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Daily Aspirin May Reduce Risk of Cancer

Daily Aspirin May Reduce Risk of Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Daily pill for middle-aged could save 130,000 lives over 20 years in Britain alone, scientists suggest
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A research team led by Professor Jack Cuzick, head of the centre for cancer prevention at Queen Mary University of London, concluded that people between 50 and 65 should consider regularly taking daily aspirin to reduce cancer risk.

Cuzick said that taking aspirin "looks to be the most important thing we can do to reduce cancer after stopping smoking and reducing obesity, and will probably be much easier to implement". However, to obtain the newfound benefits of the drug, people would have to take aspirin for at least five years and probably ten, the review said.

Cuzick's team, writing in the cancer journal Annals of Oncology, said that by taking low-dose aspirin every day for ten years, bowel cancer cases could be cut by about 35% and deaths by 40%. Aspirin could reduce rates of oesophageal and stomach cancers by 30% and deaths from them by 35% to 50%.

Taking aspirin every day increases the risk of stomach bleeds. Aspirin is already given to some people to reduce their risk of heart attacks or ischemic stroke, caused by blood clots, which it does by thinning the blood. But it is likely to worsen a haemorrhagic stroke, caused by bleeding in the brain.

It is believed that aspirin may reduce the risk of cancer due to its ability to reduce inflammation, and by thinning the blood thereby making it more difficult for cancer cells to adhere to blood platelets.

You can also read more about aspirin in a recent Consumer Update published at the FDA’s own website – http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm390539.htm , where they state – “after carefully examining scientific data from major studies, FDA has concluded that the data do not support the use of aspirin as a preventive medication by people who have not had a heart attack, stroke or cardiovascular problems, a use that is called "primary prevention." In such people, the benefit has not been established but risks—such as dangerous bleeding into the brain or stomach—are still present.”

As with any medication it is important to do your own further investigation, consult with your chosen health professional, and bear in mind that adding any medication to an unhealthy lifestyle and diet still results in an unhealthy lifestyle and diet. Always make decisions only after you have become well-informed.

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Why Cancer Cells Grow Despite Lack of Oxygen

Why Cancer Cells Grow Despite Lack of Oxygen | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
EGF
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Reduced oxygen supply (hypoxia) to the cell is one of the common characteristics seen in tumor cells. Normally a reduction of oxygen will cause healthy cells to retard their growth. However cancer cells accelerate their growth, even when oxygen levels are reduced. This situation has puzzled many researchers.

Now researchers have solved part of the puzzle on how this happens. A protein (PHD3) within normal cells is able to detect lack of oxygen, which will then signal other proteins to be activated, and will cause a growth factor receptor (EGF) to be drawn into the cells interior. Once inside the cell the growth factor receptor (EGF) serves to down-regulate the growth of the cell.

However it has been found that in cancer cells the protein (PHD3) is not active when oxygen level is low, and therefore the growth factor receptor is not drawn into the cell to exercise control over growth. Therefore the cancer cells growth continues unchecked.

The discovery is an important step in understanding the nature of cancer cells, and could influence new areas of research that could lead to beneficial results in cancer therapy.

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FDA Warns Gynecologic Device Spreads Cancer

FDA Warns Gynecologic Device Spreads Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
FDA warns gynecologic device has spread cancer
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A power morcellation device used to pulverize fibroids before removing them through a tiny hole in the abdomen has a very high risk of causing the spread of cancer.

Most major hospitals have stopped using these power morcellators due to the risks involved.

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Lactose Intolerance Linked To Lower Cancer Risk

Lactose Intolerance Linked To Lower Cancer Risk | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Lactose Intolerants Linked To Lower Cancer Risk
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

According to Jianguang Ji, Associate Professor at Lund University and researcher at the Center for Primary Care Research in Malmö, the results of a study show that people with lactose-intolerance, who typically consume low amounts of milk and other dairy products, have a reduced risk of lung, breast and ovarian cancers.

Lifestyle factors such as high consumption of milk and other dairy products have been suspected to contribute to the high incidence of breast and ovarian cancers, although many studies have been inconclusive.

Based on data from 22,788 individuals with lactose-intolerance the researchers found that the risks of lung cancer, breast cancer and ovarian cancer were significantly lower in people with lactose-intolerance compared to people without lactose-intolerance, irrespective of country of birth and gender.

While this study is of interest, it does not necessarily mean that lactose-intolerance protects against cancer. It is possible that other factors such as lower calorie intake because of low milk consumption, and protective factors in plant-based milk drinks, may contribute to the observed negative association between lactose-intolerance and the studied cancers.

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How NSAIDs Initiate Suicide of Intestinal Cells That May Become Cancerous

How NSAIDs Initiate Suicide of Intestinal Cells That May Become Cancerous | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
team found that NSAIDs activate the "death receptor pathway." This means that the drugs initiate suicide in intestinal stem cells that have a mutation in the APC gene.

