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Study Reveals How Cancer Cells Avoid Cell Death

Study Reveals How Cancer Cells Avoid Cell Death | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
A new study provides an important new insight into how cancer cells are able to avoid the cell death process. The findings may suggest a chemotherapeutic approach to prevent the spread of cancers.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Zachary T. Schafer, Coleman Assistant Professor of Cancer Biology at Notre Dame reveals in a study at the University of Notre Dame that cancer cells which are detached from their normal environment, as they would be during metastasis, rely on the activity of antioxidant enzymes to facilitate their survival. This class of enzymes is critical for neutralizing oxidative stress and function much like the compounds that are present in a variety of foods.

The paper describes a prominent role for antioxidant enzymes in facilitating the survival of breast cancer cells after detachment from the extracellular matrix. Conversely, the researchers report, silencing antioxidant enzyme expression reduced tumor formation.

"The results in this paper suggest that targeting antioxidant enzymes with novel therapeutics may selectively kill off metastasizing cancer cells," Schafer said.

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Supreme Court Ruling Makes BRCA Genetic Testing Widely Available

Supreme Court Ruling Makes BRCA Genetic Testing Widely Available | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Mary-Claire King, who discovered the BRCA1 cancer-related gene, says she is delighted by the US Supreme Court ruling that makes it illegal to patent it
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The BRCA1 (breast cancer type 1) gene was discovered by Dr. Mary-Claire King in 1990. Her breakthrough discovery paved the way for major changes in the study of many other common diseases.

BRCA1 is expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where it helps repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. If BRCA1 itself is damaged, damaged DNA is not repaired properly and this increases risks for cancers.

Not long after Dr. King discovered the BRCA1 gene, a company called Myriad Genetics was granted a patent on BRCA1 in the U.S. in 1997. In the following year, 1998, Myriad Genetics was granted a patent on BRCA2 which was also discovered by Dr. King. These patents were quite obviously for financial gain only and resulted in Myriad Genetics immediately insisting that it was the only entity that could test for this gene, and anybody else who performed such tests would be shut down. This meant that Myriad Genetics had been legally granted a monopoly for testing the BRCA1/2 genes for mutations, and as you can imagine they levied very high charges for such tests.

Since the patent was granted for BRCA1/2 genes legal battles have been initiated to fight against then fact that a company has was granted a patent on something that occurs in nature. Common sense certainly does not prevail if genes occurring in nature can be patented and monopolized. So after due legal process, just last week, a US Supreme Court ruling made it illegal to be granted a patent on the BRCA gene.

It is nice to know that common sense has prevailed, and that we can look forward to freedom of choice on the availability of genetic testing without any organization imposing financial burden on patients for needing to have such tests.

I recommend you read the interview with Dr. King in which she describes her role in the discovery and delight at the recent Supreme Court ruling.

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Oesophageal Cancer Increases in UK

Oesophageal Cancer Increases in UK | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
People who suffer from heartburn should go and see a doctor if it persists for three weeks because they may be at risk of cancer, experts have warned.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

In the past 30 years oesophageal cancer rates have doubled, and two thirds of patients die within three to nine months.

Experts are still investigating the causes of the increase, but have linked the disease to obesity and to persistent acid reflux, or heartburn – a common condition caused when stomach acid leaks into the oesophagus.

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Watchful Waiting Maybe Best Approach for Prostate Cancer

Watchful Waiting Maybe Best Approach for Prostate Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Watching and routinely examining men with early, slow-growing prostate cancer is more effective and cheaper than sending them to surgery or radiation right away, according to a new study.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Prostate problems and prostate cancer may never grow large or fast enough to threaten a man's life. But treating it can cause side effects such as incontinence and impotence.

A new study at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston indicates that men's risk of ultimately dying from prostate cancer itself was 4.8 percent for those treated with active surveillance, 6.0 percent for watchful waiters and 8.9 percent among men who went straight to treatment.

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Diet Lowers Risk of Prostate Cancer

Diet Lowers Risk of Prostate Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Each year, nearly a quarter of a million American men learn they have prostate cancer. Most are diagnosed with early-stage cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate gland.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Results of a study of 4,500 men indicate that diet may offer protection against prostate cancer. Study participants who ate the largest amount of vegetable fats were less likely to die from prostate cancer—or any other cause—than men who consumed the most animal fats. Most of the vegetable fats consumed by the men came from oils in salad dressings and nuts.

Earlier studies have implicated the traditional Western diet, which is relatively high in red meat and other sources of animal fats, with a higher risk for developing prostate cancer in the first place, while eating more vegetable oils and vegetable protein may help prevent it.

