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MRI Can Detect 90% of All Breast Cancer Compared to Only 37.5% for Mammography and Ultrasound Combined.

MRI Can Detect 90% of All Breast Cancer Compared to Only 37.5% for Mammography and Ultrasound Combined. | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Around 90 per cent of all breast cancers can be definitively diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), researchers report. This compares to the combined methods of mammography and ultrasound which yielded a detection rate of just 37.5 per cent.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It is known that the use of mammography and ultrasound cannot detect all types of cancer.

A study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology done in Vienna “clearly shows the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over mammography and breast ultrasound examinations," says Thomas Helbich, who led the study with Christopher Riedl.

The study involved 559 women at increased risk of breast cancer, and performed 1,365 screening examinations. It revealed that 90% of all breast cancers can be clearly detected by MRI compared to the combined methods of mammography and ultrasound which yielded a detection rate of just 37.5%. None of the cancers were detected by ultrasound alone. The results were similar for non-invasive cancers and for benign breast lesions.

The results of the study should encourage the increased use of MRI for breast screening.

According to OECD 2011 published information Austria has 18 MRI scanners per million inhabitants -- putting the country above the EU average (10 scanners / million inhabitants). If MRI is to be used more frequently, Italian or Greek ratios would be better: in these countries, there are 23 and 22 MRI scanners per million inhabitants respectively. In the USA there are 31 MRI scanners per million population, and in Japan 46. Whereas in Australia and the UK each have only 5, and New Zealand has 11.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) publishes the number of MRI units per million population of each of its 34 member countries. See details here - http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/health_glance-2013-en/04/02/index.html?itemId=/content/chapter/health_glance-2013-33-en&mimeType=text/html

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Evidence Indicates Over-Diagnosis in Mammography Screening for Breast Cancer is Harmful.

Evidence Indicates Over-Diagnosis in Mammography Screening for Breast Cancer is Harmful. | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Practitioners should not be incentivised to achieve participation, nor should high participation in screening be regarded as a marker of health service quality.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The British Medical Journal has published a report by Dr. Alexandra Barratt, Professor of Public Health in the School of Public Health, University of Sydney which debates the case of over-diagnosis in breast cancer mammography screening.

It was thought that the benefits of early detection and treatment would outweigh any risks of treatment and would not introduce substantial harm through false positives, radiation, or over-diagnosis. However, evidence of the unanticipated harms of mammography screening has fuelled debate about whether such screening should be changed or even abandoned. In Switzerland routine mammograms have been discontinued, as The Swiss Medical Board have stated the benefits of mammograms do not outweigh the harms.

In an optimal screening scenario rates of advanced cancer should drop with increased detection and treatment of early stage disease. However this appears not to be the case, as many studies show that rates of advanced breast cancer have declined only modestly or remained stable. This strongly suggests that mammography screening is detecting low risk or non-progressing breast cancer that would never have become life threatening.

Screen detected breast cancer that is non-progressing cannot be distinguished from early cancer that will progress because of the lack of reliable prognostic markers. As a result treatment is recommended to all women to reduce the risks of recurrence and breast cancer mortality, and they are all exposed to the physical and psychosocial harms of cancer treatments even though the cancer detected may never have progressed, or indeed it may have gone away of itself.

Many women continue to be “prescribed” or encouraged to undergo screening rather than being supported to make an informed choice. Women should be given complete and unbiased information that has been carefully developed and tested. Information is an intervention that may have both positive and detrimental effects if it is not complete and unbiased.

In addition Dr. Barratt asserts that practitioners should not be incentivized to achieve screening participation, nor should high participation in screening be regarded as a marker of health service quality.

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Mammography Screening Program for Breast Cancer is More Harmful than Beneficial According to the Swiss Medical Board’s Review

Mammography Screening Program for Breast Cancer is More Harmful than Beneficial According to the Swiss Medical Board’s Review | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Perspective from The New England Journal of Medicine — Abolishing Mammography Screening Programs? A View from the Swiss Medical Board
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

There are many ‘experts’ who believe that the practice of systematic mammography screening reduces the risk of getting breast cancer and saves many lives through early detection of aggressive tumors. However there is an increasing number of ‘experts’ who believe that this practice does not bring the benefits that are attributed to it.

The basis of the argument in favor of systematic mammography screening is founded on old and outdated clinical trials up to 50 years old. The question is “Could the modest benefit of mammography screening in terms of breast-cancer mortality that was shown in trials initiated between 1963 and 1991 still be detected in a trial conducted today?”

The Swiss Medical Board put together a team of specialists and experts to answer that question as part of their review of the practice of mammography screening. An important part of the team’s realization was that the harms of mammography screening outweighed its benefits – in particular false-positive diagnoses.

