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Biosciencia News
Everyday news through scientist eyes.
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A Tumor With A Sweet Tooth: Innovative MRI Technique Uses Sugar To Track Cancer

A Tumor With A Sweet Tooth: Innovative MRI Technique Uses Sugar To Track Cancer | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
Scientists at University College London use sugar to make cancer light up on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners.
Biosciencia's insight:

"We can detect cancer using the same sugar content found in half a standard sized chocolate bar," said senior author Professor Mark Lythgoe, the Director of Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging at University College London. His team's work was published today in Nature Medicine.

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Brain-Eating Amoebas Invade US Lakes Due To Global Warming

Brain-Eating Amoebas Invade US Lakes Due To Global Warming | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis, caused by the parasite Naegleria fowleri, has a 99% fatality rate and is usually not diagnosed until it's too late.
Biosciencia's insight:

Naegleria fowleri – or, the “brain-eating amoeba” – may sound like a sci-fi trope from the ‘80s, but is totally real, and will likely claim more lives this year than ever before.

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Whole human brain mapped in 3D

Whole human brain mapped in 3D | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
Ten-year 'BigBrain' effort yields 10-trillion-byte atlas of fine-scale cerebral anatomy.
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Researchers used a special tool called a microtome cut a human brain preserved in paraffin wax into 20-micrometre thick slivers and map its anatomical structure with high resolution.

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New memories filmed in action for first time

New memories filmed in action for first time | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
The processes of memory formation and retrieval have been observed across the entire brain for the first time using transparent zebrafish    
Biosciencia's insight:

Got a memory like a fish? The first study to visualise live memory retrieval in the whole brain has not only debunked the "three-second memory" myth, but also sheds light on the brain processes involved in forming long-term memories.

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New forensic technique for estimating time of death by checking internal clock of the human brain

New forensic technique for estimating time of death by checking internal clock of the human brain | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
People with severe depression have a disrupted “biological clock” that makes it seem as if they are living in a different time zone to the rest of the healthy population living alongside them, a study has found.
Biosciencia's insight:

The researchers found that they could estimate a healthy person's time of death to within a few hours by analysing the activity levels of a set of genes.

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How works a sugar addiction

Sugar seems to be evil on earth, everywhere we are flooded about how sugar is bad. In NYC, the administration wanted to forbid large size soda but the ban has been blocked by a judge.
Biosciencia's insight:

All you need to know about sugar and addiction, maybe the first step to limit it.

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From the connectome to brain function : Nature Methods : Nature Publishing Group

From the connectome to brain function : Nature Methods : Nature Publishing Group | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
In this Historical Perspective, we ask what information is needed beyond connectivity diagrams to understand the function of nervous systems.
Biosciencia's insight:

Informed by invertebrate circuits whose connectivities are known, we highlight the importance of neuronal dynamics and neuromodulation, and the existence of parallel circuits. The vertebrate retina has these features in common with invertebrate circuits, suggesting that they are general across animals. Comparisons across these systems suggest approaches to study the functional organization of large circuits based on existing knowledge of small circuits.

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Consciousness Could Be the Effect of Quantum Mechanical Phenomena

Consciousness Could Be the Effect of Quantum Mechanical Phenomena | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
While hard evidence is still lacking, scientists have proposed that consciousness arises from quantum mechanical brain activity.
Biosciencia's insight:

Hameroff read Penrose’s work and suggested that microtubules -- small fibrous structures that underpin cells – may be capable of carrying out such computations. Together, Penrose and Hameroff began working on what they called the Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch OR) model, which examines how quantum mechanical phenomena could be applied to activity within these structures.

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Shocks to the brain improve mathematical abilities

Shocks to the brain improve mathematical abilities | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
Benefits of electrical brain stimulation lasted months but critics point to study's small size as a weakness.
Biosciencia's insight:

A gentle electrical stimulation to the brain improved university students' abilities at performing simple arithmetic calculations.

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Chinese project probes the genetics of genius

Chinese project probes the genetics of genius | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it
Bid to unravel the secrets of brainpower faces scepticism.
Nature 497 297 doi: 10.1038/497297a
Biosciencia's insight:

The US adolescents who signed up for the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) in the 1970s were the smartest of the smart, with mathematical and verbal-reasoning skills within the top 1% of the population. Now, researchers at BGI (formerly the Beijing Genomics Institute) in Shenzhen, China, the largest gene-sequencing facility in the world, are searching for the quirks of DNA that may contribute to such gifts.

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Epilepsy Cured in Mice Using A One-Time Transplantation Of MGE Brain Cells

Epilepsy Cured in Mice Using A One-Time Transplantation Of MGE Brain Cells | Biosciencia News | Scoop.it

UCSF scientists controlled seizures in epileptic mice with a one-time transplantation of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells, which inhibit signaling in overactive nerve circuits, into the hippocampus, a brain region associated with seizures, as well as with learning and memory. Other researchers had previously used different cell types in rodent cell transplantation experiments and failed to stop seizures.

 

Cell therapy has become an active focus of epilepsy research, in part because current medications, even when effective, only control symptoms and not underlying causes of the disease, according to Scott C. Baraban, PhD, who holds the William K. Bowes Jr. Endowed Chair in Neuroscience Research at UCSF and led the new study. In many types of epilepsy, he said, current drugs have no therapeutic value at all.

 

"Our results are an encouraging step toward using inhibitory neurons for cell transplantation in adults with severe forms of epilepsy," Baraban said. "This procedure offers the possibility of controlling seizures and rescuing cognitive deficits in these patients."

 

In the UCSF study, the transplanted inhibitory cells quenched this synchronous, nerve-signaling firestorm, eliminating seizures in half of the treated mice and dramatically reducing the number of spontaneous seizures in the rest. Robert Hunt, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the Baraban lab, guided many of the key experiments.

 

he mouse model of disease that Baraban's lab team worked with is meant to resemble a severe and typically drug-resistant form of human epilepsy called mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, in which seizures are thought to arise in the hippocampus. In contrast to transplants into the hippocampus, transplants into the amygdala, a brain region involved in memory and emotion, failed to halt seizure activity in this same mouse model, the researcher found.

 

Temporal lobe epilepsy often develops in adolescence, in some cases long after a seizure episode triggered during early childhood by a high fever. A similar condition in mice can be induced with a chemical exposure, and in addition to seizures, this mouse model shares other pathological features with the human condition, such as loss of cells in the hippocampus, behavioral alterations and impaired problem solving.

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Biosciencia's insight:

Cell therapy has become an active focus of epilepsy research, in part because current medications, even when effective, only control symptoms and not underlying causes of the disease.

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Brenda Elliott's curator insight, May 8, 2013 4:00 AM

curative_ that's amazing...