Business News & F...
Follow
Find
9.8K views | +16 today
 
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
onto Business News & Finance
Scoop.it!

Can Giving Actually Improve Your Health? via @LifeExtension

Can Giving Actually Improve Your Health? via @LifeExtension | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Scientists aren’t exactly sure why humans give, but they think it has something to do with oxytocin, the “love hormone.”

Oxytocin is released when a woman gives birth. It enhances the bonding between a mother and child and produces what can be best described as “warm and fuzzy” feelings. Apart from that, it also can alleviate depression and anxiety.1

To determine if oxytocin really influences giving, scientists divided a group of college students in two groups, with one group receiving oxytocin and the other a placebo.

They had each group play computer games where the participants could win money to donate to a charity.

At the end of the study, the researchers found that the oxytocin group donated 48% more money.2 Pretty interesting, isn’t it?

Giving Produces Feelings of Happiness

Giving makes people feel good, and science is finally starting to explain why this is the case.

MRI scans show that giving to a cause actually activates the dopaminergic region of the brain.2 This area is associated with rewards and feelings of pleasure.

In an interesting experiment, Harvard scientists gave people money to spend. One group was told to spend the money on themselves, and the other group was told to spend it on others.3

They found that people who spent their money on others felt happier at the end of the day.

Giving Can Actually Prolong Your Life

Giving is not just about donating money or goods; it can also be about donating your time.

In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, scientists followed a group of women for 30 years. They documented their behaviors and health patterns and found that women who volunteered lived longer than their non-volunteering peers.4

In another study, scientists surveyed elderly residents living in California. High volunteers (those who participated in two organizations) had a 44% decreased risk of mortality compared to non-volunteers.4

Volunteers show significant benefits in measures of quality of life which include happiness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and even physical health.4

Giving your time and service has also been found to decrease stress hormone levels.3

The Bottom Line

So, is it truly better to give than to receive? It seems a bit cliché, but science suggests that the answer is yes!

Have you experienced this firsthand in your life? If so, please share your experiences with us in the comments!
more...
No comment yet.
Business News & Finance
Latest Business News & Finance
Curated by Tonya Scholz
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Visibly Angry Obama Denounces Beheading of James Foley (Video)

Visibly Angry Obama Denounces Beheading of James Foley (Video) | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
ISIS's slaughter of American journalist James Foley was "brutal," President Obama said today.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

They Asked Homeless People To Write Down A Fact About Themselves...

They Asked Homeless People To Write Down A Fact About Themselves... | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Rethink Homelessness asked homeless people on the streets of Orlando, Florida, to write down a fact about themselves that other people wouldn’t know just by walking past them.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Apple closes at all-time high as rumors swirl

Apple closes at all-time high as rumors swirl | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
One hour ago Apple's stock price closed at a record high of $100.53 per share. That closing price beats out Apple's previous all-time high of $100.30 -- adjusting for the company's stock split in J...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Mississippi-Backed Biofuel Company on Verge of Bankruptcy

Mississippi-Backed Biofuel Company on Verge of Bankruptcy | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

Biofuel manufacturer KiOR’s financial struggles might leave Mississippi holding the title to another failed green energy project.

According to the company’s quarterly report, without additional financing KiOR won’t be able to meet its financial obligations past Sept. 30.

One of its biggest creditors is the state of Mississippi.

The company owes the state $69.275 million on a no-interest loan to build a first-of-its kind plant to convert wood pulp into gasoline, fuel oil and diesel fuel in Columbus, Miss. It missed its most recent semi-annual payment of $1.875 million to the state, which granted forbearance June 3. But that ends Oct. 31.

The company revealed in its most recent quarterly report it lost $24 million in the previous quarter and $629.3 million since the company was founded in 2007.  The company’s stock price was down to 23 cents per share on the New York Stock Exchange last week after opening at $15 per share in 2011.

The state’s possible loss on KiOR would dwarf both the Yalobusha County beef plant (more than $50 million in a loan given in 2003 under the administration of then-Gov. Ronnie Musgrove) and Twin Creeks Solar ($26 million in 2010).

If KiOR defaults on its loan, the administration of then-Gov. Haley Barbour would be responsible for more than $95 million in taxpayer money spent on failed green-energy ventures.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Blurring the line between police officer and soldier: The rise of the warrior cop

Blurring the line between police officer and soldier: The rise of the warrior cop | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

On Jan. 4 of last year, a local narcotics strike force conducted a raid on the Ogden, Utah, home of Matthew David Stewart at 8:40 p.m. The 12 officers were acting on a tip from Mr. Stewart's former girlfriend, who said that he was growing marijuana in his basement. Mr. Stewart awoke, naked, to the sound of a battering ram taking down his door. Thinking that he was being invaded by criminals, as he later claimed, he grabbed his 9-millimeter Beretta pistol.

