This one's not easy:
Experiment hints at underlying neurochemistry of uncertainty. The experiment was done with rats and is promising because it sheds more (positive) light on the complexity involved in creating uncertainty through philosophy in the classroom.
From the article:
Since the underlying change in confidence was the only thing that changed abruptly at such a moment in their experiment, a simultaneous abrupt change in activity in the brain could -be attributed to the rat’s decision to abandon its old belief. And that’s exactly what the researchers observed. When the rats seemed certain which handle they should pull, activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was relatively stable. But during the crucial moment of the onset of uncertainty, when the rat reverted to pulling both handles, “the activity abruptly and markedly changed and then remained more variable for the duration of the period when the animal sampled both options,” Karpova says. “It’s as if those neurons were the ones searching for the animal’s new model.”