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Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly
Covering topics and controversies in Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain Imaging
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How humans predict other's decisions

How humans predict other's decisions | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Researchers have uncovered two brain signals in the human prefrontal cortex involved in how humans predict the decisions of other people.
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PLoS ONE: The Effects of FreeSurfer Version, Workstation Type, and Macintosh Operating System Version on Anatomical Volume and Cortical Thickness Measurements

PLoS ONE: The Effects of FreeSurfer Version, Workstation Type, and Macintosh Operating System Version on Anatomical Volume and Cortical Thickness Measurements | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

FreeSurfer is a popular software package to measure cortical thickness and volume of neuroanatomical structures. However, little if any is known about measurement reliability across various data processing conditions. Using a set of 30 anatomical T1-weighted 3T MRI scans, we investigated the effects of data processing variables such as FreeSurfer version (v4.3.1, v4.5.0, and v5.0.0), workstation (Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard), and Macintosh operating system version (OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6). Significant differences were revealed between FreeSurfer version v5.0.0 and the two earlier versions. These differences were on average 8.8±6.6% (range 1.3–64.0%) (volume) and 2.8±1.3% (1.1–7.7%) (cortical thickness). About a factor two smaller differences were detected between Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard workstations and between OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6. The observed differences are similar in magnitude as effect sizes reported in accuracy evaluations and neurodegenerative studies.

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Children, brain development and the criminal law

Children, brain development and the criminal law | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
The legal system needs to take greater account of new discoveries in neuroscience that show how a difficult childhood can affect the development of a young person's brain which can increase the risk adolescent crimes, according to researchers.
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Functional organization of the insula and inner perisylvian regions

In the last few years, the insula has been the focus of many brain-imaging studies, mostly devoted to clarify its role in emotions and social communication. Physiological data, however, on which one may ground these correlative findings are almost totally lacking. Here, we investigated the functional properties of the insular cortex in behaving monkeys using intracortical microstimulation. Behavioral responses and heart rate changes were recorded. The results showed that the insula is functionally formed by two main subdivisions: (i) a sensorimotor field occupying the caudal–dorsal portion of the insula and appearing as an extension of the parietal lobe; and (ii) a mosaic of orofacial motor programs located in the anterior and centroventral insula sector.

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Beyond the playing field: sport psychology meets embodied cognition

Beyond the playing field: sport psychology meets embodied cognition | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology Vol. 1, No. 1, March 2008, 19Á30 Downloaded By: [University of Chicago] At: 20:26 19 February 2008 Beyond the playing field: sport psychology meets embodied cognition Sian L. Beilock. "In contrast to traditional views of the mind as an abstract information processor,recent theories of embodied cognition suggest that our representations of objects and events are grounded in action. In this review, I document recent behavioraland neuropsychological evidence in support of an embodied viewpoint, and Iargue that sensorimotor experience plays a pivotal role in the embodied cognitionframework. As such, not only can cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience inform sport psychology theory and research, but sport psychology (and motor skill expertise research in particular) is imperative for advancing theories of embodied cognition."


Via Maggie Rouman
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Don't feel like exercise? Scientists find compound that may help you work out harder

Could there be a pill to help you exercise harder? A new report suggests this might be possible. Researchers found that elevating a hormone in the brain, erythropoietin, motivated mice to exercise.
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Chinese meditation prompts double positive punch in brain white matter

Chinese meditation prompts double positive punch in brain white matter | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Scientists studying the Chinese mindfulness meditation known as integrative body-mind training have confirmed and expanded on changes in structural efficiency of white matter in the brain that can be related to positive behavioral changes in...
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Is NMDA Receptor-Coincidence Detection Required for Learning and Memory?