Enlarge Image

 

The police say that they knocked and identified themselves, though Mr. Stewart and his neighbors said they heard no such announcement. Mr. Stewart fired 31 rounds, the police more than 250. Six of the officers were wounded, and Officer Jared Francom was killed. Mr. Stewart himself was shot twice before he was arrested. He was charged with several crimes, including the murder of Officer Francom.

The police found 16 small marijuana plants in Mr. Stewart's basement. There was no evidence that Mr. Stewart, a U.S. military veteran with no prior criminal record, was selling marijuana. Mr. Stewart's father said that his son suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and may have smoked the marijuana to self-medicate.

Early this year, the Ogden city council heard complaints from dozens of citizens about the way drug warrants are served in the city. As for Mr. Stewart, his trial was scheduled for next April, and prosecutors were seeking the death penalty. But after losing a hearing last May on the legality of the search warrant, Mr. Stewart hanged himself in his jail cell.

The police tactics at issue in the Stewart case are no anomaly. Since the 1960s, in response to a range of perceived threats, law-enforcement agencies across the U.S., at every level of government, have been blurring the line between police officer and soldier. Driven by martial rhetoric and the availability of military-style equipment—from bayonets and M-16 rifles to armored personnel carriers—American police forces have often adopted a mind-set previously reserved for the battlefield. The war on drugs and, more recently, post-9/11 antiterrorism efforts have created a new figure on the U.S. scene: the warrior cop—armed to the teeth, ready to deal harshly with targeted wrongdoers, and a growing threat to familiar American liberties.

The acronym SWAT stands for Special Weapons and Tactics. Such police units are trained in methods similar to those used by the special forces in the military. They learn to break into homes with battering rams and to use incendiary devices called flashbang grenades, which are designed to blind and deafen anyone nearby. Their usual aim is to "clear" a building—that is, to remove any threats and distractions (including pets) and to subdue the occupants as quickly as possible.

Enlarge Image

Today the U.S. has thousands of SWAT teams. A team prepares to enter a house in Vallejo, Calif., on March 20, above. Daily Republic/Associated Press

The country's first official SWAT team started in the late 1960s in Los Angeles. By 1975, there were approximately 500 such units. Today, there are thousands. According to surveys conducted by the criminologist Peter Kraska of Eastern Kentucky University, just 13% of towns between 25,000 and 50,000 people had a SWAT team in 1983. By 2005, the figure was up to 80%.

The number of raids conducted by SWAT-like police units has grown accordingly. In the 1970s, there were just a few hundred a year; by the early 1980s, there were some 3,000 a year. In 2005 (the last year for which Dr. Kraska collected data), there were approximately 50,000 raids. Some federal agencies also now have their own SWAT teams, including NASA and the Department of the Interior.

Americans have long been wary of using the military for domestic policing. Concerns about potential abuse date back to the creation of the Constitution, when the founders worried about standing armies and the intimidation of the people at large by an overzealous executive, who might choose to follow the unhappy precedents set by Europe's emperors and monarchs.

The idea for the first SWAT team in Los Angeles arose during the domestic strife and civil unrest of the mid-1960s. Daryl Gates, then an inspector with the Los Angeles Police Department, had grown frustrated with his department's inability to respond effectively to incidents like the 1965 Watts riots. So his thoughts turned to the military. He was drawn in particular to Marine Special Forces and began to envision an elite group of police officers who could respond in a similar manner to dangerous domestic disturbances.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Which Drug Is Your State Most Addicted to? This Map Reveals a Disturbing Trend

Which Drug Is Your State Most Addicted to? This Map Reveals a Disturbing Trend | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

The Obama administration has committed over $10 billion to drug education programs and support for expanding access to treatment. According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), prescription drug abuse is the country's "fastest-growing drug problem" and has been classified as an epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 

The following findings reveal the most recent data available from the ONDCP. The map depicts the drug that was most commonly cited among primary drug treatment admissions in each state. Alcohol is not included in the data.