The APC mutation makes these genes dysfunctional. Cells affected by the mutation can potentially develop into precancerous polyps and tumors. Although cells that have a mutation in the APC gene are targeted by NSAIDs, healthy cells with the non-mutated gene are unaffected.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It has been known for some time that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, lower the risk of developing intestinal polyps, which can develop into cancer. However, it has not been understood how NSAIDs may reduce this cancer risk.

A study done by Lin Zhang, PhD, associate professor of the Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology at the Pitt School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute has highlighted how the preventative effect from NSAIDs may happen.

The research team found that NSAIDs activate the "death receptor pathway." This means that the drugs initiate suicide in intestinal stem cells that have a mutation in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene. The APC mutation makes these genes dysfunctional, and cells affected by the mutation can potentially develop into precancerous polyps and tumors. Although cells that have a mutation in the APC gene are targeted by NSAIDs, healthy cells with the non-mutated gene are unaffected.

The research was published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/10/29/1415178111.abstract

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Cap Allows Cancer Patients to Keep Hair During Chemotherapy

Cap Allows Cancer Patients to Keep Hair During Chemotherapy | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
cap allows cancer patients to keep hair during chemo
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A cap that allows cancer patients to keep their hair while undergoing chemotherapy is being tested. The cap works by slowly cooling the scalp to constrict small blood vessels and limit the concentration of cancer drugs reaching the hair follicles. It's been undergoing clinical trial at the University of California, San Francisco.

The UCSF team has now gathered enough data from the trial to present results to the Food and Drug Administration. If approved, Swedish manufacturer Dignitana plans to begin working with hospitals and chemotherapy centers.

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Knowing Cancer Risk May Not Affect Screening Rates

Knowing Cancer Risk May Not Affect Screening Rates | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Telling people of their potential increased risk of colon cancer did not spur them to get the recommended screening.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Personalized genetic information to guide medical decisions is increasingly becoming available. A study was done to determine if individualized genetic and environmental risk assessment (GERA) of colorectal cancer susceptibility improves adherence to screening tests in average-risk persons.

Researchers studied 783 people aged over 50 who were found to be at risk for colorectal cancer and who had not undertaken prior screening. All the participants were told of their apparent risk for the cancer.

Two-thirds of the people in the study received comprehensive advice about colon cancer screening, a session of genetic counseling and a blood test that could tell them whether they were at average or increased risk for colon cancer. The other third received only the advice about the advantages of screening.

Over the next 6-months those people who chose to have screening tests in each of the two groups was basically the same – 33.1% and 35.7% respectively. This study example shows that giving people knowledge of the availability of personalized risk assessment testing made no difference to their decision to undertake testing.

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The Truth About Cancer – Free Replay (Free Offer Ends Sunday evening Oct 26)

The Truth About Cancer – Free Replay (Free Offer Ends Sunday evening Oct 26) | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Find out how to prevent and treat cancer 100% naturally, watch the episodes for FREE today, Oct. 13th ~ 24th
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

For anybody interested in understanding the natural therapeutic approaches to cancer that many people have found successful, here is a free offer to select and watch any of the eleven episodes of a recent Cancer Summit, as follows.

Watching this will give you an immediate jump-start on all the most up-to-date knowledge about what may be working for many people.

Episode 1:  Modern Medicine & The Cancer Pandemic
Episode 2:  Your First Line Of Defense
Episode 3:  Eliminate These “Dirty Dozen” To Prevent Cancer
Episode 4:  Your Secret Fountain of Youth
Episode 5:  Nature’s Pharmacy
Episode 6:  Clean Foods & The Cancer-Free Diet
Episode 7:  Diagnostic “Do’s & Don’ts” – Proven Treatment Protocols Part 1
Episode 8:  Proven Treatment Protocols Part 2
Episode 9:  Proven Treatment Protocols Part 3
Episode 10: Doctor’s Orders
Episode 11: How to Survive and Thrive

This is the replay link - http://www.thetruthaboutcancer.com/live/replay.php

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Has the Evolution of Cooking and the Foods We Eat Contributed to Increased Cancer Rates?

Has the Evolution of Cooking and the Foods We Eat Contributed to Increased Cancer Rates? | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Michael Pollan is an author, activist, journalist and professor of journalism at the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. He mainly focuses on the industrial food chain with regards to his research. He emphasizes how cooking is one of the simplest and most important steps people can take to improve their family’s health, build communities, […]
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

In this short video Michael Pollan gives an interesting perspective on the role of cooking – how it has changed and how we have become dependent on corporations to cook our food.

This may provide valuable insight into one important aspect of why cancer rates are rising in our society. We see study after study showing how pesticides, GMOs and a number of other things we choose to surround ourselves with on a daily basis are indeed harmful to human health.

Perhaps it is time for us to wake up and fully acknowledge the various contributing factors to the ill-health of our society. If we consider that 75% of the US health budget is spent on the treatment of lifestyle-related chronic diseases that have been associated with diet and nutrition, we may need to make better choices in our lives.