In the study, men who replaced 10% of their total calories from carbohydrates with calories from vegetable oils were 29% less likely to die from prostate cancer or any other cause over eight years of follow-up.

This one study, of course, can’t prove that a healthful diet fights prostate cancer. It is not really known what contributed most to keeping prostate cancer in check—eating more beneficial vegetable oils, eating fewer (or healthier) carbohydrate-rich foods, or eating less meat. It may not matter, since all three are part of a healthful diet.

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Statins and Cancer: More Questions Than Answers

Statins and Cancer: More Questions Than Answers | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
At present, it is impossible to prove that statins have any effect on the development or spread of cancer.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It seems there is disagreement about whether taking statins (typically used for lowering cholesterol) have an effect on cancer.

Sometimes it is very difficult to verify these relationships, as cancer can take such a long time to develop. However read for yourself and be updated.

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Men Are 3 Times More Likely to Get Cancer Than Women

Men Are 3 Times More Likely to Get Cancer Than Women | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
MEN have a poor awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer and tend to only attend doctors when they want to be cured, according to a new report.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

In Ireland, The Irish Cancer Society reports that men are up to 3 times more likely to develop cancer than women. Lifestyle is at the root of much of the gap due to smoking, drinking, unhealthy diets, high levels of obesity and lack of exercise.

Changing lifestyle behaviors is critical to maintaining health and wellness. However it is very difficult for many people to change deeply ingrained habits.

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Cancer Database Launched in UK

Cancer Database Launched in UK | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The world's largest cancer database will be launched in the UK today, in what experts are calling a “game-changing” stride forward in the fight against the disease.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A database, which has been in development for 5-years, containing millions of patient records with detailed information on individual cancers and how they have been treated, has been launched today in the UK.

This is a positive step forward in analyzing what works and what doesn’t. Although it will require sophisticated searching and analysis techniques to uncover the most useful information and directions contained amongst the data.

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CT Scans, Children, and Cancer Risk

CT Scans, Children, and Cancer Risk | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Over the last two decades CT scans in children have skyrocketed and the radiation from the CT procedures could result in thousands of future cases of cancer, according to a large, multi-center study published Monday.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

CT scans in children have increased considerably over the past 20 years. Between 1996 and 2006 CT scans in children under age 5 nearly doubled, while they almost tripled in kids aged 5 to 14 years, according to the report in JAMA Pediatrics.

CT scans are a great tool that should be used wisely after careful consideration of other safe diagnostic procedures. Bear in mind that radiation exposure is accumulated in the body throughout a lifetime.

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Insomnia May Double Risk of Prostate Cancer

Insomnia May Double Risk of Prostate Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Approximately one in six men will be diagnosed with the disease at some point in their lifetime. What if the quality of sleep plays a role in a man's risk for developing the disease?
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Research in recent years has discovered links between poor sleep and several types of cancer. The results of the latest study at University of Iceland in Reykjavik suggest that men who have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep -- two common symptoms of insomnia -- may be at twice the risk of developing prostate cancer.

This study adds to the growing body of research showing evidence of a relationship between poor sleep and risk for prostate cancer and other types of cancer.

The prospect of a connection between sleep and cancer risk is yet another very important reason to maintain healthy sleep habits.

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Blood Test for Colon Cancer

Blood Test for Colon Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Most people would rather deliver a speech naked than get a colonoscopy (and some would argue there’s not much difference).
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

According to a study published in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, the future of colorectal cancer screening may lie in the development of biomarkers for the disease.

Researchers found that their simple blood test detected cancer correctly 87 percent of the time and was right about those without cancer about 95 percent of the time. When they looked only at early – or stage I – disease, the test caught the cancer 92 percent of the time.

If this is confirmed and proven effective it is likely that it could replace the traditional and invasive colonoscopy. Colonoscopies are credited with reducing deaths from colorectal cancer, but according to Dr. H. Gilbert Welch, a professor of medicine at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, there is no indication that the tests actually save more lives than a lower tech, less invasive alternative: the stool test. Colonoscopy became much more popular than the alternative stool test simply because “the basic idea of it was so appealing,” according to Dr. Welch.

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A Promising Nontoxic Cancer Therapy

A Promising Nontoxic Cancer Therapy | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
A combination of dietary and hyperbaric oxygen therapies effectively increased survival time in a mouse model of aggressive metastatic cancer, a new research team found.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A study combining two non-toxic therapies, the ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, has been shown to be effective in treating metastatic cancer in mice. This may have some major implications for the treatment of human cancer.