As is clearly illustrated, data from New England and neighboring states indicates a particularly disturbing trend: a growing addiction to heroin.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Google Dark - Reason.com

Google Dark - Reason.com | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
In April an anonymous individual launched a search engine called Grams that caters to contraband needs.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Vietnam struts its military stuff for Dempsey

DANANG, VIETNAM — The Vietnamese military showed an unprecedented amount of leg here Thursday. It sought to catch the eye of Gen. Martin Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the first of his kind to visit the Communist country since its founding — and the withdrawal of U.S. forces. From past-their-prime fighter jets and missile boats to spit-and-polish pilots and sailors from the People's Air Force and Navy, the Vietnamese put on a show. Dempsey seemed charmed. "Forty-five years ago, I couldn't imagine we'd be sitting in this room, having this conversation," Dempsey told the Vietnamese Navy brass from Naval Zone 3. No, in 1969, at the height of the war, the notion of U.S., Viet Cong and North Vietnamese military leaders posing for photos and exchanging gifts would have been considered absurd. Though calling it a conversation might be overstating the stilted, translated, ceremonial chat, the talk and the talker intended to send a message. America, its top military officer said, is serious about shifting its focus and resources to the Pacific. His presence here alone, despite the latest fires in the Middle East, speaks louder than any prepared remarks he could deliver. Dempsey, in meetings with academics, politicians and military officials here this week, stressed that Vietnam's strategic location between China to the north and bustling nations to the south, along with its long coastline with the South China Sea, makes it a central player in the region. For their part, the Vietnamese were eager to show that they're up to the challenge. First up was Vietnam Air Division 372. The grounds of its headquarters hold the inevitable spoils for the victors: 1960s U.S. warplanes, most likely captured when South Vietnam fell in 1975. But on the flight line and in meeting rooms, it was all (or mostly all) smiles for the chairman. The Vietnamese showcased its hardware despite its age. Young pilots stood by their 1960s-era MiG 21s, Russian-made fighter jets that bedeviled American fliers. The F-4's they flew had radar and missiles that allowed them to destroy the MiGs from distance. But the Vietnamese pilots regularly popped up after the F-4's had flown past their bases, taking a heavy toll. At Naval Zone 3's pier, Dempsey walked the gangway onto a patrol boat of the same vintage as the MiGs. It was unusual access to a Vietnamese naval ship for a high-ranking officer. Vietnamese army minders popped up to point out what could (not much) and could not (most everything) be photographed. It's possible they, like militaries everywhere, are not eager to display capabilities or, more often, advertise vulnerabilities. The ship in the adjacent slip appeared to have been painted recently, although not below the water line, suggesting that it may not have been thoroughly overhauled in some time. In any event, Vietnam would be hard-pressed to challenge the Chinese, who are increasingly asserting claims in the waters off Danang. For now, Dempsey assured the Vietnamese sailors that the old enemies should nurture their new friendship carefully. He called for slow and steady progress.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Ferguson Residents Protect Stores from Looters During Police Standoff

Ferguson Residents Protect Stores from Looters During Police Standoff | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Protesters in Ferguson, Mo. are standing their ground against both police and looters Friday night, refusing to disperse despite orders and attempting to protect local businesses from what the Washington Post's Wesley Lowery--who took the above...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Google acquires Jetpac, a photo startup with artificial-intelligence smarts

Google acquires Jetpac, a photo startup with artificial-intelligence smarts | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Google's artificial-intelligence hiring spree continued today with the acquisition of Jetpac, a startup that created a mobile app that pulled specific items out of publicly available Instagram phot...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

25% of small business have zero presence in local search results [infographic]

25% of small business have zero presence in local search results [infographic] | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

If 88% of consumers who search for local businesses on their mobile device ultimate call or visit that business within 24 hours, I’d want to make sure my business was found. Wouldn’t you?

 

Apparently 25% of small businesses have failed to get the memo, because they have zero presence in Google or Bing local search results!

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Rustbelt No More: Cities are Making a Comeback on PanelPicker.SXSW.com

Rustbelt No More: Cities are Making a Comeback on PanelPicker.SXSW.com | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

The cities of the "old economy" are staging a comeback: urban centers such as Baltimore, Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh, and others are emerging as centers of startup and entrepreneurial activity. On this panel, community leaders, and emerging entrepreneurs from different "new old" tech regions will explore what is making those new hotspots for startup activity tick, what they have in common with each other and the major tech hubs, what we can expect to emerge from those locations, and what's needed to ensure that they grow and succeed. - See more at: http://panelpicker.sxsw.com/vote/42321#sthash.et1sr7fI.dpuf

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Miami Is the World Capital of What?