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How to Not Get Cancer - According to the Experts at WHO

How to Not Get Cancer - According to the Experts at WHO | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Cancer experts at the World Health Organisation (WHO) have published a 12-point code aimed at preventing cancer.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Dr Joachim Schuez, who led the research, explained “these are all recommendations where you can change your behavior as an individual”.

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Thomas Seyfried Ph.D. Questions the Origin of Cancer - Suggesting Conventional Therapies for Cancer Should be Directed Towards the Causes of Cancer

Thomas Seyfried Ph.D. Questions the Origin of Cancer - Suggesting Conventional Therapies for Cancer Should be Directed Towards the Causes of Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it

If oncogenes are the drivers of this disease, why is it that when you take the nucleus from a tumor cell and put it into a normal cytoplasm, the nucleus is no longer capable of producing the disease?

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

According to Boston College professor of biology, and cancer research scientist, Thomas Seyfried Ph.D., the very origin of cancer is in dispute. He explains why it is not a genetic disease and says that we will not likely make any substantial progress until we recognize and direct our therapies toward the true causes of cancer.

The current view now is that cancer is mainly a genetic disease. The cancer field was built on this foundation, that genes are regulating the entire process. However it is known that there are carcinogens that do not damage nuclear DNA but do still cause cancer. This tends to contradict the gene theory somewhat.

There are other issues to do with lactic acid production, and how this has been seen to vary in cancer cells in-vitro when compared with in-vivo analysis.

If oncogenes are the drivers of cancer, why is it that when you take the nucleus from a tumor cell and put it into a normal cytoplasm, the nucleus is no longer capable of producing the disease?

And now within the last few years people have been able to transplant mitochondria. So if you transplant normal mitochondria into a tumor cell's cytoplasm, you suppress the tumor-genic phenotype. And if you transplant abnormal mitochondria into a normal cytoplasm, you can produce developmental abnormal cells or dead cells. This tends to indicate that mitochondria may be responsible for tumor development.

This is an interesting interview with Thomas Seyfried discussing the above issues as well as other analyses that question the origin and nature of cancer, and consequently the logical choice of therapy.

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Green Tea Based Chemotherapy-Delivery-System Shown to Target and Kill Cancer Cells More Effectively

Green Tea Based Chemotherapy-Delivery-System Shown to Target and Kill Cancer Cells More Effectively | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Green tea has long been known for its anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-aging and anti-microbial properties. A group of researchers from the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) of A*STAR has taken the health benefits of green tea to the next level by using one of its ingredients to develop ...
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A key challenge in chemotherapy is ensuring that the drugs are delivered only to the tumor in order to avoid harming the surrounding healthy tissues and organs. To address this, researchers have focused their efforts on developing more effective drug carriers.

A major stumbling block in designing more effective carriers for drugs has been the drug-to-carrier ratio. Specifically, the capacity of a particular carrier limits the amount of drug that it can deliver.

A group of researchers from the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) has designed a therapeutic nano-carrier for drug delivery using novel compounds derived from EGCG. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is an antioxidant and key ingredient in green tea which is known to have therapeutic applications in the treatment of many disorders including cancer.

Using EGCG, the IBN researchers have successfully engineered nano-carriers that can deliver drugs and kill cancer cells more efficiently. The study revealed that IBN's green tea nanocomplex loaded with Herceptin (a protein drug currently used to treat breast cancer) reduced tumor growth much more effectively when compared to administering Herceptin on its own. Using the new nano-carrier, twice as much drug accumulated in the cancer cells, indicating an improved tumor targeting ability. At the same time, the drug accumulation in the other organs was lowered substantially, by 70% in the liver and kidney, and by 40% in the lung.

The research is published at this link in the journal Nature Nanotechnology - http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.208.html

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Howard Fox's curator insight, October 14, 7:53 PM

Interesting article about the effectiveness of Green Tea

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The Cost of Cancer Drugs

The Cost of Cancer Drugs | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Lesley Stahl discovers the shock and anxiety of a cancer diagnosis can be followed by a second jolt: the astronomical price of cancer drugs.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Perhaps we need to start treating the cost of cancer drugs almost as a financial toxicity side-effect of cancer. Watch this 60-Minutes broadcast to learn more. I have summarized below for those who prefer to read.

The investigator for this report was surprised to find:
- just how expensive cancer drugs were, and
- that many oncologists receive a commission when they prescribe cancer drugs

Most cancer drugs are targeted at extending life rather than curing cancer. That life extension likelihood is sometimes suggested as days rather than years. So for patients it may be difficult to decide whether life extension for an additional 42 days is worth the high cost of the drug – such as Zaltrap (for advanced colon cancer) discussed in the report.

The pharmaceutical companies do make a significant contribution to the treatment of cancer. They are entitled to make a profit which continues to fuel innovation. However the high cost of these drugs can result in bankruptcy of the patient’s family. A cancer diagnosis is one of the leading causes of personal bankruptcy today. It is not unusual for patients to take 2 or 3 different drugs for their cancer treatment, each costing $100,000. An entry-level cost of drug treatment probably is around $250,000 in costs.