The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet originally devised to treat epilepsy. It forces the body to burn fat, rather than carbohydrate, which the liver converts into fatty acids and ketones. The ketones are a source of energy to the brain, in place of the usual carbohydrates in food converted into glucose. So the ketones replace glucose as the energy source. This creates a physiological change in the body from the use of glucose to fatty acids and ketone bodies for energy. As cancer cells rely on glucose it is logical to assume that they will suffer without an adequate supply of glucose.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the amount of oxygen in the tissues, which saturates the tumors with oxygen. As cancer cells are affected by oxygen it is logical to assume that they will suffer as a result of an increased supply of oxygen.

Both the ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are non-toxic and may protect healthy tissues while damaging and therefore eliminating cancer cells. Many natural and holistic cancer treatments use this logical strategy based on elimination of sugar and carbohydrate and increased oxygen. So this will be an interesting therapy to watch as research progresses.

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Health Care for Cancer Survivors

Health Care for Cancer Survivors | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
After Teresa Levitch underwent successful chemotherapy and radiation for the cancer attacking her immune system, she believed her health problems were over.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Chemotherapy and radiation, the base weapons used to attack cancer even when other, newer medications are used, can carry severe side effects that last for years. The medical world is only now beginning to react to the physical and emotional toll survivors live with after their cancer is controlled.


The cancer survivor program at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York is a center established to provide care to cancer survivors. Research suggests survival centers, like the one at Sloan-Kettering, have the potential to fill a big treatment need. Only one in five oncologists said they provided a treatment summary that included a follow-up plan to breast and colon cancer patients after successful treatment, according to a survey of over 1,100 oncologists and 1,000 primary-care doctors presented at the clinical oncology society meeting.


The same survey shows that only a third of primary-care doctors who work with cancer survivors said they routinely received any type of treatment summaries from oncologists, and just 13 percent said they received follow-up plans.

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Chlamydia Infection May Pave Way For Cancer Via DNA Damage

Chlamydia Infection May Pave Way For Cancer Via DNA Damage | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Study shows that by changing host cells to suit its own survival, Chlamydia creates an environment that could favor cancer growth.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin suggests that infection by Chlamydia may pave the way for cancer. The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease that infects over 90 million people worldwide every year, and often goes unnoticed.

 

The study shows show that Chlamydia makes a long-lasting impression on the genome and epi-genome of host cells. Such changes are increasingly implicated in the development of a range of cancers. Chlamydia disrupted the host cell DNA Damage Response by stopping key proteins from reaching the sites of DNA damage.

 

The result is an increasing population of rogue host cells that have escaped the normal mechanisms that ensure faulty DNA is not replicated: a hallmark of cancer. However the path from infection to cancer needs to be firmly established before any suitable treatments can be devised.

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Cancer Mutations Not Always Related to Cause of Cancer

Cancer Mutations Not Always Related to Cause of Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
But researchers show artefacts can be reduced by taking differing rates of mutation into account.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Knowing whether mutations observed in cancer are actually a consequence or a cause of the cancer is sometimes very difficult.

In some cases, the higher rate of mutation was not linked to cancer, but to other confounding factors, the team demonstrated according to Gad Getz, a computational biologist at the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

All cells accumulate mutations, but cancer genomes tend to be particularly riddled with errors — in part because cancer involves the deactivation of the cell's own repair mechanisms, and because tumor cells reproduce at a faster rate than those in healthy tissue. Most mutations do not affect the cell's life cycle, however, and thus are probably not involved in cancer.

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How Cancer Spreads In The Body

How Cancer Spreads In The Body | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Scientists have identified the mechanism by which cancer is able to spread throughout the body, after discovering a cell movement process called "chase and run."
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

This is another major breakthrough in understanding the process of metastasis and how cancer spreads.

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Amazing New Finding of How Cancer Spreads!

Amazing New Finding of How Cancer Spreads! | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
A protein used by embryo cells during early development, and recently found in many different types of cancer, apparently serves as a switch regulating the spread of cancer, known as metastasis, report researchers.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center have made an important discovery about how cancer is able to spread and metastasize. They have identified a particular protein that appears to function as a switch responsible for regulating the spread of cancer.

The protein, called ROR1 (Receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like Orphan Receptor 1) is normally expressed only during our early embryonic development (embryogenesis) prior to becoming a fetus, after which it is no longer active.

The researchers found that this embryonic protein, ROR1, is also expressed for some unknown reason in many cancers. Being a protein involved in the migration of cells and development of organs in the fetus can give logical reasoning why its presence after birth may encourage further abnormal migratory cell development and tumor growth.

