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Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly
Covering topics and controversies in Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain Imaging
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Exercise reorganizes the brain to be more resilient to stress

Exercise reorganizes the brain to be more resilient to stress | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Physical activity reorganizes the brain so that its response to stress is reduced and anxiety is less likely to interfere with normal brain function.
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fMRI and machine learning identify emotions

fMRI and machine learning identify emotions | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066032 Carnegie Mellon researchers have developed "a new method with the potential to identify emotions without relying on people...
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Past brain activation revealed in scans: Brain activity patterns preserve traces of previous cognitive activity

Past brain activation revealed in scans: Brain activity patterns preserve traces of previous cognitive activity | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
What if experts could dig into the brain, like archaeologists, and uncover the history of past experiences?
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What do memories look like? | KurzweilAI

What do memories look like? | KurzweilAI | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
A living neuron in culture: Green dots indicate excitatory synapses and red dots indicate inhibitory synapses (credit: Don Arnold/MIT) A USC research team
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Validating maps of the brain’s resting state

Validating maps of the brain’s resting state | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Validating maps of the brain’s resting state. A team of Vanderbilt researchers has provided important validation of maps of the brain at rest that may offer insights into changes in the brain that occur in neurological and psychiatric diseases.
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Distinct 'God spot' in the brain does not exist, study shows

Distinct 'God spot' in the brain does not exist, study shows | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Scientists have speculated that the human brain features a "God spot," one distinct area of the brain responsible for spirituality.
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Changing gut bacteria through diet affects brain function

Changing gut bacteria through diet affects brain function | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Researchers now have the first evidence that bacteria ingested in food can affect brain function in humans.
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Synergies between Intrinsic and Synaptic Plasticity Based on Information Theoretic Learning

Synergies between Intrinsic and Synaptic Plasticity Based on Information Theoretic Learning | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

In experimental and theoretical neuroscience, synaptic plasticity has dominated the area of neural plasticity for a very long time. Recently, neuronal intrinsic plasticity (IP) has become a hot topic in this area. IP is sometimes thought to be an information-maximization mechanism. However, it is still unclear how IP affects the performance of artificial neural networks in supervised learning applications. From an information-theoretical perspective, the error-entropy minimization (MEE) algorithm has newly been proposed as an efficient training method. In this study, we propose a synergistic learning algorithm combining the MEE algorithm as the synaptic plasticity rule and an information-maximization algorithm as the intrinsic plasticity rule. We consider both feedforward and recurrent neural networks and study the interactions between intrinsic and synaptic plasticity. Simulations indicate that the intrinsic plasticity rule can improve the performance of artificial neural networks trained by the MEE algorithm.


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Neural Correlates of Sound Localization in Complex Acoustic Environments

Neural Correlates of Sound Localization in Complex Acoustic Environments | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

Listening to and understanding people in a “cocktail-party situation” is a remarkable feature of the human auditory system. Here we investigated the neural correlates of the ability to localize a particular sound among others in an acoustically cluttered environment with healthy subjects. In a sound localization task, five different natural sounds were presented from five virtual spatial locations during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Activity related to auditory stream segregation was revealed in posterior superior temporal gyrus bilaterally, anterior insula, supplementary motor area, and frontoparietal network. Moreover, the results indicated critical roles of left planum temporale in extracting the sound of interest among acoustical distracters and the precuneus in orienting spatial attention to the target sound. We hypothesized that the left-sided lateralization of the planum temporale activation is related to the higher specialization of the left hemisphere for analysis of spectrotemporal sound features. Furthermore, the precuneus − a brain area known to be involved in the computation of spatial coordinates across diverse frames of reference for reaching to objects − seems to be also a crucial area for accurately determining locations of auditory targets in an acoustically complex scene of multiple sound sources. The precuneus thus may not only be involved in visuo-motor processes, but may also subserve related functions in the auditory modality.


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The Trouble With “Limitations” In Science : Neuroskeptic

The Trouble With “Limitations” In Science : Neuroskeptic | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
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Brain rewires itself after damage or injury, life scientists discover

Brain rewires itself after damage or injury, life scientists discover | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
The brain forms complex new circuits after damage to compensate for lost function, often far from the damaged region, life scientists report.
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Brain system for emotional self-control discovered

Brain system for emotional self-control discovered | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Different brain areas are activated when we choose to suppress an emotion, compared to when we are instructed to inhibit an emotion, according a new study.

