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Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine
Sharing relevant articles on advancements in personalized medicine
Curated by Brian Shields
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Biomarker Test Next Step for New Mesothelioma Drug - Surviving Mesothelioma

Biomarker Test Next Step for New Mesothelioma Drug - Surviving Mesothelioma | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Surviving Mesothelioma Biomarker Test Next Step for New Mesothelioma Drug Surviving Mesothelioma mesothelioma drug test A company that makes stem cell-focused treatments for cancer has taken an important step closer to testing a promising new...
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Arlene Taylor's Blog: Biomarker for ASD

Arlene Taylor's Blog: Biomarker for ASD | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Several studies have been carried out to find a candidate biomarker linked to the development of these disorders but without success. Recently, researchers performed a detailed protein analysis of blood plasma from children ...
Brian Shields's insight:

Interesting information regarding a biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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DNA Sequencing Costs

DNA Sequencing Costs | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
DNA sequencing costs vs. Moore's Law http://t.co/wf5ibcEk
Brian Shields's insight:

What an incredible analysis, and statement below: the decrease in cost of DNA sequencing has demonstrated a  "profound out-pacing of Moore's Law beginning in January 2008".

 

 

This is the future of medicine and therapies.  Which pharma companies are leading the way and which companies may be left behind?

 

Will diagnostics firms and Pharma start to collaborate?  Will we finally realize the revolutionary benfits of this massive reduction in the cost of life-saving technology?

 

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Ignyta raises $5.5 million for personalized medicine tests - U-T San Diego

Ignyta raises $5.5 million for personalized medicine tests - U-T San Diego | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Ignyta raises $5.5 million for personalized medicine tests
U-T San Diego
Ignyta Inc. has raised $5.5 million to help develop its personalized medicine tests for rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and other autoimmune diseases.
Brian Shields's insight:

This is another exciting story about the speed of development in the biomarker arena.  In 2010 the founder of this company got his idea from a Time magazine article.  Just over 2 years later, we have a test which may be able to identify the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis.

 

Excerpt below:

 

"Firestein got the idea for epigenetic testing for rheumatoid arthritis after reading a 2010 Time magazine article about the role of epigenetics in cancer and other diseases, Lim said.

"He received Illumina methylation technology that allowed him to do genome-wide methylation analysis of a number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis," Lim said. "He was able to compare these RA patients with other patients who didn't have RA, and he found a strikingly different methylation signature in the RA patients."

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The Future of Medicine Is Now

The Future of Medicine Is Now | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
From cancer treatments to new devices to gene therapy, a look at six medical innovations that are poised to transform the way we fight disease.
Brian Shields's insight:

Is the future of cancer treatment already here?

Exciting startup helps Oncologists match tumors to therapies based on oncogenetic mutations.

 

Excerpt Below:

 

"One answer is a test developed by Foundation Medicine Inc., a Cambridge, Mass., startup whose scientific founders include one of the leaders of the Human Genome Project. The test, officially launched last June, enables doctors to test a tumor sample for 280 different genetic mutations suspected of driving tumor growth."

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Dr. Kris on Dacomitinib in EGFR-Positive Lung Cancer

Dr. Kris on Dacomitinib in EGFR-Positive Lung Cancer | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Mark G. Kris, MD, from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, discusses the administration of dacomitinib for patient with EGFR-positive lung cancer.
Brian Shields's insight:

Very Positive data for patients in need of new treatments due to TKI resistance

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Ethical Challenges for Clinical Genome Sequencing | MassGenomics

Ethical Challenges for Clinical Genome Sequencing | MassGenomics | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
First came the advent of massively parallel sequencing, a technology arms race that began with two companies (Solexa and 454 Life Sciences) but went on to involve several others. These so-called “next generation” ...
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Inflammatory biomarker points to a new approach on antidepressants - FierceBiomarkers

Inflammatory biomarker points to a new approach on antidepressants - FierceBiomarkers | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
A well-known biomarker for inflammatory diseases may also be linked to depression, offering investigators an intriguing new opening in the frustrating battle to develop novel antidepressants.
Brian Shields's insight:

There may a role for anti-inflammatory theray for the treatment of depression.

