Researchers from the Institut Jacques Monod (CNRS/University of Paris Diderot), the Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS/CNRS/Inserm), and the University of Bristol, have described for the first time in its totality the...
A new treatment for ovarian cancer can improve response rates (increase the rate of tumor shrinkage) and prolong the time until cancers recur, research shows. In addition, this breakthrough showed a trend in improving survival although these data are not yet mature. "This is an exciting new targeted medication in treating recurrent ovarian cancer. Recurrent ovarian cancer is almost always fatal and new treatments are desperately needed," said one researcher.
A new blood test allowing doctors to predict which ovarian cancer patients will respond to particular types of treatment is a step closer following a new study. Researchers say the test could be developed and used in hospitals within the next few years.
Programmable nucleases, which include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) (1–4), transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) (5, 6) and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) (7–9) derived from the Type II CRISPR/Cas system, a prokaryotic immune response, are now widely used for gene knockout and knockin studies in cultured cells and model organisms. These nucleases cleave chromosomal DNA in a targeted manner, producing site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), whose repair via endogenous systems known as homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) leads to targeted mutagenesis. Nuclease-mediated gene disruption is preferentially achieved via error-prone NHEJ rather than HR because NHEJ is a dominant DSB repair pathway over HR in mammalian cells. DSB repair by erroneous NHEJ is accompanied by small insertions and deletions (indels) at nuclease target sites, which can cause frameshift mutations in a protein-coding sequence. Unlike siRNA or shRNA that is limited by incomplete gene suppression, programmable nucleases enable complete gene disruption. Furthermore, these nucleases are much more specific than is siRNA or shRNA. Still, engineered nucleases can induce off-target mutations at sites that are highly homologous to on-target sites. Repair of off-target DNA cleavages in cells can cause gross chromosomal rearrangements such as deletions, inversions, and translocations (10, 11). In this session, I will compare these nucleases and discuss their pros and cons, focusing on their availability and off-target effects.
Among the most promising advances in the fight against cancer has been the rise of nanomedicine, the application of tiny materials and devices to detect, diagnose and treat disease. Researchers provide one of the most comprehensive assessments to date of research on nanomedicine-based approaches to treating cancer, and offers insight into how researchers can best position nanomedicine-based cancer treatments for FDA approval.
"Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend on for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that re-education of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here we discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, as well as recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects."
Women who fail to take tamoxifen for the full five years are more likely to see their cancer return and to suffer an early deathThe drug can cause side effects including hot flushes, joint pain and fatigue Those who don't stick to their drug regime cost an extra £6,000 on averageThey also lose an average of 13 months reasonable quality of life
New nanotechnology method sneaks drugs into cancer cells before triggering release
Biomedical engineering researchers have developed a nanotechnology anti-cancer drug delivery method that essentially smuggles the drug into a cancer cell before triggering its release ("Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy by ATP-Mediated Liposomal Drug Delivery"). The method can be likened to keeping a cancer-killing bomb and its detonator separate until they are inside a cancer cell, where they then combine to destroy the cell.
Researchers have examined whether a specific epigenetic modification (more specifically, methylation of the DNA) can be associated to breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families.
Circulating tumor cells spread ovarian cancer through the bloodstream, homing in on a sheath of abdominal fatty tissue where it can grow and metastasize to other organs, scientists report. The researchers found the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) rely on HER3, a less-famous sibling of the HER2 receptor protein prominent in some breast cancers, to find their way to the omentum, a sheet of tissue that covers and supports abdominal organs.
"Breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies can skip axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), according to an updated clinical guideline from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
The same advice applies to most women who have one or two SLN metastases and plan to have breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiation therapy. Patients who have SLN metastases and opt for mastectomy should be offered axillary lymph node dissection, according to an article published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
The update represents a major departure from the original version of the guideline, which recommended axillary lymph node dissection for all women with SLN involvement.
The change came about as a result of "recent trials that suggest no difference in outcomes and fewer complications with sentinel-node biopsy alone," guideline panel chair Gary Lyman, MD, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, told MedPage Today via email.
A new cancer treatment is now available in North America that offers an alternative cancer surgery, without the incision or hospital stay, treating patients in 15 minutes or less and returning them to their everyday lives.
A team of researchers has discovered a method of assembling "building blocks" of gold nanoparticles as the vehicle to deliver cancer medications or cancer-identifying markers directly into cancerous tumors.
"Many forms of cancer have multiple subtypes with different causes and clinical outcomes. Somatic tumor genome sequences provide a rich new source of data for uncovering these subtypes but have proven difficult to compare, as two tumors rarely share the same mutations. Here we introduce network-based stratification (NBS), a method to integrate somatic tumor genomes with gene networks. This approach allows for stratification of cancer into informative subtypes by clustering together patients with mutations in similar network regions. We demonstrate NBS in ovarian, uterine and lung cancer cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas. For each tissue, NBS identifies subtypes that are predictive of clinical outcomes such as patient survival, response to therapy or tumor histology. We identify network regions characteristic of each subtype and show how mutation-derived subtypes can be used to train an mRNA expression signature, which provides similar information in the absence of DNA sequence."
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