Miami Is the World Capital of What? | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

Lots of cities claim to be the world capital of something or other. Las Vegas is the world capital of gambling. Nashville, the world capital of country music. New York can be called the world capital of finance, media, and culture.

 

But what about Miami? Well, the most common answer is "world capital of Latin America." Fair and true enough, but that's not all we've been called "the world capital of." We trolled Google for some more answers by entering that starting phrase and seeing what others have declared us, and, well, most of the other choices aren't quite so flattering.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

“I was going to gay bars, having affairs”: George Takei on the torments of life in the closet

“I was going to gay bars, having affairs”: George Takei on the torments of life in the closet | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
The actor, who plays himself in a new documentary, on the coming-out process, "Star Trek" and feuding with Shatner
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

OneTaste: Number 893 on the 2014 Inc. 5000

Teaches a practice centered on clitoral stimulation for the purpose of enhancing energy, focus, libido, and connection to others.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Startup Accelerator BRIC House Launches in Boca Raton

Startup Accelerator BRIC House Launches in Boca Raton | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

South Florida-based entrepreneurs John Kemp and Ryan Texeira announced they are launching a startup accelerator and incubator in Boca Raton called BRIC House.

The BRIC’s startup accelerator program will offer up to USD $100,000 in seed capital to the companies that are chosen, as well connect them with mentors.

BRIC House will also host local events for South Florida entrepreneurs, including Hack-the-enterprise, Code on the Ocean, Startups Night, and Brainstorm your Idea, help you to grow or pivot your idea.

Some weeks ago, Axis Space launched and has been fostering Fort Lauderdale’s tech community.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Introducing Spreecast Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze Plans | Spreecast Blog

Introducing Spreecast Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze Plans | Spreecast Blog | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Today, we’re excited to announce the launch of our new plans – Spreecast Platinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze. We’ve expanded our options to provide more tailored solutions for all of our Spreecast creators. Starting today, you can sign up for one of our new plans. Here is a quick summary of our plans but you can find in-depth information about our plans on our Pricing & Plans page: Basic – For everyone. Take advantage of Spreecast’s many features, and still have great free support from the Spreecast help center. Bronze – For Spreecast creators who are familiar with Spreecast and want to use Spreecast to promote their business. Everything you get in our Basic plan, plus the ability to embed Unlisted spreecasts on your website, rights for commercial use of your spreecasts and access to your spreecasts beyond 7 days. Silver – For Spreecast creators who want more insights and backup. Everything you get in our Bronze plan, plus analytics reports to help you understand your viewers better and downloadable copies of your spreecasts. Gold – For Spreecast creators who want no ads or want to run their own ads. Everything you get in our Silver plan, plus no ads, ability to serve your own ads, access to phone support, and a dedicated account manager. Platinum – or Spreecast users who want the ultimate Spreecast experience. Everything you get in our Silver plan, plus live Spreecast event production support from our experts remotely. To upgrade your account to the Spreecast Bronze, Silver or Gold plan, please visit our Pricing & Plans page and click on the button of your desired plan to proceed. If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to us at support@spreecast.com.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Ferguson Update: National Guard Deployed, School Postponed

Ferguson Update: National Guard Deployed, School Postponed | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it

Members of the National Guard have arrived in the St. Louis area, one day after Missouri Gov. Jay Nixon said he would deploy troops to prevent violence in Ferguson, a St. Louis suburb that's been wracked by outrage and looting over the police shooting of an unarmed black teenager last weekend.

"Members of the National Guard are arriving in South St. Louis," local TV news KMOV reports, in a tweet this morning. "They will be heading to #Ferguson today."

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Woman Arrested For Smuggling 3.7 Pounds of Cocaine in Her Fake Boobs

Woman Arrested For Smuggling 3.7 Pounds of Cocaine in Her Fake Boobs | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
A 43-year-old Venezuelan woman was apprehended at Madrid International Airport with 3.7 pounds of cocaine in her breast implants. Authorities noticed her suspicious behavior during a routine screening of passengers returning from Bogota, Colombia.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Vietnam struts its military stuff for Dempsey