After 25 years of follow-up, they found that 106 of 484 screen-detected cancers (21.9%) were over-diagnosed. This means that 106 women in the screening group were diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer unnecessarily, which resulted in needless surgical interventions, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or some combination of these therapies. They were also quite concerned about the discrepancy between women's perceptions of the benefits of mammography screening and the benefits to be expected in reality.

As a result of the study and its report, the Swiss Medical Board recommended that no new systematic mammography screening programs be introduced and that a time limit be placed on existing programs.

The report, which was made public in February, has been rejected by a number of Swiss cancer experts and organizations, some of which called the conclusions unethical. One of the main arguments used against it was that it contradicted the global consensus of leading experts in the field. Another argument was that the report unsettled women.

Change is always difficult for many people to accept. Particularly those with vested interests in the status quo.

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Mammogram Screenings Don't Reduce Cancer Death Rates

Mammogram Screenings Don't Reduce Cancer Death Rates | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Yearly mammography screenings for women ages 40 to 59 do not reduce breast cancer deaths, even though they make a diagnosis of illness more likely, according to a long-term study of nearly 90,000 Canadian women.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A long-term study, published in the British Medical Journal, of 89,835 Canadian women found absolutely no benefit in terms of reduction of deaths for women ages 40 to 59 from the use of mammography, according to the study leader Dr. Anthony Miller, an epidemiologist at the University of Toronto's Dalla Lana School of Public Health.

Mammography all too often finds small cancers that would never become dangerous if left alone. Roughly half of all cancers found by mammography — yet undetected through physical examination — fell into this category, the study authors wrote.

Experts have been arguing the merits of breast X-rays since 2009, when a government panel recommended that most women under 50 could safely skip the test. The researchers found that women who got mammograms were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, but that the test did not reduce their risk of dying from the disease. They calculated that 22% of the cancers found on mammograms were over-diagnosed. That means that for every 424 women who were screened, one received unnecessary cancer treatment.

The American Cancer Society and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend annual mammograms for women beginning at age 40, and the National Cancer Institute advises women in their 40s to have the test once every year or two. The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care advises women to have mammograms every two to three years between the ages of 50 and 74.

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Mammogram Parties Lure Women for Tests

Mammogram Parties Lure Women for Tests | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Mammogram parties have been popping up across the country as women over age 40 RSVP for a night of hors d’oeuvres, spa treatments and breast X-rays. The gatherings try to put a festive face on a serious and sometimes uncomfortable topic.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A number of hospitals and cancer centers seem to be holding community-driven "mammogram parties." This may be interpreted as somewhat of a deceptive marketing scheme.

While these parties may be well-intentioned, there is still some disagreement about who should be getting mammogram tests, and how often.

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Hong Kong Considering to Roll Out Breast Cancer Screening Scheme.

Hong Kong Considering to Roll Out Breast Cancer Screening Scheme. | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it

Research will examine whether government should lead screening amid 'controversy', health minister Dr Ko Wing-man says

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

Amidst the controversy of whether routine mammography screening for breast cancer is more harmful or beneficial, with some countries discontinuing the practice, the Hong Kong government is considering to commence such a routine screening facility for women.

Let’s hope those involved with the Hong Kong study carefully consider the pros and cons of why other countries and medical professionals believe such a scheme is not beneficial.

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Mammograms Discontinued in Switzerland Based on Conclusion They Do More Harm Than Good.

Mammograms Discontinued in Switzerland Based on Conclusion They Do More Harm Than Good. | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it

Mammography screening is the general, worldwide accepted way to conduct breast cancer screening - .except Switzerland.

Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

A report published in the New England Journal of Medicine, states why the Swiss Medical Board has recommended to discontinue systematic mammograms.

The ongoing debate over mammography screening is based on a “series of re-analyses of the same, predominantly outdated trials.” The first mammography trial began more than 50 years ago and the last trial was in 1991.

The Swiss Medical Board state that the benefits of mammograms do not outweigh the harms. They noted they were “struck by how non-obvious it was that the benefits of mammography screening outweighed the harms.”

They cited a recent study published in British Medical Journal (BMJ) — one of the largest and longest studies of mammography to date — involving 90,000 women followed for 25 years. It found that mammograms have absolutely NO impact on breast cancer mortality.

The Swiss Medical Board said they were “disconcerted” by the profound discrepancy between women’s perceptions of mammography benefits and the actual benefits. How can women make an informed decision if they overestimate the benefit of mammography. The reality is that the science backing the health benefits of mammograms is sorely lacking.