We may be in a situation where people’s fear and anxiety is being taken advantage of by the cancer industry. Many oncologists believe the cost of the cancer drugs are too high. Drug companies assert that the cost of bringing a new drug to market is $1 billion. So prices reflect the cost of innovation.

Dr Leonard Saltz, Chief of Gasto-Intestinal Oncology at Memorial Sloan Kettering, compared the clinical trial costs of Zaltrap (mentioned above) approved in 2012 to those of another drug already on the market – Avastin. Both drugs target the same patient population, work essentially in the same way, and deliver the identical result of extending median survival by 1.4 months (42 days) when given as chemotherapy. The two drugs look to be the same. Although the Zaltrap study showed it to be a little more toxic than Avastin. So why does Zaltrap cost more than $11,000 per month which is more than twice the cost of Avastin at $5,000 per month?

Together with Dr. Saltz, Dr. Peter Bock, Sloan Kettering’s in-house expert on cancer drug prices, decided to reject Zaltrap based on its high price. This was reported in the New York Times. This raised the issue that the drug companies are permitted to charge whatever they want and there are no controls on this as part of the approval process. The pricing system for drugs is dictated by those who make the drugs. The prices seem to be decided on their own views only, and according to Dr. Brock are based on how brave they are and how little they want to end up being criticized in the New York Times or on 60-Minutes programs.

Media criticism does seem to work. Right after the New York Times article reporting on Zaltrap, the pharmaceutical manufacturer of Zaltrap, Sanofi, cut the price of their drug by half. This was irrefutable evidence that the original price had no basis, and was only profit oriented to meet the company’s financial greed. As a consequence all those arguments heard for decades from the pharmaceutical companies – we have to recoup our money, we are good for society, trust us to set the right price, etc – simply no longer had any credibility. Sanofi lowered the price of Zaltrap in a way that doctors could get the drug for less. But patients were still paying as if it was high priced. According to Dr. Bock, doctors were buying the drug for $11,000 and the company sent the doctors a cheque for $6,000. Then the doctor gets to bill the patient’s insurance company as if it costs $11,000. This made it extremely profitable for the doctors. Basically doctors could double their money if they used Zaltrap.

The commission based approach provides an incentive for the doctors to choose and recommend the most expensive drugs for patients. While this may be advantageous for the drug companies and doctors, it is a system that should be carefully considered in terms of its morality and fairness to patients.

All of this is currently accepted industry practice. John Castellani, President and CEO of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) – the Trade and Drug Industry’s lobbying group in Washington - comments that the price of the drug needs to reflect the cost of development, and the value it can provide. When asked how it can be that a patient can be taking a drug that is no better than another drug on the market, yet costs twice as much, Castellani responded that “we don’t set the prices; what a patient pays is determined by the patient’s insurance company.”

Another drug example is Glevec, from Novartis, which treats a common blood cancer and requires patients to keep taking the drug indefinitely. This is the top-selling drug for Novartis, bringing in more than $4 billion per year in sales, and $35 billion since the drug came to market. There are several other similar drugs that compete with Glevec. Such competition would normally bring down the prices in a typical marketplace. But the price of Glevec has tripled from $28,000 per year in 2001 to $92,000 per year in 2012. So drug companies are also raising their prices on their older drugs, not just the new ones.

According to Hagop M. Kantarjian, Professor at Department of Leukemia, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, the drug companies are setting prices that are unreasonable, unsustainable and immoral. He believes that the law needs to change that currently prevents Medicare from negotiating for lower prices, which now results in American patients paying two to three times more for the same drug compared to the cost for the same drug in other countries.

To complete the picture, the single biggest source of income for private practice oncologists is the commission they make on prescribing cancer drugs. They buy the drugs wholesale from the pharmaceutical companies and sell them retail to their patients. This fuels the incentive for oncologists to use more expensive drugs for their own financial gain.

Dr. Saltz believes that the challenge is knowing where to draw the line between how long drugs may extend life and how much they cost. We as a society have been unwilling to discuss this topic, and as a result the only people that are setting the line are the people selling the drugs.

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, October 6, 2:36 PM

More evidence of the far reaching impacts cancer diagnosis and treatment has on survivors, their families, and our economy. When we bankrupt people and add things like financial stress, job loss, navigating complex insurance environments, and more to an already heavy burden of life threatening and, often, chronic disease we are causing injury to our communities and our country.

 

Survivorship coaches know very well how many aspects of life survivors struggle with - career, intimacy, fertility, fears of recurrence, relationships, physical energy. We must begin to address the whole person and provide tools and resources for all of the major challenges - and addressing the sticker shock when it comes to the escalating cost of treatments is an essential area to focus on.

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Genetically Modified Rice Implicated in Higher Cancer Rates

Genetically Modified Rice Implicated in Higher Cancer Rates | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
These accusations are corroborated by a study conducted by Brazilian researchers, one which showed that Bt toxins found in GM rice are toxic to the blood of mice and cause red blood cells to rupture.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It appears that an alleged illegal GM rice trial on University students in China has led to an incidence rate of acute leukemia of up to 3 times the normal rate in the country.