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Biomarkers could give early warning of late heart transplant rejection

Biomarkers could give early warning of late heart transplant rejection | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
A combination of three blood-borne proteins may bolster efforts to prevent graft loss years after transplantBOSTON, Dec.
Brian Shields's insight:

"Researchers at Boston Children's Hospitalhave found a combination of biomarkers related to blood vessel and tissue injury that, when measured together, could signal when a transplanted heart is becoming damaged to the point of failure, a process that is often undetected. The markers would give doctors an opportunity to intervene and save a recipient's heart, and also provide a starting point for identifying long-term rejection biomarkers for several kinds of organ transplants.

 

The research team—led by Kevin P. Daly, MD, and David M. Briscoe, MD, of the Transplant Research Program (TRP) at Boston Children's Hospital, and S. Ananth Karumanchi, MD, of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center—published their findings online Dec. 26 in the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation."

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Genetic sequencing breakthrough to aid treatment for congenital hyperinsulinism - Science Codex

Genetic sequencing breakthrough to aid treatment for congenital hyperinsulinism - Science Codex | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Genetic sequencing breakthrough to aid treatment for congenital hyperinsulinism
Science Codex
Using new Illumina genetic sequencing technology, the research team led by Professor Sian Ellard has discovered novel mutations that cause hyperinsulinism.
Brian Shields's insight:

"Congenital hyperinsulinism is a genetic condition where a baby's pancreas secretes too much insulin. It affects approximately one in 50,000 live births and in severe cases requires the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas.

 

Researchers at the University of Exeter Medical School are the first in the world to utilise new genetic sequencing technology to sequence the entirety of a gene in order to identify mutations that cause hyperinsulinism. Previously, existing technology limited such sequencing to only part of the coding regions of the gene which meant that some mutations were missed.

Using new Illumina genetic sequencing technology, the research team led by Professor Sian Ellard has discovered novel mutations that cause hyperinsulinism. Their findings are published today, 27th December 2012, on-line by The American Journal of Human Genetics.

 

The outcome will be that some infants born with hyperinsulinism will require fewer investigations, because the new technology means that for many only one genetic test will be required to determine the extent of the condition in each child. It also means that clinicians will have more information at their fingertips to inform them about how much of the pancreas needs to be removed."

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Whole-genome sequencing could allow biopsy-free cancer tests - FierceHealthIT

Whole-genome sequencing could allow biopsy-free cancer tests - FierceHealthIT | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it

Whole-genome sequencing could allow biopsy-free cancer tests- "Researchers have found a way to use whole-genome sequencing to detect tumor DNA in the bloodstream, opening the door to a possible new screening test for cancer."

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Biomarker progress offers hope for early autism spectrum disorder detection

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders typically characterized by difficulties in social interactions and delayed or abnormal language development.
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Power of Genome Sequencing to Detect Circulating Tumor DNA | Medindia

Power of Genome Sequencing to Detect Circulating Tumor DNA | Medindia | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
At the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, scientists have combined the ability to detect cancer DNA in the blood with genome sequencing technology in a test.
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Genomic sequencing of meningiomas identifies oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations

Brian Shields's insight:

Interesting information regarding the discovery of Oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations in the treatment of menengiomas, the most common primary nervous system tumors.

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Personalized Medicine Patenting Update - Mondaq News Alerts (registration)

Personalized Medicine Patenting Update - Mondaq News Alerts (registration) | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Personalized Medicine Patenting Update
Mondaq News Alerts (registration)
Patenting diagnostic methods is more challenging in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Courts Mayo Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories, Inc., 566 U.S.
Brian Shields's insight:

Interesting article on the growing complexity of intellectual property in the diagnostics arena

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Breakthrough Research in DNA Mutation Analysis Could Lead to Earlier Diagnosis and More Tools for Personalized Treatment for Cancer Patients

Breakthrough Research in DNA Mutation Analysis Could Lead to Earlier Diagnosis and More Tools for Personalized Treatment for Cancer Patients | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Because all cancers occur due to abnormalities in DNA, scientists are able to use DNA sequencing to analyze the mutations in each patient's DNA.
Brian Shields's insight:

This is great news regarding the adcancement in personalized medicine.  The ability to review a patient's DNA without an invasive biopsy may signficantly help clinicians target the right medicines for the right people, and also allow for a non-invasive manner of tracking acquired mutations during treatment.