Is NMDA Receptor-Coincidence Detection Required for Learning and Memory? | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

The Mg2+ block of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is crucial to their function as synaptic coincidence detectors. An analysis of Drosophila expressing a Mg2+-independent NMDAR by Miyashita et al. (2012) in this issue of Neuron concludes that the Mg2+ block is required primarily for long-term memory. - Neuron 74, 2012


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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When being scared twice is enough to remember

When being scared twice is enough to remember | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
One of the brain's jobs is to help us figure out what's important enough to be remembered. Scientists have achieved some insight into how fleeting experiences become memories in the brain.
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Brain area identified that determines distance from which sound originates

Brain area identified that determines distance from which sound originates | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Researchers have identified a portion of the brain responsible for determining how far away a sound originates, a process that does not rely solely on how loud the sound is.
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Brain scans show specific neuronal response to junk food when sleep-restricted

The sight of unhealthy food during a period of sleep restriction activated reward centers in the brain less active than with adequate sleep, a new study using fMRI scans shows.
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This is your brain on no self-control

This is your brain on no self-control | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
MRI images show what the brain looks like when you do something you know you shouldn’t.
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Brain scans support Freud: Guilt plays key role in depression

Brain scans support Freud: Guilt plays key role in depression | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Scientists have shown that the brains of people with depression respond differently to feelings of guilt -- even after their symptoms have subsided.
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All things big and small: The brain's discerning taste for size

All things big and small: The brain's discerning taste for size | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
The brain organizes objects based on their physical size, with a specific region of the brain reserved for recognizing large objects and another reserved for small objects, according to a new article.
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Clues to nervous system evolution found in nerve-less sponge

Clues to nervous system evolution found in nerve-less sponge | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Scientists have turned to the simple sponge to find clues about the evolution of the complex nervous system and found that, but for a mechanism that coordinates the expression of genes that lead to the formation of neural synapses, sponges and the...
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Highways of the brain: High-cost and high-capacity

Highways of the brain: High-cost and high-capacity | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
A new study characterizes an influential network within the brain as the "backbone" for global brain communication. A costly network in terms of energy and space consumed, but one with a big pay-off.
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Adaptable decision making in the brain

Adaptable decision making in the brain | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Researchers have discovered how a part of the brain helps predict future events from past experiences.
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Tense film scenes trigger brain activity

Tense film scenes trigger brain activity | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Visual and auditory stimuli that elicit high levels of engagement and emotional response can be linked to reliable patterns of brain activity, a team of researchers reports.
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Toddler spatial knowledge boosts understanding of numbers

Toddler spatial knowledge boosts understanding of numbers | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Children who are skilled in understanding how shapes fit together to make recognizable objects also have an advantage when it comes to learning the number line and solving math problems.
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Neuroscience: The mind reader - Nature.com

Neuroscience: The mind reader - Nature.com | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Nature.comNeuroscience: The mind readerNature.comAdrian Owen has found a way to use brain scans to communicate with people previously written off as unreachable. Now, he is fighting to take his methods to the clinic.
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Alan Turing and his machines - by the men who knew him best

Alan Turing and his machines - by the men who knew him best | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it

A week ahead of the Science Museum's Alan Turing exhibition - 'Codebreaker' - Matilda Battersby speaks to his old assistant and his nephew to find out what drove one of Britain's greatest men and looks at the machines that helped make his name.


Via Ashish Umre
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Losing money, emotions and evolution

Losing money, emotions and evolution | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Mildly stressful situations can affect our perceptions in the same way as life-threatening ones.
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How brain performs 'motor chunking' tasks

How brain performs 'motor chunking' tasks | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
You pick up your cell phone and dial the new number of a friend. Ten numbers. One. Number. At. A. Time. Because you haven't actually typed the number before, your brain handles each button press separately, as a sequence of distinct movements.
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Novel brain imaging technique explains why concussions affect people differently

Novel brain imaging technique explains why concussions affect people differently | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Patients vary widely in their response to concussion, but scientists haven’t understood why.
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Brain cell activity imbalance may account for seizure susceptibility in angelman syndrome

Brain cell activity imbalance may account for seizure susceptibility in angelman syndrome | Brain Imaging and Neuroscience: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly | Scoop.it
Scientists may have pinpointed an underlying cause of the seizures that affect 90 percent of people with Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder.
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