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Biomimétisme : un micro entonnoir en silicium augmente l'efficacité des cellules solaires

Biomimétisme : un micro entonnoir en silicium augmente l'efficacité des cellules solaires | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Une équipe de recherche de l'Institut pour les Nanomatériaux du Centre Helmholtz de Berlin, dirigée par Silke Christiansen, s'est inspirée de la remarquable structure de l'oeil d'un mammifère, la fovéa, pour concevoir par biomimétisme un équivalent inorganique pour une utilisation dans les cellules solaires. ...

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Glass sponges hold internal secrets to structural strength : Wyss Institute at Harvard

Glass sponges hold internal secrets to structural strength : Wyss Institute at Harvard | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Scientists often look to biology for inspiration and innovation, emulating the way that nature builds to advance human engineering. Creatures of the ocean's depths are some of the most mysterious and fascinating subjects for study, due to the challenges of collecting them from very deep waters and for their unique adaptations for colonizing the sea floor. One such group is the hexactinellids, a collection of predominantly deep-sea sponges that produce elaborate skeletal systems of glass. Known as glass sponges, over the years their skeletal systems and their constituent elements (called spicules) have served as useful model systems for the design and fabrication of robust and damage tolerant structures.
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Biomimetics: Pressurised Structures – Cacti

Biomimetics: Pressurised Structures – Cacti | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
"Cactaceae, within the order Caryophyllales and is a succulent system that contains pressurised water that gives the organism structural stability as well as being a fundamental life source.

Being a water-container, means that there is no need for other rigid structure such as bark to give structural performance against external loads. Water is an element already in compression and similar structural strategies have been derived from this natural phenomenon in man-made hydraulic structures. Just like Cacti, other living organisms such as Jellyfish, slugs, worms and other plants (crassulas) contain a large percent of water which replaces the need of rigid hard tissues such as bones and barks to achieve structural performance allowing high flexibility."
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Biomimétisme : des robots miniatures capables de tirer 2000 fois leur poids

Biomimétisme : des robots miniatures capables de tirer 2000 fois leur poids | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Des chercheurs de l’université de Stanford se sont inspirés de petits reptiles et des fourmis pour mettre au point de minuscules robots capables de tracter à la vérticale 100 fois leur poids et à l'horizontale jusqu'à 2 000 fois leur poids. Cette découverte pourrait trouver de nombreuses applications dans les usines et le monde des BTP.

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Poisonous Frogs Inspire Freeze-Resistant Airplanes

Poisonous Frogs Inspire Freeze-Resistant Airplanes | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
It's no secret that ice is bad for flight. Feathers and jet wings alike can grow stiff and heavy from accumulating water that is flash-frozen in the cold of high altitudes and the winter season. That's why airports will delay flights and risk polluting the environment to spray down their planes in antifreeze. Now experts taking a cue from the poison dart frog are proposing a safer and more economic solution.
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Festo's insect-inspired robots act like the real things

Festo's insect-inspired robots act like the real things | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
German automation company Festo is known for taking cues from nature when designing robots. This time, it has revealed futuristic-looking bionic ants, re
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Biomimétisme : un micro entonnoir en silicium inspiré des yeux augmente l'efficacité des cellules solaires

Biomimétisme : un micro entonnoir en silicium inspiré des yeux augmente l'efficacité des cellules solaires | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Une structure dans l'oeil des mammifères, la fovéa, a inspiré l'équipe de la Silke Christiansen, directrice de l'Institut pour les Nanomatériaux du Centre Helmholtz de Berlin pour les matériaux et l'énergie (HZB) ainsi que d'un groupe de travail de l'Institut Max Planck pour la Science de la lumière (MPL). L'équipe mixte du HZB et du MPL a ainsi pu concevoir par biomimétisme un équivalent inorganique pour une utilisation dans les cellules solaires.

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New Biomimetic Fiber, Inspired by Pine Cones, Keeps You Dryer, Longer

New Biomimetic Fiber, Inspired by Pine Cones, Keeps You Dryer, Longer | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

 A new textile developed in the UK can make your workout a little less sweaty. Called Inotek, the process amps up textiles’ ability to absorb sweat, in effect pulling it away from the body- leaving you clean and dry. Developed by MMT Textiles, Inotek can benefit athletes, ...

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Can Biomimicry Create High-Performance Metal Alloys?

Can Biomimicry Create High-Performance Metal Alloys? | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Founded in 2006, Seattle’s Modumetalis applying the process of lamination at nano-scale, enabling engineers to design and fabricate metals with superior performance characteristics and at lower cost than conventional methods.

The ability to cost-effectively fabricate nanolaminate metals that are more resistant to rust and corrosion alone would be a boon. Such materials could be used by engineering and construction companies for everything from civil engineering of public infrastructure to offshore energy (wind, as well as oil and gas), mining, home and building construction, tools, and consumer products. In a 2002 study, international corrosion authority NACE estimated corrosion in the U.S. results in direct costs of $276 billion a year across the economy.