 

Important quote below:

 

"This ground-breaking study uses brand new technology--the multiregional sequencing research tool will lead to routine practice leading to lower cost," said Eleftherios P. Diamandis, MD, PhD, FRCP(C), FRSC, Head of Clinical Biochemistry at Mount Sinai Hospital and Editor of this special issue of Clinical Chemistry. "This is the first time analysis has been done non-invasively instead of performing a biopsy on human tissue. The proof of principle is demonstrated and will be more readily available and cost effective in the future."

 
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Pedro Fernandes's curator insight, January 9, 2013 9:48 AM

I totally agrree with the curator who says:

 

"This is great news regarding the adcancement in personalized medicine.  The ability to review a patient's DNA without an invasive biopsy may signficantly help clinicians target the right medicines for the right people, and also allow for a non-invasive manner of tracking acquired mutations during treatment."

 

Important quote below:

 

"This ground-breaking study uses brand new technology--the multiregional sequencing research tool will lead to routine practice leading to lower cost," said Eleftherios P. Diamandis, MD, PhD, FRCP(C), FRSC, Head of Clinical Biochemistry at Mount Sinai Hospital and Editor of this special issue of Clinical Chemistry. "This is the first time analysis has been done non-invasively instead of performing a biopsy on human tissue. The proof of principle is demonstrated and will be more readily available and cost effective in the future."

 

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In-vivo Study Shows CK1D Inhibitors Improve Cognition in Alzheimer’s Model

Proteome Sciences is pleased to announce that the in-vivo study of its proprietary CK1D inhibitor programme in Alzheimer’s disease was completed as anticipated in December 2012.
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Biomarkers May Signal Early Heart Transplant Rejection | HMS

Biomarkers May Signal Early Heart Transplant Rejection | HMS | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Wonder if VEGF and PL4 would predict #cardiotoxicity? RT @harvardmed: Biomarkers signal early #heart txp rejection: http://t.co/kfABICSH
Brian Shields's insight:

Important quote from the article:

 

"The discovery, if validated in a larger population of patients, could be a boon for transplant recipients by allowing their care team to address rejection-related problems before the risk of graft loss becomes too high. "There are a number of medications available and in the pipeline to treat CAV and other forms of chronic rejection," said Briscoe. "The problem has been detecting disease early, when these drugs would be most effective." "

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Retractions three and four for Hopkins cancer biomarker group ...

Retractions three and four for Hopkins cancer biomarker group ... | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
A group of cancer researchers formerly centered at Johns Hopkins have retracted two more studies. The previous two retracted papers — one of which was the focus of a lawsuit — were about prostate cancer, while the new ...
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Low Mmp 9 and VEGF levels predict good oncologic outcome in mid and low rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemoradiation

Low Mmp 9 and VEGF levels predict good oncologic outcome in mid and low rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemoradiation - up-to-the-minute news and headlines.
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'Heart resilience' biomarker may help predict chemotherapy-induced cardiac damage earlier

'Heart resilience' biomarker may help predict chemotherapy-induced cardiac damage earlier | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
Anthracyclines, a class of chemotherapy drugs commonly used to treat breast and childhood cancers are effective, but can cause heart damage that doesn't appear until long after treatment is over.

Via Susan Zager
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Noninvasive measurement enables use of interstitial fluid pressure as potential biomarker for tumor aggressiveness

Researchers validated a method of noninvasive imaging that provides valuable information about interstitial fluid pressure of solid tumors and may aid in the identification of aggressive tumors, according to the results of a new study.
Brian Shields's insight:

"Many malignant solid tumors generally develop a higher interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) than normal tissue. High IFP in tumors may cause a reduced uptake of chemotherapeutic agents and resistance to radiation therapy. In addition, a high IFP has been found to promote metastatic spread.

"Currently, an imaging method for noninvasive assessment of the IFP of tumors is needed to evaluate the potential of IFP as a biomarker for cancer aggressiveness and, hence, to identify patients with cancer who may benefit from particularly aggressive treatment because of highly elevated tumor IFP," said Einar K. Rofstad, Ph.D., of the department of radiation biology at the Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

 

Rofstad and colleagues tested the use of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the velocity of fluid flow from tumors in human cell lines of cervical carcinoma and melanoma implanted in mice. Researchers hypothesized that the velocity of fluid flow from tumor tissue into adjacent tissue was determined by the IFP drop at the tumor surface.

