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Guía para creadores de Youtube, con recomendaciones y consejos.-

Guía para creadores de Youtube, con recomendaciones y consejos.- | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it

No cabe duda de que el éxito de Youtube es en gran parte al contenido que suben sus usuarios, y muchos ya ven esta plataforma como el futuro de la televisión, así que nada mejor que cualquier persona sea capaz de utilizarla y en lo posible llevar su creatividad para compartirla con todo el mundo a través de Youtube. Como no es tan sencillo para todo el mundo, Youtube ha elaborado su guía para creadores de Youtube, con consejos, recomendaciones y tips para lograr los objetivos esperados.


Via Mauricio M. Escudero
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Undoing Down syndrome? Sonic Hedgehog reverses learning deficits in mice with trisomy 21 traits

Undoing Down syndrome? Sonic Hedgehog reverses learning deficits in mice with trisomy 21 traits | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it

For people with trisomy 21 – more commonly known as Down syndrome – learning and remembering important concepts can be a struggle, since some of their brain’s structures do not develop as fully as they should.

But now, researchers may have found a way to reverse the learning deficits associated with Down syndrome, after having discovered a compound that can significantly bolster cognition in mice with a condition very similar to trisomy 21.

 

In a new study published in the Sept. 4 issue of Science Translational Medicine, scientists injected a small protein known as a sonic hedgehog pathway agonist into the brains of genetically engineered mice on the day of their birth.  The treatment enabled the rodents’ cerebellums to grow to a normal size, allowing them to perform just as well as unmodified mice in behavioral tests.

 

“We’ve been working for some time to characterize the basis for how people with trisomy 21 diverge in development from people without trisomy 21,” Roger Reeves, a professor in the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, told FoxNews.com. “One of the early things we see is that people with Down syndrome have very small cerebellums, which does a lot more things than we used to think it did.”

 

Down syndrome is a condition that occurs when people receive three – rather than the typical two – copies of chromosome 21. Because of this “trisomy,” Down syndrome patients have extra copies of the more than 300 genes contained in that chromosome.  This leads to a range of symptoms, including mild to moderate intellectual disability, distinct facial features, heart defects and other health problems.

 

Through previous research, Reeves found that another distinct trait of people with Down syndrome is a cerebellum that’s approximately 60 percent of the normal size.  In order for this important brain region to grow and form, a small population of cells in the brain must quickly divide and multiply shortly after birth. This cell population requires a specific growth factor known as the sonic hedgehog pathway to stimulate the cells, triggering them to divide.

 

However, the trisomic cells in people with Down syndrome do not respond as well to this growth factor, stunting the development of the cerebellum – a region of the brain found to be important in cognitive processing and emotional control.

 

“We thought if we could stimulate these cells a bit at birth, we could make up the deficit,” Reeves said.  To test this theory, Reeves and his research team created a series of genetically engineered mice, all of which had extra copies of about half of the genes found in chromosome 21.  According to Reeves, this caused the mice to have many of the same characteristics seen in patients with Down syndrome, such as a smaller cerebellum and learning difficulties.

 

The researchers then injected the mice with a sonic hedgehog pathway agonist, which stimulates the growth factor pathway needed to trigger cerebellum development.   The compound was given to the mice just once on the day of birth. “From that one injection, we were able to normalize the growth of the cerebellum, and they continued to have a structurally normal cerebellum when they grew up,” Reeves said.

Going one step further, the researchers conducted a series of behavioral tests on the mice to better understand how normalizing this brain structure would affect their overall performance.  One of these tests was the Morris water maze test, an experiment that involves placing the mice in a pool of water and seeing how long it takes them to escape using a platform hidden below the water’s surface.  The test measures the rodents’ spatial learning and memory capabilities, which are primarily controlled by the hippocampus.

 

The sonic hedgehog agonist has yet to be proven effective in humans with Down syndrome, and future research is needed to determine exactly how the injection improved the mice’s cognitive abilities and whether or not the agonist has any side effects.  But Reeves remains hopeful that these findings could have translational potential.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Elizabeth W.'s curator insight, March 25, 2014 10:40 AM

This article is proposing the possibility of treating people born with Down syndrome. It has been found that people with Down syndrome  have cerebellum's that are 60% of the size of a normal cerebellum which we plays a part in our cognitive and emotional functioning. The researchers are now studying if they can help the cerebellum grow at birth with an injected agonist. The study has been done with mice and showed some promising results but whether or not the mice are healthy overall still hasn't been determined. It will also take awhile before this is used on anybody with Down syndrome. 