Normally, leukemia among young adults in China is about 2 to 3 cases per 100,000 people. In the case of the students claiming to be fed GMO rice at the University’s base, the rate is at least three times higher. Seven students are on record now as having developed the disease.

These accusations are corroborated by a study conducted by Brazilian researchers - http://www.gmoevidence.com/dr-mezzomo-bt-toxins-toxic-to-blood-of-mice/

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New Book “Good Nutrition for Cancer Recovery” Launched by University College Cork

New Book “Good Nutrition for Cancer Recovery” Launched by University College Cork | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Family favourite recipes have been enhanced to maximise their calorie intake
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Weight loss is a common problem for many cancer patients. A new cookbook, Good Nutrition for Cancer Recovery, has just been launched by University College Cork to help cancer patients gain weight. It includes information, advice and nutritious recipes to combat weight loss.

The 130-page book has been endorsed by the Irish Nutrition & Dietetic Institute (INDI) and the Irish Society of Medical Oncology (ISMO), and is currently available free to download here - https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bx0b_3NrjeUEaTk1ZWMwRW52blU/view?pli=1

You can determine for yourself whether the book is of benefit. Personally I am somewhat wary of many of the recipes with added sugar, given the very nature of cancer-cell metabolism.

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Unexplainable Colorectal Cancer Rates Are Steadily Rising In People Under 50.

Unexplainable Colorectal Cancer Rates Are Steadily Rising In People Under 50. | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
In some ways, the rise in colon and rectal cancers in younger patients parallels increasing breast cancer rates among U.S. women in their twenties and thirties. Although the causes are unlikely to be exactly the same, they probably do overlap.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The overall incidence rate of colorectal cancer has decreased between 1975 and 2010 in the U.S., which is apparent and consistent in age groups over 50.

However in age groups below 50 the opposite trend has been identified, where the incidence rate of colorectal cancer has been increasing.

The surprising increase in colorectal cancers is most pronounced among men and women between the ages of 20 and 35. In that 20 to 35 age group their average increase of the incidence of colorectal cancer per year is not only higher than the over 50 age group, but more than four times that of the age group 35 to 49.

There seems to be no explanation for this increasing cancer trend in younger people. Assumptions such as obesity, poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, increased chemical exposure, and pollutants will all be included on the list to consider. The unexplainable increase of cancer cases in the younger population, of a particular cancer which has predominantly occurred in people over 50, should be studied as a matter of urgency. 

Such an increase of colorectal cancer in younger people also matches increasing breast cancer rates among U.S. women in their twenties and thirties. Although the causes may not necessarily be exactly the same, there is likely to be quite some commonality.

This situation should be a warning sign to us all that something, or indeed many things, in our society are not conducive to health and will continue to contribute to further health problems if not identified and rectified.

It is also a very clear indication that there needs to be considerable focus, investigation, education and emphasis on cancer prevention, rather than the present and evidently overwhelming focus on procedures and pharmaceutical interventions directed at cancer treatment purely to manage the disease and its symptoms.

It is recognized that medical procedures and pharmaceuticals generate considerable income and profit to the medical and cancer ‘industry’, and that a community-wide focus on disease prevention may reduce those financial returns. However it is rapidly becoming evident to the community that the pathway to prevention needs to be researched, devised and made available to everybody to follow should they choose to do so.

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Graham Player Ph.D.'s comment, November 7, 8:34 AM
The original report was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association - http://archsurg.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1920838
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Reasons Behind Korea's Thyroid-Cancer “Epidemic”

Reasons Behind Korea's Thyroid-Cancer “Epidemic” | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Thyroid cancer is the epitome of a malignancy that it's usually better not to find.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Dr. H. Gilbert Welch, Professor of Medicine at The Dartmouth Institute, and his team have published research in the New England Journal of Medicine pointing out that screening and over-diagnosis of thyroid-cancer, as is the case in South Korea, can be detrimental and incur serious health risks.

South Korea is years ahead of the U.S in paying for cancer screening. Back in 1999, the government started providing free or very low-cost cancer screening. This is part of South Korea’s program of detecting all cancers for which there’s a screening test – cancer of the breast, uterine cervix, colon, stomach and liver.

The program does not include screening for thyroid cancer. However so many hospitals and doctors have ultrasound machines – which can detect tiny thyroid tumors with a quick neck scan – that thyroid cancer screening has become routine in recent years, for a fee of $50 or less. It’s an easy sell, and an easy way to make money.

As a result, South Korea’s rate of thyroid cancer has soared. It’s 15 times higher than it was in the early 1990s, before routine ultrasound screening. However deaths from thyroid cancer in South Korea haven’t gone down at all over the past two decades, according to an article in this week’s New England Journal of Medicine.

