É fundamental lembrar que mais da metade da população do mundo vive em cidades e que estas são uma das grandes responsáveis pela emissão de gases de efeito estufa, responsáveis pelas mudanças climáticas. Será a população urbana, residente em grandes cidades, especialmente no litoral e nas margens de rios, a mais afetada por desastres causados por estas mudanças. Foi pensando nisso que o C40, uma articulação de prefeitos de metrópoles de todo o mundo, resolveu construir um documento específico sobre as metas que as metrópoles devem atingir para reduzir a emissão de gases de efeito estufa e, assim, combater o aquecimento global. Entretanto, há uma assimetria muito grande do que significa melhorar a qualidade ambiental e enfrentar as mudanças climáticas para os países ricos e para os países pobres.
Rio de Janeiro may be the Marvelous City, known for glittering beaches, bronzed bodies, and an ebullient Carnaval, but it is also known for its favelas—lower class neighborhoods that are densely populated and are often described as slums or shantytowns. Those terms are a bit misleading, however, because some of the residences in favelas can be solidly built, with security gates, balconies, and fine tiles. Many residents have satellite TV, and there are small churches, dentist offices, and a thriving local economy.
Favelas hug many of the verdant hillsides that ring Rio, and they are home to about 20% of the city’s 6.5 million inhabitants. A number of Rio+20 events are being held in favelas to try to recognize their importance in the city, and a march of favela residents is planned for today to make their voices heard.
“Rio de Janeiro will not tolerate any more violence against the environment, like this environmental crime that the city has committed for so long,” Mayor Eduardo Paes said Sunday as he announced the closure of the dump.
The site is being transformed into a biogas plant that will convert the greenhouse gas methane from the rotting trash into fuel. The transition is expected to reduce carbon emissions in the region by 1.4 million metric tons a year, according to FirmGreen, the US company exporting the conversion technology for the project.
Given that nearly half of Rio’s favelas are estimated to be run by drug traffickers, life in Asa Branca is probably as good as it gets for such a community. But it is still difficult: There is still a river with open sewage. Kids play soccer barefoot in development debris. It’s unclear if there is any place for education, either in terms of formal schools or informal institutions like libraries. And while there were plenty of joyful scenes, particularly among the young kids who we found setting up a trampoline in the middle of a street, I was less convinced the people in their late teens or early twenties were satisfied with the community.
No cômputo geral, o Rio de Janeiro marca pontos importantes em preservação ambiental, como o fato de abrigar a maior floresta urbana do mundo, ter a segunda rede de ciclovias da América Latina e ser uma das capitais com menor emissão per capita de gases que provocam o efeito estufa. Por outro lado, ainda padece de índices africanos em lazer e infraestrutura para boa parte de seus habitantes. Sede da Rio+20, para onde os olhos do mundo estão voltados neste mês, a capital fluminense é um retrato da complexidade e dos contrastes da ocupação urbana, onde práticas que servem de referência internacional dividem espaço com realidades que podem levar o mundo ao colapso.
As Brazil prepares to host the Rio+20 sustainability conference this month – the third United Nations-sponsored global conference on sustainability in 20 years – its own rapid urbanization highlights the health and infrastructure challenges of promoting sustainable cities worldwide. The population of Brazilians living in cities nearly doubled between 1960 and 2010, with 84 percent living in cities, according to the most recent census.
Complementing the premier of Planet Ocean at Earth Summit 2012, we would like to share some behind-the-scenes footage with you as film directors Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Michael Pitiot, and their team take to the skies above Rio in helicopters armed with sophisticated camera equipment. It will also provide you with a sneak peek at some of the extraordinary images of our remarkable oceans - the source of all life on our planet -- that are so brilliantly presented in the 90-minute documentary. Planet Ocean was made in partnership with OMEGA and with the scientific support of Tara Expeditions, and will be presented at Earth Summit 2012 (RIO+20) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June.