Mounting research shows that more women are being harmed by regular mammograms than are saved by them.

When it comes to cancer prevention many doctors are just as confused and manipulated as the average person on the street because of the relentless industry and media propaganda that downplays or ignores research that dramatically contradicts their profit-based agenda.

Mammography screening is big business. And big business usually means an implied false sense of security and a misappropriation of information. That’s just how things are. Breast cancer reduction has been shown to be effective when there are dietary changes, such as much lowered fructose intakes, lowered protein intakes and increased Vitamin D. Eat high fiber vegetables, don’t smoke, don’t drink too much, get sleep. These are the things your body is craving.

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Thermograms - A Safe, Accurate and Reliable Alternative to Mammogram

Thermograms - A Safe, Accurate and Reliable Alternative to Mammogram | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
Thermograms - a safe, accurate and reliable alternative to mammograms
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

There is considerable criticism and concern about the benefit of mammograms as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. An alternative diagnostic method is to use a thermogram. Thermograms are safe, nontoxic, highly accurate and inexpensive. There is no pain, no physical compression of the breasts, and no rays or radiation enter the body. Unlike mammograms, which become less accurate with denser breast tissue, thermography's accuracy is not affected by tissue density.

Thermography is based on infrared heat emission by the body's tissues. As bodily cells go about their usual metabolic processes, they give out heat. Cancerous tumors tend to emit more infrared heat than their healthy counterparts, i.e. they are hotter.

As compared to normal tissue, cancer growths are also regulated to a much lower extent by the autonomic nervous system. For example, when cool air is blown over the breasts, the autonomic nervous system lowers the amount of blood flow to normal breast tissue as a means of temperature regulation. The blood and blood vessels at the tumor site, however, are not under autonomic control and do not become cooler - thermography would thus show the abnormal tissues up as "hot spots".

While thermography sounds rather new and unconventional, progressive physicians in Europe and the United States have actually already been using this technology since 1962. Once more women demand other screening protocols, the availability of techniques such as thermography should slowly increase.

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New 3D Mammograms Significantly Increase Your Radiation Exposure

New 3D Mammograms Significantly Increase Your Radiation Exposure | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
3D Tomosynthesis is a "new and improved" type of mammogram, which is basically a CT scan for your breasts.
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

It is important to educate yourself regarding the benefits and risks of mammograms. This is a good article to help you. In it you will learn the following.

Mammograms are often referred to as the best way to prevent breast cancer death. However studies suggest this may not be the case. The multi-millions of dollars spent on creating these invasive machines may have been better utilized for educating women about cancer prevention; and developing less dangerous technologies, such as ultrasound and infrared imaging; and inventing completely new and safer technologies.

One of the latest approaches introduced is a “new and improved” type of mammogram called 3D tomosynthesis, which is basically a CT scan for your breasts. Two of the greatest mammogram risks are high radiation exposure and compression of breast tissue, which potentially causes cancer cells to spread. 3D tomosynthesis does not reduce or eliminate either of these risks! In fact, radiation exposure using this new method is significantly greater than from standard mammograms.

The 3D mammogram requires multiple views in order to achieve three-dimensionality, so your total radiation exposure is considerably higher than from a standard 2D mammogram. With mammography, each breast is X-rayed at least twice—once from top to bottom and once diagonally from the outside in. With tomosynthesis, the X-ray tube rotates around the breast. Twenty-five exposures are taken, with up to two pictures per second. The multiple images result in higher radiation exposure.

3D mammography is not a stand-alone diagnostic test—it’s typically an add-on to the standard mammogram. So, not only do these 3D images prolong your exposure to radiation, but if you’ve already had a regular mammogram, they further compound your risk. This makes breast cancer screening even more dangerous than before.

A study published in Radiology Today states that – “Because the digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) exam requires two additional exposures over a standard mammogram, the total radiation dose from the combined 2D and tomosynthesis examination is three times that of a standard mammogram."

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, September 7, 2013 3:22 PM

Latest not always the greatest...do your research!

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Do Mammograms to Detect Breast Cancer Save Lives?

Do Mammograms to Detect Breast Cancer Save Lives? | Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments | Scoop.it
The battle to raise awareness has been won. So why aren’t more lives being saved?
Graham Player Ph.D.'s insight:

The New England Journal of Medicine found mammograms far more likely to result in overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment, including surgery, weeks of radiation and potentially toxic drugs.

According to a survey of randomized clinical trials involving 600,000 women around the world, for every 2,000 women screened using mammograms annually over 10 years, one life is prolonged but 10 healthy women are given diagnoses of breast cancer and unnecessarily treated, often with therapies that themselves have life-threatening side effects.

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