According to the publication, the thyroid cancers being diagnosed in South Korea are almost always a slow-growing, non-life-threatening type that doesn’t need to be treated. Treating them is not harmless. “Virtually all the people diagnosed with thyroid cancer are treated,” the New England Journal article notes. Surgeons usually remove the thyroid gland, totally or partially, and patients must take thyroid hormone supplements the rest of their lives, often with difficult side effects.

More than one Korean thyroid-surgery patient in 10 suffers damage to the nearby parathyroid glands, which causes difficult-to-treat abnormalities of calcium metabolism. Two in every 100 patients ends up with paralyzed vocal cords from surgical mishaps. But clearly, South Korean doctors and patients find it almost impossible not to treat a cancer once it’s diagnosed.

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A New Technology Provides Real-Time Imaging of Cancerous Tissue - Using Time-Reversed Adapted-Perturbation (TRAP) Optical Focusing

A New Technology Provides Real-Time Imaging of Cancerous Tissue - Using Time-Reversed Adapted-Perturbation (TRAP) Optical Focusing | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Nature Photonics Advance Online Edition
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Lihong Wang, PhD, the Gene K. Beare Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering at the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis, together with his team have developed a new technology called time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing, which sends guiding light into tissue to seek movement.

This non-invasive technique is of benefit in both imaging and therapy according to the researchers. By combining ultrasound and light absorption this new technology produces live images of biological tissues several inches below the skin. Therefore active cancers could be viewed in detail never seen before which would enable more accurate assessments.

The technology sends guiding light into tissue to seek movement. The light that has traversed stationary tissue appears differently than light that has moved through something moving, such as blood. By taking two successive images, they can subtract the light through stationary tissue, retaining only the scattered light due to motion. Then, they send that light back to its original source via a process called time-reversal so that it becomes focused once back in the tissue.

Published in Nature Photonics Advance Online Edition the research can be seen here - http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphoton.2014.251.html

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The Future of Cancer Diagnosis

The Future of Cancer Diagnosis | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The company insists the technology – which is undergoing clinical tests in hospitals at the moment - could be ready within five years
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A technology that can detect multiple of cancers with a standard blood test that can be used in a GP's surgery – or even someone's home – has been developed by a startup company, Miroculus.

It works by detecting microRNAs - a type of molecule which can be used to identify illnesses such as cancer, diabetes and even Alzheimer's - from a blood sample using technology and biochemistry usually reserved for high-tech laboratories.

The company says the technology – which is undergoing clinical tests in hospitals at the moment - could be ready within five years.

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PSA Prostate-Cancer Screening Does More Harm Than Good, Task Force Says

PSA Prostate-Cancer Screening Does More Harm Than Good, Task Force Says | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The guidelines are already being questioned by groups such as Prostate Cancer Canada and the Canadian Urological Association, both of which favour the PSA test so long as it is used judiciously. They say it is especially useful for men of African descent and men with a family history of prostate cancer, both of whom have a higher likelihood of developing the disease.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Authorities are recommending that the PSA prostate cancer screening test be abandoned.

The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care concluded that the harms of over-treatment outweigh the benefits of early detection.

The guidelines are already being questioned by groups such as Prostate Cancer Canada and the Canadian Urological Association, both of which favor the PSA test so long as it is used judiciously. They say it is especially useful for men of African descent and men with a family history of prostate cancer, both of whom have a higher likelihood of developing the disease.

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Cancer May be Able to be Prevented and Cured Through Diet

Cancer May be Able to be Prevented and Cured Through Diet | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it

T. Colin Campbell, the professor emeritus in nutritional biochemistry at Cornell University said research has proven that consumption of animal products, including meat, fish and dairy, triggers chronic diseases and impaired health and poses a greater risk than heredity or environment.

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

T. Colin Campbell is a nutritional biochemist who specializes in the effect of nutrition on long-term health. He is Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University, and well-known for his two books, Whole (2013), and The China Study (2005), which became one of America's best-selling books about nutrition.

His research shows that consumption of animal products, including meat, fish and dairy, triggers chronic diseases and impaired health and poses a greater risk than heredity or environment. He has linked casein, a protein in milk, with breast cancer. His lifelong professional focus has been cancer and nutrition, and Campbell says that our national and global fight with cancer has targeted the wrong enemy.

He believes physicians are not reliable sources of nutritional advice for their patients, as most physicians received minimal to no nutritional education in medical school and have not generally conducted investigative laboratory research themselves. “Diet can be used to prevent and reverse cancer just like it prevents and reverses heart disease,” he said. “A diet high in animal protein increases the amount of carcinogens going to the cells. It increases the enzyme MFO (mixed function oxidase) that causes increased carcinogenic activity.” In the lab, Campbell has shown that increasing consumption of animal protein alters MFO and activates cancer while decreasing consumption detoxifies cancer. A high protein diet derived from animal products increases cell replication and increases oxygen free radicals associated with cancer and aging.

