FreeSurfer is a popular software package to measure cortical thickness and volume of neuroanatomical structures. However, little if any is known about measurement reliability across various data processing conditions. Using a set of 30 anatomical T1-weighted 3T MRI scans, we investigated the effects of data processing variables such as FreeSurfer version (v4.3.1, v4.5.0, and v5.0.0), workstation (Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard), and Macintosh operating system version (OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6). Significant differences were revealed between FreeSurfer version v5.0.0 and the two earlier versions. These differences were on average 8.8±6.6% (range 1.3–64.0%) (volume) and 2.8±1.3% (1.1–7.7%) (cortical thickness). About a factor two smaller differences were detected between Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard workstations and between OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6. The observed differences are similar in magnitude as effect sizes reported in accuracy evaluations and neurodegenerative studies.
The legal system needs to take greater account of new discoveries in neuroscience that show how a difficult childhood can affect the development of a young person's brain which can increase the risk adolescent crimes, according to researchers.
In the last few years, the insula has been the focus of many brain-imaging studies, mostly devoted to clarify its role in emotions and social communication. Physiological data, however, on which one may ground these correlative findings are almost totally lacking. Here, we investigated the functional properties of the insular cortex in behaving monkeys using intracortical microstimulation. Behavioral responses and heart rate changes were recorded. The results showed that the insula is functionally formed by two main subdivisions: (i) a sensorimotor field occupying the caudal–dorsal portion of the insula and appearing as an extension of the parietal lobe; and (ii) a mosaic of orofacial motor programs located in the anterior and centroventral insula sector.
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology Vol. 1, No. 1, March 2008, 19Á30 Downloaded By: [University of Chicago] At: 20:26 19 February 2008 Beyond the playing ﬁeld: sport psychology meets embodied cognition Sian L. Beilock. "In contrast to traditional views of the mind as an abstract information processor,recent theories of embodied cognition suggest that our representations of objects and events are grounded in action. In this review, I document recent behavioraland neuropsychological evidence in support of an embodied viewpoint, and Iargue that sensorimotor experience plays a pivotal role in the embodied cognitionframework. As such, not only can cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience inform sport psychology theory and research, but sport psychology (and motor skill expertise research in particular) is imperative for advancing theories of embodied cognition."
Scientists studying the Chinese mindfulness meditation known as integrative body-mind training have confirmed and expanded on changes in structural efficiency of white matter in the brain that can be related to positive behavioral changes in...
The Mg2+ block of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is crucial to their function as synaptic coincidence detectors. An analysis of Drosophila expressing a Mg2+-independent NMDAR by Miyashita et al. (2012) in this issue of Neuron concludes that the Mg2+ block is required primarily for long-term memory. - Neuron 74, 2012
Scientists have turned to the simple sponge to find clues about the evolution of the complex nervous system and found that, but for a mechanism that coordinates the expression of genes that lead to the formation of neural synapses, sponges and the...
Nature.comNeuroscience: The mind readerNature.comAdrian Owen has found a way to use brain scans to communicate with people previously written off as unreachable. Now, he is fighting to take his methods to the clinic.
A week ahead of the Science Museum's Alan Turing exhibition - 'Codebreaker' - Matilda Battersby speaks to his old assistant and his nephew to find out what drove one of Britain's greatest men and looks at the machines that helped make his name.
You pick up your cell phone and dial the new number of a friend. Ten numbers. One. Number. At. A. Time. Because you haven't actually typed the number before, your brain handles each button press separately, as a sequence of distinct movements.
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