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Chameleon-like Material Changes Color On Demand : DNews

Chameleon-like Material Changes Color On Demand : DNews | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley announced today that they have developed an ultra-thin material that can change color on demand by bouncing back light on the nanoscale level.

Well, the on-demand element is a little more nuanced. The “chameleon skin” material actually changes color when flexed, or when a small amount of force is applied to the surface.

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Self-healing of Concrete by Bacterial Mineral Precipitation

Self-healing of Concrete by Bacterial Mineral Precipitation | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Repairing cracks in concrete structures is a time consuming, costly but necessary business. TU Delft is researching how the self-healing capacity of concrete structures can be improved by using calcite-precipitating bacteria and what conditions are necessary for these bacteria to thrive.
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Engineered by humans, inspired by nature » Scienceline

Engineered by humans, inspired by nature » Scienceline | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Inventors have been exploring biomimicry as early as the Renaissance era when Leonardo Da Vinci sketched out a bat-shaped wing contraption for human flight, called an ornithopter. Engineers take what they see in the natural world and integrate it into new technologies.

Entire research institutes and education programs dedicated to biomimicry are working on technologies that maximize efficiency and cut manufacturing costs. The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology made cost efficient LED lights for flat screen televisions and mobile phones that emulate the glow of fireflies; the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Washington developed hydrogen-pumping fuel cells for powering buildings and cars, which copy natural enzymes found in microorganisms.
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Longhorn beetle inspires ink to fight counterfeiting - American Chemical Society

Longhorn beetle inspires ink to fight counterfeiting - American Chemical Society | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
From water marks to colored threads, governments are constantly adding new features to paper money to stay one step ahead of counterfeiters. Now a longh
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Fish and flowers inspire diving goggle material | Chemistry World

Fish and flowers inspire diving goggle material | Chemistry World | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Researchers in China have taken inspiration from fish scales and skeleton flowers to make a transparent underwater surface that stays clean by repelling oil.

Light scattering means that many synthetic oil-repellent surfaces are opaque, limiting their use. A transparent, oil-repellent surface would have applications in biology and underwater optics, including in diving goggles and cameras. Now, Feng Chen’s research group at Xi’an Jiaotong University has developed such a material.

Fish repel oil by trapping water within their scales to create a self-cleaning, oil-repellent coat and prompted part of the idea behind the work. Chen’s other brainwave was triggered by Diphylleia grayi – also known as the skeleton flower.


The skeleton flower on a sunny day (a) and in the rain (b)

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Low-reflection Wings Make Butterflies Nearly Invisible

Low-reflection Wings Make Butterflies Nearly Invisible | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Irregular Nanostructures on the Transparent Wing of the Glasswing Butterfly Prevent the Reflection of Light – Publication in Nature Communications – Researchers Plan Applications Full Story The effect is known from the smart phone: Sun is reflected by the display…
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Design News - Blog - Software Is Using Biomimicry to Optimize Part Design

Design News - Blog - Software Is Using Biomimicry to Optimize Part Design | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
As additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, becomes more and more sophisticated and capable of direct production in some applications, a class of software is emerging that exploits the capability of AM technology to produce objects in a highly freeform manner.
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Octopuses can bring the moves but not the rhythm

Octopuses can bring the moves but not the rhythm | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Scientists studied the movements of octopuses to develop better robotic arms.

Octopuses use unique strategies to coordinate their arms while crawling, the researchers found. The cephalopods are bilateral symmetric, which means their left and right sides are mirror images of each other. Most bilateral-symmetric animals face forward when they are moving, with a few notable exceptions, such as the crab, which moves sideways.

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​In the Future, Your City Could Change Colors Like an Octopus

​In the Future, Your City Could Change Colors Like an Octopus | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Octopuses evolved their color-changing ability for camouflage. But Yang believes the same trick could revolutionize energy efficiency in buildings, allowing structures to heat up or cool off by altering their transparency according to the ambient temperature and sunlight. That’s the motivation behind Yang’s latest invention: A synthetic skin that, like the octopus, changes both color and opacity when stretched.
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Production de gaz hydrogène directement à partir de l'énergie solaire

Production de gaz hydrogène directement à partir de l'énergie solaire | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Des chercheurs du Laboratoire fédéral d'essai des matériaux et de recherche (Empa) ont développé une cellule photoéletrochimique (PEC) [1]. Basée sur une imitation de l'oeil de mite, qui capte un maximum de lumière en en réfléchissant le moins possible, la photoanode de la cellule PEC est constituée de sphérules composées de matériaux peu coûteux (oxyde de fer et oxyde de tungstène). Cette combinaison permet d'atteindre l'énergie nécessaire à la scission de l'eau en dihydrogène et dioxygène.

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Un nouveau matériau inspiré par la crevette

Un nouveau matériau inspiré par la crevette | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Le Shrilk est un matériau exceptionnel : solide, léger, économique et entièrement biodégradable, il pourrait un jour remplacer le plastique synthétique.