Nutrition seems to be a forgotten science. Unfortunately there have been no large-scale clinical trials with humans to test the efficacy of the whole-food, plant-based diet for prevention and treatment of cancer. Edward Giovannucci, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health, believes diet is the leading cause of poor health in the US and worldwide. His own research findings are compatible with Campbell’s work.

However while public policy continues to be driven by commercial interests we will likely see no major changes in thinking, emphasis or policy regarding the impact of changed nutritional habits on improving health.

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HPV Infection and Oral Cancer

HPV Infection and Oral Cancer | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
However, not everyone infected with HPV will develop cancer.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Increasing numbers of Danish men are being diagnosed with HPV-caused oral cancer.

The Danish Cancer Society (Kræftens Bekæmpelse) warns that oral sex increases the risk of HPV (human papilloma virus) infection, and suggest HPV can also be transmitted through mouth-to-mouth contact. However, not everyone infected with HPV will develop cancer.

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Some Key Facts About Your Immune System and Cancer

Many people ask me about the immune system. So here are a few key facts for your information.

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Your Immune System


Your first line of defense against pathogens.

Your own inner personal ‘military-force’ to deal with unwanted invaders.

Its objective is always to fight, fix, repair, promote detoxification, and maintain your health

Inflammation is one of the instruments used by the immune system to regulate health, usually in acute situations. However chronic and uncontrolled inflammation can have devastating effects on the immune system and your health. Contributors to chronic inflammation include chemicals, pollutants, heavy metals, emotional state, depression, stress levels, certain foods, pathogens, improper lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, etc.

The immune system is a learning system and able to recognize previous infections and eradicate them in the future.

People who have never been ill throughout life with the typical infections we all get from childhood onwards and other disease states, will have a less prepared and ready immune system to fight off future disease.

Many doctors may worry more about the people who have never been sick, due to their potentially less developed immune systems.

We are designed to fight infection, to stay healthy into old age, and to keep brain function into old age. If we treat our body correctly our immune system will work well to ensure we function well as designed.

We need to put the right fuel in our bodies so that our immune system can function optimally. The body and its immune system needs the right nutrients, vitamins and minerals, proper hydration, sleep, exercise, and attention to healthy emotional state, social interaction and lowered stress levels.

We need to remove the stressors that impede our immune system from working optimally.

When the immune system becomes disrupted that’s when bad things can begin to happen that compromise our health, including cancer.


Immune System and Cancer:

We all produce cancer cells everyday as part of our normal metabolism. Our healthy immune system identifies and removes these cancer cells quite adequately.

You cannot have cancer if you have an in-tact optimally functioning and healthy immune system.

If you have cancer then by definition your immune system has been compromised, and your immune system has missed dealing with the cancer.Many people see cancer as a disease of the immune system. A weakened immune system allows cancer cells to grow better. A consequence of chemotherapy and radiation is a weakened immune system.

Conventional cancer treatments, chemotherapy and radiation, compromise the immune system.

Conventional cancer treatment is focused on killing cancer cells, and not addressing the cause of cancer.

Cancer is an ‘obligate glucose metabolizer’, meaning it thrives on sugar (carbohydrate, glucose). Sugar compromises the immune system. A recent study showed that within 15-minutes of eating a predominantly carbohydrate meal (pizza, pasta, etc) the leukocyte index (the number of pathogens a white blood cell can destroy in 1-hour) fell from the normal 16 to 1.9, and maintained that lower level for many hours afterwards. That means a reduction to 10% of normal immune capacity for several hours.

A century ago sugar was a delicacy, and the average person consumed 5 pounds of sugar per year. Today in the US people consume an average of 150 pounds of sugar per person per year.

Cancer cells have certain characteristics – they only survive on sugar (glucose); they are anaerobic (do not need or thrive in an oxygenated environment); and they thrive in an acidic environment (as opposed to an alkaline environment).

Sugar contributes to free radical damage, damage to the mitochondria, and weakens our body’s innate immune system resulting in an environment where cancer cells can continue to grow and strengthen without being checked.

Normal cells go through a process called ‘oxidative phosphorylation’ which means they use oxygen and sugar and make 32 molecules of ATP (our body’s energy-currency). If cells use anaerobic metabolism (don’t utilize oxygen – i.e. cancer cells) they cannot produce 32 molecules of ATP, and perhaps produce only 2. That is the reason cancer cells with their altered metabolism need more sugar – so they can continue to produce some ATP for their own survival.

The anaerobic metabolism of cancer cells produces a lot of waste products, particularly lactic acid.

Reduce the intake of sugar (carbohydrate, glucose) and you will reduce the food supply of cancer cells, and reduce compromising your own immune system.

42%-46% of cancer patients die of cachexia (malnutrition). Conventional therapies for cancer don’t address this adequately.

Excessive sugar intake has been linked to increased risks of obesity, inflammation and chronic diseases. Chronic inflammation is one of the main contributing factors to many of the chronic diseases in our society today. It also is one of the causes of metastases of cancer that spreads throughout the body to form tumors.


