerging risk factor for cancer that much of the public has yet to appreciate."

 

We can't control every factor...but there are some choices that can make a difference.

 
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Looking for Lessons in Cancer's Miracle Responders

NEW YORK, Sept 15 (Reuters) - Nearly every oncologist cantell the story of cancer patients who beat the odds, respondingso well to treatment that they continued to live many yearsdisease-free, while
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

With advances in genetic sequencing technology and growing knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of cancer, a handful of top academic centers are taking a new look at cancer patients who have apparent miraculous or unexplained recoveries.

The research may lead to new uses for well-known treatments as it becomes clearer why particular patients respond so well, or even revive the use of some discarded drugs if the right patient population for the treatment can be identified.

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Obesity and Endometrial Cancer Link

Obesity and Endometrial Cancer Link | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Sweet, starchy foods like sugar and white bread probably cause endometrial cancer, while coffee probably protects against it, researchers...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) and the World Cancer Research Fund International say that being obese is probably the greatest cause of the cancer. According to researchers sweet, starchy foods like sugar and white bread probably cause endometrial cancer, while coffee probably protects against it.

AICR estimates that most cases of endometrial cancer (59 percent, or about 29,500 every year) could be prevented in the U.S. if women were active for at least 30 minutes a day and maintained a healthy body weight.

Women who are obese have two to three times the rate of endometrial cancer. People who are more active regularly tend to have a decreased rate of endometrial cancer.

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, September 11, 2013 1:19 PM

Coffee but not coffee cake...more and MORE evidence that what you eat matters and it's you who chooses.

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Molecular Marker Predicts Cancer Patients Longer Survival

Molecular Marker Predicts Cancer Patients Longer Survival | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Johns Hopkins scientists have identified a molecular marker called 'Mig 6' that appears to accurately predict longer survival—up to two years—among patients prescribed two of the most widely used drugs in a class of anticancer agents called EGFR...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Scientist have found that high levels of protein production from the Mig 6 gene could predict longer survival in patients who are prescribed anticancer drugs classed as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER-1) inhibitors. EGFR inhibitors are typically used to slow down or stop cell growth.

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Breast Cancer Risk & Its Relationship with HRT, BMI, & Breast Density

Breast Cancer Risk & Its Relationship with HRT, BMI, & Breast Density | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Breast cancer risk associated with use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among postmenopausal women was variable when analyzed by race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and breast density, according to a new study published September 3 in the...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been previously reported as associated with increased risk of breast cancer. A new study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute has analyzed the relationships between hormone replacement therapy (HRT), body mass index (BMI), and breast density.

Reported findings indicate:
- A greater than 20% increased risk in breast cancer when associated with HRT use among white women and Hispanic women, but not black women
- HRT use was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in women with low or normal BMI, but no association was observed among women with a high BMI
- Women with denser breasts had an increased likelihood of breast cancer among those who reported HRT use
- HRT use was not associated with breast cancer for women with high BMI with low breast density
- HRT use was associated with a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer for women with low or normal BMI and high breast density

Comments have been made that these findings could indicate HRT may be used for some women without increasing breast cancer risk, and could be used to help identify women who may use HRT to relieve postmenopausal symptoms without increasing their risk of breast cancer. However can only be speculation at this stage, as details on HRT type and duration of use were not available in the study.

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, September 7, 2013 2:51 PM

Yet more evidence that personalized care MUST be the approach and survivors and caregivers need to be informed and ask the questions from a "how does this apply to me".  Even those with similar diagnoses can have completely different responses to treatment.  Know your body and insist that your uniqueness be factored into medical decisions.

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ATF3 Key Role in Breast Cancer Metastasis

ATF3 Key Role in Breast Cancer Metastasis | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
ATF3 expression in stromal mononuclear cells correlates with clinical outcomes and predicts death.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) - a protein encoded by the ATF3 gene – has been found by researchers to result in a worse clinical outcome for breast tumors.

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