Vietnam struts its military stuff for Dempsey | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
DANANG, VIETNAM — The Vietnamese military showed an unprecedented amount of leg here Thursday. It sought to catch the eye of Gen. Martin Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the first of his kind to visit the Communist country since its founding — and the withdrawal of U.S. forces. From past-their-prime fighter jets and missile boats to spit-and-polish pilots and sailors from the People's Air Force and Navy, the Vietnamese put on a show. Dempsey seemed charmed. "Forty-five years ago, I couldn't imagine we'd be sitting in this room, having this conversation," Dempsey told the Vietnamese Navy brass from Naval Zone 3. No, in 1969, at the height of the war, the notion of U.S., Viet Cong and North Vietnamese military leaders posing for photos and exchanging gifts would have been considered absurd. Though calling it a conversation might be overstating the stilted, translated, ceremonial chat, the talk and the talker intended to send a message. America, its top military officer said, is serious about shifting its focus and resources to the Pacific. His presence here alone, despite the latest fires in the Middle East, speaks louder than any prepared remarks he could deliver. Dempsey, in meetings with academics, politicians and military officials here this week, stressed that Vietnam's strategic location between China to the north and bustling nations to the south, along with its long coastline with the South China Sea, makes it a central player in the region. For their part, the Vietnamese were eager to show that they're up to the challenge. First up was Vietnam Air Division 372. The grounds of its headquarters hold the inevitable spoils for the victors: 1960s U.S. warplanes, most likely captured when South Vietnam fell in 1975. But on the flight line and in meeting rooms, it was all (or mostly all) smiles for the chairman. The Vietnamese showcased its hardware despite its age. Young pilots stood by their 1960s-era MiG 21s, Russian-made fighter jets that bedeviled American fliers. The F-4's they flew had radar and missiles that allowed them to destroy the MiGs from distance. But the Vietnamese pilots regularly popped up after the F-4's had flown past their bases, taking a heavy toll. At Naval Zone 3's pier, Dempsey walked the gangway onto a patrol boat of the same vintage as the MiGs. It was unusual access to a Vietnamese naval ship for a high-ranking officer. Vietnamese army minders popped up to point out what could (not much) and could not (most everything) be photographed. It's possible they, like militaries everywhere, are not eager to display capabilities or, more often, advertise vulnerabilities. The ship in the adjacent slip appeared to have been painted recently, although not below the water line, suggesting that it may not have been thoroughly overhauled in some time. In any event, Vietnam would be hard-pressed to challenge the Chinese, who are increasingly asserting claims in the waters off Danang.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Click here to support Help For Medical Expenses! by Kayden Steppinoutonfaith Kinckle

Click here to support Help For Medical Expenses! by Kayden Steppinoutonfaith Kinckle | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
STEPPIN OUT ON FAITH…. THANK YOU SO MUCH TO EVERYONE!! We are deeply humbled and appreciative of the overwhelming amount of support we have received.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

This rap video about webinars is brilliant viral marketing (video)

This rap video about webinars is brilliant viral marketing (video) | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
How do enterprise software companies like On24 drum up attention to their webinar platforms? Rapping, of course.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Kevin Rose gets antsy at Google Ventures, launches another thing

Kevin Rose gets antsy at Google Ventures, launches another thing | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Digg founder & Google Ventures partner Kevin Rose is launching yet another company.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Real estate tech disruptors come back to the fold, but not all - New York Business Journal

Real estate tech disruptors come back to the fold, but not all - New York Business Journal | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
Real estate tech startups talk about disrupting NYC's rental world. But in 2014, most of the investment seems heading to those who want to work within the establishment, not against it.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Tonya Scholz
Scoop.it!

Christine E. Johnson, Sunny Isales Real Estate - Weichert Realtors -Best Beach Real Estate

Christine E. Johnson, Sunny Isales Real Estate - Weichert Realtors -Best Beach Real Estate | Business News & Finance | Scoop.it
WEICHERT, REALTORS® – Best Beach Real Estate provides a full spectrum of real estate services including residential and commercial, as well as mortgage, title services, short sale negotiation, and property management.
Founded in 1996, Best Beach Real Estate has shown consistent and steady growth offering real estate services in South Florida. There is no great secret as to why we are the best; it is our teamwork that gives us the edge in a business where few companies understand that it is not an individual providing a service, but an entire team!
Our mission is to build happiness by providing our colleagues and clients with the most extraordinary service in the industry. We understand our clients’ need for a different kind of service: a family-oriented approach on doing business with the highest level of integrity, communication, knowledge and support. We take great pride in our core values and the fact that our lives are guided by them on a daily basis.
In April, 2006, Best Beach Real Estate joined WEICHERT, REALTORS®, the nation’s largest privately owned real estate company, as a franchised affiliate in order to provide innovative, expanded, and greatly improved services to the South Florida market.
Today, WEICHERT, REALTORS® - BEST BEACH REAL ESTATE is the second largest Weichert Real Estate Affiliate in the nation.
more...
No comment yet.