Cells of the Immune System

The largest number of immune system cells in the body are neutrophils, representing from 50%-70% of your body’s army of immune cells. Neutrophils cannot detect cancer. Natural killer cells are constantly surveying all the cells in the body for intruders and other problem abnormal cells, and destroying them.

The immune system can be regarded as having two arms – specific and non-specific. In the non-specific arm there are neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils which are basically front-line defenders whose purpose is to identify all cells as belonging to self (i.e. friendlies). In the specific arm there are B-cells and T-cells. B-cells borne from the bone marrow, make antibodies against antigens, develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction, and release cytokines (proteins), which are used for signaling immune regulatory functions. T-cells mature mainly in the thymus (some in the tonsils), and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. There are several subsets of T-cells, each with a distinct function – including helper, cytotoxic, memory, regulatory (suppressor), and natural killer T-cells.

80% of your immune system is in the mucosal lining of our intestinal tract. If you don’t have a healthy intestinal tract and are feeding your body a lot of the wrong things it will compromise your immune system. If we add excessive burdens to our immune system it prevents it from doing its important function of protecting us.

In 1 cubic-centimeter of tumor there is approximately 1 billion cancer cells. 65% of those cells are usually dormant (in the resting phase of the cell cycle), and 35% are active (in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle).

99% of all cancer cells are non-cancer-stem-cells. Meaning about 1% of cancer cells are cancer-stem-cells. Cancer-stem-cells survive in the blood stream, are immortal, and not usually affected by chemotherapy and radiation. Non-cancerous stem cells cannot metastasize. Only cancer-stem-cells can metastasize. The immune system cannot recognize cancer-stem-cells because they have a protein on their cell surface that shields them from the immune system.

There is a small list of substances that have been shown scientifically to attack cancer-stem-cells. These include metformin and ellagic acid (found in berries and green tea extract).
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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, October 17, 11:34 AM

Interested in prevention? Consider starting with your immune system as a first line of defense.

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Cancer As A Metabolic Disease

Emerging evidence indicates that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease involving disturbances in energy production through respiration and fermentation.

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

For researchers and those interested in what goes on at the cellular level in cancer cells this is an interesting and useful reference paper.

The path from normal cell physiology to malignant behavior, where all major cancer hallmarks are expressed is quite complex. Respiratory insufficiency together with lactate production are some of the key features of tumor cell energy metabolism. A deficiency in some aspect of respiration can account for excessive lactic acid production which is typical in tumor cells.

One theory is that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is the origin of cancer. Tumor cells can have abnormalities in both the content and composition of their mitochondria. When viewed as a mitochondrial metabolic disease cancer progression is more in line with the evolutionary theory of Lamarck than with the theory of Darwin. According to Lamarck’s theory, it is the environment that produces changes in biological structures. Lamarck’s ideas could also accommodate a dominant role for epigenetics and horizontal gene transfer as factors that could facilitate tumor progression.

Many cancers are infected with human cytomegalovirus, which acts as an oncomodulator of tumor progression. Products of the virus can damage mitochondria in the infected tumor cells, thus contributing to a further dependence on glucose and glutamine for energy metabolism.

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Is Cancer Growth Nocturnal?

Is Cancer Growth Nocturnal? | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Scientists hope that their findings provide evidence that administering certain treatments in time with the body's day-night cycle could boost their efficiency.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

This study reveals there may be an advantage in considering the time of day when administering certain cancer treatments.

Professor Yosef Yarden of the Weizmann Institute of Science, one of the study's researchers, points out that "cancer treatments are often administered in the daytime, just when the patient's body is suppressing the spread of the cancer on its own."

You can read the full report published in the journal Nature Communications here - http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141003/ncomms6073/full/ncomms6073.html

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Cancer Rates Double in Argentina’s GMO Crop Areas

Cancer Rates Double in Argentina’s GMO Crop Areas | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it

A report by the Ministry of Health in Cordoba, Argentina reveals that deaths from cancerous tumours are double the national average in areas where genetically engineered crops are grown and agro-chemicals are used.

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Introduction of GMO crops in Argentina has resulted in a doubling of the cancer rates. The Ministry of Health of Córdoba released a comprehensive report on cancer in the province. It documented five years of information and, among other parameters, geographically determined the cases. The peculiarity which caused a major alarm is that the highest rate of deaths occurs in the "pampa gringa" area, where most transgenic and agrochemicals are used, and where the death rate is double the national average.

Damian Verzeñassi a doctor and professor of social and environmental health at the, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Rosario says; "The study of Córdoba matches the surveys we conducted in eighteen industrial agriculture areas. Cancer has skyrocketed in the last fifteen years."

He is scathing about the failure of government and industry to take preventative action. "They keep demanding studies on something that is already proven and do not take urgent measures to protect the population. There is ample evidence that the agricultural model has health consequences, we are talking about a production model that is a huge public health problem."

The only real long term solution is to change the GMO driven, intensive, industrial agricultural system that Argentina and other countries have become wedded to and to put in place a genuinely sustainable, agro-ecological alternative.

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