 

Results indicated that the velocity of the fluid flow at the tumor surface strongly correlated with the magnitude of the tumor IFP and that dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a contrast agent can be used to noninvasively measure the fluid-flow velocity. In addition, primary tumors of mice with metastases had a significantly higher IFP and fluid-flow velocity at the tumor surface compared with the primary tumors of metastasis-free mice, confirming that the development of lymph node metastases strongly correlated to the IFP of the primary tumor and the velocity of fluid flow as measured by Gd-DTPA-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI."

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Psychiatric News Alert: Inflammation Biomarker Linked to Depression

Psychiatric News Alert: Inflammation Biomarker Linked to Depression | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it
RT @Cognific: Inflammation Biomarker Linked to Depression: Elevated levels in a common blood test used to measure ... http://t.co/4EJIyOyG #psychiatry
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GA201 (RG7160): a novel, humanised, glycoengineered anti-EGFR antibody with enhanced ADCC and superior in vivo efficacy compared with cetuximab

"Abstract

Purpose: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors have demonstrated activity in epithelial tumours; however, agents that work by blocking the EGFR growth signal are ineffective when the oncogenic stimulus arises downstream, such as in tumours with KRAS mutations. Antibodies of the IgG1 subclass can also kill tumour cells directly through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and the efficacy of this is determined by the interaction of the Fc portion of the target cell-bound antibody and Fc receptors present on immune effector cells. Experimental design: We report the development of GA201, a novel anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody with enhanced ADCC properties. GA201 was derived by humanisation of the rat ICR62 antibody. The Fc region of GA201 was glycoengineered to contain bisected, afucosylated carbohydrates for enhanced binding to FcγRIIIA.

 

Results: In vitro binding of GA201 to EGFR inhibited EGF ligand binding, EGFR/HER2 heterodimerisation, downstream signalling, and cell proliferation to a similar extent as cetuximab. However, GA201 exhibited superior binding to both the low- and high- affinity variants of FcγRIIIA. This resulted in significantly enhanced induction of ADCC compared with cetuximab against both KRAS-wildtype and -mutant tumour cells lines. This enhanced ADCC translated into superior in vivo efficacy in a series of mouse xenograft models. Efficacy of GA201 was further increased when administered in combination with chemotherapy (irinotecan).

 

Conclusions: These data suggest that GA201 may be more effective than cetuximab in patients with EGFR-positive solid tumours, and may also represent a first-in-class treatment for patients with KRAS mutated tumours."

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CHOP, Johns Hopkins-led Team Finds Changes to Chromatin-Related Genes in Aggressive Neuroblastomas

CHOP, Johns Hopkins-led Team Finds Changes to Chromatin-Related Genes in Aggressive Neuroblastomas | Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine | Scoop.it

Excerpt from article:

 

 

"The ARID1A/ARID1B association with survival time was discovered during a large-scale genomic analysis of the childhood cancer, which affects a set of neural crest cells destined to be part of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system.

 

"These two genes function in a group of genes that seems to play an important role in neural cell behavior," Children's Hospital of Philadelphia pediatric oncologist Michael Hogarty, the study's co-senior author, said in a statement, "and we will now work to discover if this insight may open up new treatments for children with tumors having these mutations."

Hogarty and the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center's Victor Velculescu led a research group that relied on high-coverage genome sequencing, low-coverage genome sequencing, exome sequencing, and/or more targeted approaches to unearth genetic abnormalities ranging from point mutations to chromosomal changes in tumors from more than 70 children with neuroblastoma.

 

While some of the recurrently mutated genes they identified had been linked to neuroblastoma before, others were new. The ARID1A and ARID1B alterations proved to be among the most tantalizing new candidates, study authors noted, because these appeared to coincide with significantly worse treatment responses and reduced survival times.

 

"The median survival of individuals with ARID1 gene alterations was lower than that observed for any other genetic alteration assessed … providing a potential marker for early therapy failure and disease progression," they wrote..."

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