When the researchers turned off the expression of ROR1 in laboratory experiments they found that cancer cells ceased to spread. So the abnormal presence of ROR1 at anytime of life after birth may be an initiator of tumor growth and expansion, by allowing cells to occupy other bodily tissues.

This is an amazing and possibly revolutionary step forward in understanding cancer. The researchers can now set out to developing human clinical studies in patients with cancers that express ROR1.

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Genes Discovered that Increase Risk of Bowel Cancer

ISLAMABAD: Researchers have discovered two genes that increase the risk of bowel cancer, which explain why some families are incredibly vulnerable to the disease.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Researchers from the University of Oxford and the Institute of Cancer Research, London discovered two genes that increase the risk of bowel cancer. In a study of 4,000 people with bowel cancer they found that everyone who had a faulty POLE or POLD1 gene developed the disease.

"These two faults are rare, but if you inherit them your chance of bowel cancer is high, according to lead researcher Ian Tomlinson from the University of Oxford.

POLE and POLD1 are involved in scanning and repairing damage to DNA, and removing incorrect sequences from the DNA chain. If these genes are faulty there could be a build up of damage in the DNA which could cause bowel cancer.

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Court Ruling Against Gene Patents

Court Ruling Against Gene Patents | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Companies and a university are moving to offer cheaper and broader genetic testing for breast cancer risk to a growing group of women, following a U.S.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Good news that the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Myriad Genetics Inc. having a monopoly over DNA.

This means that expanded testing on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can now progress. It is nonsense that a company such as Myriad Genetics can actually hold a patent on human genes, which they have had since the late 1990’s. Such patent ownership means other organizations are reluctant to do further testing, and ultimately such preclusion effects cancer patients.

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New Genetic-Markers for Cancer Discovered

New Genetic-Markers for Cancer Discovered | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

74 new genetic variants linked to breast, ovarian and prostate cancers have been discovered in a collaborative effort across 160 research centres by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS).

The COGS study also found that breast, ovarian and prostate cancer — all hormone-driven — may have a common cause. The study found 18 loci, or points on chromosomes, associated with more than one cancer. This discovery may enable improved risk assessment and focused treatment for cancer.

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Breast Cancer Screening Found Not To Improve Survival

Breast Cancer Screening Found Not To Improve Survival | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
25 years of breast cancer screening has failed to significantly reduce deaths from the disease, according to a landmark study.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Breast cancer screening is a subject of heated debate between people with varied opinions. Last year a review commissioned by the Department of Health in the UK found that death rates were 20 per cent lower among women invited to screening. However researchers from Oxford University now claim there is “no evidence” to suggest breast cancer screening is having any effect on improving survival. Instead, they claim that other factors such as better treatment are likely to be behind improving survival.

In the UK the screening program is being extended and will apply to all women aged 47 to 73 by 2016.

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Cruciferous Vegetables Slow Prostate Cancer

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Once again cruciferous vegetables such as bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, turnips, and other green-leaf vegetables have been strongly associated with lower prostate cancer risk, according to a report by Joshi J. Alumkal, MD, of the Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. The report identified sulforaphane, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, as suppressing androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells.

This is not the first time that cruciferous vegetables have been associated with lower prostate cancer risk. In 2003 Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School made a similar conclusion.

Therefore it would seem to be prudent to include an adequate supply of cruciferous vegetables in the diet.

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Study Suggests 47% of All Britons Will Develop Cancer in Their Lifetime by 2020

Study Suggests 47% of All Britons Will Develop Cancer in Their Lifetime by 2020 | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Analysis by Macmillan Cancer Support points to ageing population as main driver and warns of 'herculean challenge' for NHS
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The incidence of cancer has risen by more than a third over the past 20 years. In 1992 about one in three people (32%) who died that year in Britain had had a diagnosis of the disease. By 2010 that had increased to 44%, a jump of 38%.

Rates of cancer are rising so much that by 2020 (only 7 years from now) almost half of all Britons will develop cancer in their lifetime.

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15 Ways to Cancer-Proof Your Life

15 Ways to Cancer-Proof Your Life | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Whether your risk of cancer is monumental or blessedly average, we know you want to protect yourself.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Published in Prevention Magazine, this article has some good basic advice.

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Mammography Helps Some People But May Lead Others to be Treated Unnecessarily

"...screening review shows startling over-diagnosis and lack of truthful information:

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

This article brings to attention the often discussed topic of ‘over-diagnosis’ - http://www.naturalnews.com/040655_mammograms_breast_cancer_over-diagnosis.html

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