En 2011, des chercheurs du Wyss Institute de l’université d’Harvard inventent un substitut aux plastiques à base de déchets de crevettes : le Shrilk, contraction de « shrimp » (crevette) et de « silk » (soie). Depuis, l’équipe menée par Javier G. Fernandez a développé une nouvelle façon de fabriquer ce bioplastique, le rendant plus facile et moins cher à produire. Le Shrilk est composé d’une protéine de soie créée par des araignées et de chitosane, qui est une forme de chitine que l’on trouve dans la cuticule (le squelette externe) des crustacés et des insectes. C’est la deuxième matière organique la plus abondante sur Terre, après la cellulose. Le Shrilk présente les mêmes propriétés : résistance, souplesse et finesse. Il possèderait la même force qu’un alliage d’aluminium en étant deux fois plus léger.

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3D Printed Fish Scales Inspire Human Armor Development

3D Printed Fish Scales Inspire Human Armor Development | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
The next gen­er­a­tion of armor systems are light, perform a lot of functions, and at the same time do not compromise on protection. And nature provides very important information in terms of armor development. This is very different from what people have been working on before, which is focusing on the very nature of the scales themselves, how they will behave, and whether they break easily or not. Here, our focus is simply the effect of simple scales and their mutual contact and interaction with the soft substrate.”

3D printed models based on fish scales are the first to be developed by the team. The scientists have learned that embedding the scales in certain places on the soft substrate makes the substrate rigid instead of flexible; for the purpose of developing flexible armor, it appears that scale placement is one key factor. Another is how much stiffer the scale material has to be than the substrate in order to maintain flexibility.

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Plants exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, engineers find

Plants exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, engineers find | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

From an engineer’s perspective, plants such as palm trees, bamboo, maples and even potatoes are examples of precise engineering on a microscopic scale. Like wooden beams reinforcing a house, cell walls make up the structural supports of all plants. Depending on how the cell walls are arranged, and what they are made of, a plant can be as flimsy as a reed, or as sturdy as an oak.

An MIT researcher has compiled data on the microstructures of a number of different plants, from apples and potatoes to willow and spruce trees, and has found that plants exhibit an enormous range of mechanical properties, depending on the arrangement of a cell wall’s four main building blocks: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin.

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Nature and mathematics join forces to cut the cost of 3D printing | AMRC

Nature and mathematics join forces to cut the cost of 3D printing | AMRC | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
Home / Case study / Nature and mathematics join forces to cut the cost of 3D printing

Nature and mathematics join forces to cut the cost of 3D printing
Posted on December 3, 2014 by Kirsten
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Watch the first steps of a robot inspired by stick bugs

Watch the first steps of a robot inspired by stick bugs | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it
They grow up so fast, don't they? It was just a few years ago that HECTOR the stick bug robot was little more than a twinkle in Bielefeld University's eye, and it's already taking its first steps. Okay, so this isn't quite a tear-jerking moment, but it's still an important achievement in robotics. As you'll see in the video below, all of HECTOR's six insect-like legs move independently while reacting to unexpected changes in terrain. They shift to maintain balance on slippery ground, and raise themselves above small obstacles the moment they sense resistance.

HECTOR is just a proof of concept for now, so he won't be crawling outside of a lab any time soon -- probably a good thing, since he doesn't have eyes. Bielefeld already has a prototype with two cameras and "feelers," though, so there's a real possibility that you'll see this machine get around on its own by the time a planned 2017 upgrade arrives. If everything goes smoothly, this project could pave the way for autonomous cargo haulers, extraterrestrial rovers and other robots that can't always count on a stable footing
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Les chats apprennent aux robots à retomber sur leurs pattes

Les chats apprennent aux robots à retomber sur leurs pattes | Biomimétisme, Biomimicry, Bioinspired innovation | Scoop.it

Bientôt, les robots sauront retomber sur leurs pattes ! Des chercheurs de l’Université Georgia Tech ont analysé la façon dont les chats réagissaient lors d’une chute pour pouvoir l’appliquer aux robots.

Dans une publication, les chercheurs de l'université Georgia Tech ont présenté un algorithme qui optimise la planification de la trajectoire holonome - qui peut effectuer indépendemment deux translations et une rotation - inspirée par le chat qui tombe. Il permet d'orienter un robot articulé, grâce à des changements de configuration, pour prendre une position lui permettant de réduire l’impact à l’atterrissage.
Damped spring LE SYSTEME MASSE-RESSORT AMORTI

L'amortissement d'un système se traduit par l'atténuation des mouvements de celui-ci par la dissipation de l'énergie qui les engendre.
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« Ce n’est pas la chute qui vous tue mais l’arrivée brutale à la fin de celle-ci », explique le professeur Kareen Liu, agrégé à l'Ecole d'informatique interactive de Georgia Tech. L'un des facteurs les plus importants, et qui détermine les dégâts causés par la chute, est l'angle d'atterrissage. Ce contrôleur pilote plus exactement le système Masse-Ressort amorti du robot (voir encadré) pour réduire l’ampleur des efforts lors du contact.

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