São Paulo – A maior cidade do país recicla pouco mais de 1% de todo o lixo produzido diariamente. Segundo dados da prefeitura de São Paulo, apenas 214 toneladas das 18,3 mil toneladas de resíduos sólidos coletados diariamente nas ruas da capital paulista são recicladas, o que representa 1,18% do total. A quantidade de lixo levada para os aterros sanitários só não é maior graças ao trabalho das cooperativas de reciclagem não conveniadas à prefeitura. Segundo o Movimento Nacional dos Catadores de Materiais Recicláveis (MNCR), essas cooperativas reciclam quatro vezes mais do que é contabilizado, tendo em vista que menos de 10% dos catadores do município atuam nos centros de triagem da prefeitura.
Certified according to ISO standards, the Rio de Janeiro Low Carbon City Development Program will help Rio de Janeiro monitor and account for low carbon investments and climate change mitigation actions across different sectors in the city. The Program is a business model that can be applied to other cities around the world. Cities currently account for over two-thirds of the world’s energy consumption and 70 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.
This is a timely initiative as the City of Rio de Janeiro prepares for a massive influx of investment, particularly in infrastructure, ahead of the FIFA World Cup in 2014 and the Summer Olympics in Rio in 2016. The Program assists Rio in securing a low-carbon growth trajectory and respecting the city’s rich natural resources.
"Rio de Janeiro is a leader in the area of climate change mitigation. We were the first Brazilian city to set concrete and bold goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the end of this year, Rio will have reduced its emissions by 8%. By 2020, this will amount to 20%. We have a large emissions inventory and, with the support of the World Bank, we are launching a transparent and reliable method to account for all of the city’s mitigation activities," said Eduardo Paes, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro.
With respect to development, you have implemented highly successful strategies to dramatically reduce poverty by 13 percent since 2004, at the same time as you have decreased income inequality as measured by GINI from .59 in 2000 to .53 in 2010. Which means, simply, and also profoundly, that you have managed to achieve growth with equity.
With respect to sustainability, you have pioneered alternative and bio-based fuels, such as sugar-based ethanol, and you have made forest preservation in the Amazon a national priority.
And now, Brazil and its cities have the opportunity to take their leadership on these fronts to new heights. And The Rockefeller Foundation is honored to be your partner, given our work over 100 years in sustainable development and urban innovation.
Discussion of the real estate market in the favela revealed that the situation varies dramatically depending on location but that as with general Rio real estate trends, prices have risen and continue to rise. Carlos said that in Pavão-Pavãozinho, which received the 5th UPP in December 2009, a one bedroom property can be sold for up to R$300,000, noting that increasing numbers of foreigners and people from the ‘asphalt’ or formal city are buying in the community.
Paula Verônica from the residents association of Muzema, a West Zone community near wealthy Barra da Tijuca, spoke of when her community was threatened with removal last year and how some people looked for alternative residences in other nearby favelas but couldn’t find anything within their means. She concluded: “It’s practically impossible to leave the favela, or buy a property in the favela itself.”
Attitudes towards Rio’s mega-events varied. Paula argued against the developments that threaten communities, saying “I almost lost my house because of the mega-events.. The works are all on top of favelas, literally on top of people.” However, Carlos described them as an opportunity. He said: “For our city, receiving and producing mega-events is a positive thing. The world is watching, which is good.”
A construção de Brasília decorreu da necessidade de conquistar e desenvolver o interior do país e representa um salto sobre o seu processo natural e desenvolvimento socioeconômico. A nova capital foi imagina pelos políticos brasileiros a mais de um século, não apenas como uma sede de um governo, que se manteria distante da pressão popular, mas como centro de integração nacional e centro viário da América do Sul.
Zaida Amaral é uma arquiteta ambientalista dedicada ao Design de Espaços Sagrados e Sustentáveis e na última década se especializou no design de Ecovilas e na educação da ssustentabilidade como ferramenta dos processos de Transição - pessoal, comunitária e global. É a grande embaixadora do movimento internacional Transition Towns, criado pelo inglês Rob Hopkins com o objetivo de transformar as cidades em modelos sustentáveis, menos dependentes do petróleo, mais integradas à natureza e mais resistentas a crises externas, tanto econômicas como ecológicas.
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