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Getting Schooled by a Neuroscience Skeptic (and Coming Back for More)

Getting Schooled by a Neuroscience Skeptic (and Coming Back for More) | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Neuroscience is a promising discipline, but in many ways it’s a victim of its own public relations success. Hardly a day goes by that a story isn’t published in multiple media outlets about a neuroscience discovery.
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High resolution mapping uncovers brain circuit architecture

High resolution mapping uncovers brain circuit architecture | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
http://www.salk.edu/news/pressrelease_details.php?press_id=623 Salk and Gladstone Institute scientists have found a way to untangle neural networks by enhancing a brain mapping technique that they ...
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Protein essential for cognition and mental health identified

Protein essential for cognition and mental health identified | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
The ability to maintain mental representations of ourselves and the world -- the fundamental building block of human cognition -- arises from the firing of highly evolved neuronal circuits, a process that is weakened in schizophrenia.
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Identifying emotions based on brain activity and machine-learning techniques | KurzweilAI

Identifying emotions based on brain activity and machine-learning techniques | KurzweilAI | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
The image shows the average positions of brain regions used to identify emotional states (credit: Karim S. Kassam et al./Carnegie Mellon
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BigBrain: an ultra-high-resolution 3D roadmap of the human brain | KurzweilAI

BigBrain: an ultra-high-resolution 3D roadmap of the human brain | KurzweilAI | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
BigBrain (credit: Montreal Neurological Institute and Forschungszentrum Jülich) A landmark three-dimensional (3-D) digital reconstruction of a complete
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CLARITY brain imaging from Stanford's Deisseroth Lab

Two video clips made by Karl Deisseroth and Kwanghun Chung of Stanford University. The first shows shows a flythrough of an intact mouse brain using a fluore...
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Painting through the power of thought enabled by scientists - Telegraph

Painting through the power of thought enabled by scientists - Telegraph | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
A computer that enables users to paint through the power of thought has been developed by scientists.

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Maggie Rouman's curator insight, June 14, 2013 7:23 PM

Video and article... it's amazing how far technology has come.

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Primary sensory cortices contain distinguishable spatial patterns of activity for each sense : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Primary sensory cortices contain distinguishable spatial patterns of activity for each sense : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
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Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science

Brains, it has recently been argued, are essentially prediction machines. They are bundles of cells that support perception and action by constantly attempting to match incoming sensory inputs with top-down expectations or predictions. This is achieved using a hierarchical generative model that aims to minimize prediction error within a bidirectional cascade of cortical processing. Such accounts offer a unifying model of perception and action, illuminate the functional role of attention, and may neatly capture the special contribution of cortical processing to adaptive success. This target article critically examines this “hierarchical prediction machine” approach, concluding that it offers the best clue yet to the shape of a unified science of mind and action.

 

Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science
Andy Clark

Behavioral and Brain Sciences / Volume 36 / Issue 03 / June 2013, pp 181-204

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X12000477


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Harshal Hayatnagarkar's comment, May 21, 2013 9:37 PM
Singularity is near !
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Journal Cortex launches Registered Reports

Journal Cortex launches Registered Reports | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

On May 1st, Cortex launched a new innovation in scientific publishing called a Registered Report. Unlike conventional publishing models, Registered Reports split the review process into two stages. Initially, experimental methods and proposed analyses are pre-registered and reviewed before data are collected. Then, if peer reviews are favourable, we offer authors “in-principle acceptance” of their paper. This guarantees publication of their future results providing that they adhere precisely to their registered protocol. Once their experiment is complete, authors then resubmit their full manuscript for final consideration.


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'Good vibrations:' Brain ultrasound improves mood

'Good vibrations:' Brain ultrasound improves mood | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aimed at mental and neurological conditions include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for depression, and transcranial direct current (electrical) stimulation (tDCS), have been shown to improve memory.
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A Murderer's Brain Vs. A Normal Brain

A Murderer's Brain Vs. A Normal Brain | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Your genes may determine your criminal future. ;
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Jocelyn Stoller's curator insight, May 15, 2013 5:52 PM

Misleading description of interesting research.

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Tone Deafness: A Broken Brain?

Tone Deafness: A Broken Brain? | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Researchers have spent the last decade trying to understand why some people are unable to appreciate music.

Via Maggie Rouman
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Maggie Rouman's curator insight, May 9, 2013 11:00 AM

Interesting article examining tone deafness.