If this is able to work and show promising results to help people with Down syndrome, it would be an amazing and radical change. However, from my perspective it seems that this type of thing would naturally have costs or risks associated with injecting the agonist and also there could be some ethical issues. "Do I inject my child with this agonist in hopes they will not experience the obstacles with Down syndrome or do I not knowing there could be a risk child?" I'm not sure what procedures would be taken place for this but I could see this issue coming up. 

Nick Ure's curator insight, December 17, 2014 11:18 AM

?- Questions 

Star- Important

Vocab- words you dont understand

HgI- How you get it

E- Effects on Life

D- Description of disease

 

in text citation (tristomy)

 

Vocab- Trisomy also know as down syndrome

 

E- Learning and remembering important concepts can be a real struggle  

 

E- Their brain structure does not fully develop as fully as they should

 

* They injected a small molecule known as a sonic hedgehog pathway agonist  into the brains of little mice that just were born. it enabled them to grow a normal size, allowing them to perform just as well.

 

D- One thing we see is that people with down syndrome have very small cerebellums.

 

D- Down syndrome is a common condition that occurs when people receive three. Than a two copies of chromosome 21. Patients have extra copies of more than 300 genes in the chromosome. This will lead to many symptoms like mild to moderate intellectual disability, distinct features, heart and other problems.

 

Cerebellum- is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control

 

HgI- If a small population of cells in the brain dont quickly divide and multiply shortly after birth you could get it. This requirers a current growth factor known as the sonic hedgehog pathway to stimulate the cells.  

 

D- They thought they could fix this disease a bit and they tried there medicine on mice first. They would inject them one on the day of birth.  From this one inject they are able to normalize the growth of the cerebellum and they continue to have a normal Cerebellum when they grow up. 

 

* This medicine has yet to be texted on humans with this disability and future research will be needed before they try and find how what the injection will do and why it improves the micas abilities. They dont know yet if it has side effects yet. If this works that would be amazing cause it could help a lot of people with down syndrome. 

 

 

 

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3D printed objects outgrow their printers: How to create really big objects?

3D printing may be set to change the world by letting us make all sorts of bespoke objects, but there's one little problem: the printers can only print items smaller than themselves. Until now, that is.

 

Skylar Tibbits at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Self-Assembly Lab and colleague Marcelo Coelho have come up with a way for standard 3D printers to print out large-scale objects. "It's challenging the notion that we always need a machine that's bigger than the thing it's printing," says Tibbits.

The approach, called Hyperform, converts the object to be printed into a single long chain made from interlocking links. An algorithm works out how that chain can be packed together into the smallest cube possible using a Hilbert curve – a fractal-based pattern that is the most efficient way of squeezing a single line into a small as space as possible. The resulting cube is small enough to be printed inside a standard printer.

Once this cube is printed, the chain can be unravelled and assembled by hand to create the desired object. That's possible because each link in the chain has notches that allow it to bend only in a certain way. "You have to fold it by hand and click it into place," says Tibbits. Hyperform won the "The Next Idea" prize at the Ars Electronica 2013 technology festival in Linz, Austria, earlier this month.

But printing cubes made of such densely packed chains was too much for most of the consumer printers that Tibbits and his team tried. "We blew a lot of printers at first," he says. So they teamed up with Formlabs who, after a successful Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign, have just started shipping their Form 1 3D printer.

 

The Form 1 is capable of much higher resolution than standard consumer 3D printers. Instead of printing out layer upon layer of plastic, it uses stereolithography, in which a pool of liquid plastic is added to the base of the printer and a laser traces out the pattern required, causing the liquid plastic to cure and solidify. The technique can form layers just 25 microns thick, with details as small as 300 microns.

 

Hyperform has so far been used to create large structures such as a chandelier, and Tibbits sees it as being perfect for producing large 3D-printed consumer products. But the Form 1 printer uses resins which have limitations in terms of strength. "There is a range of things that are largish that we can do right away," says Tibbits. "But if you want to make large-scale furniture or buildings, there needs to be an approach to make them stronger."

Manually clicking each link into place isn't ideal either. That's where Tibbits' other work in so-called 4D printing might help. 4D printing uses materials that are 3D-printed to produce an intermediate object which, when exposed to water, will bend and twist itself into the final structure. "You can see how Hyperform and 4D printing are pointing towards each other," he says.

Clément Moreau, CEO of French 3D printing firm Sculpteo, says projects like Hyperform are shaping the future of 3D printing. "This is yet another example of how 3D printing is more of a flexible manufacturing process than injection moulding because it constantly opens up new possibilities in terms of materials used and shapes which can be printed."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Biología sintética, la nueva ciencia que revolucionará el siglo XXI ...

Biología sintética, la nueva ciencia que revolucionará el siglo XXI ... | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it
Durante los últimos años, el mundo científico ha presenciado el nacimiento de una revolucionaria disciplina que combina la ciencia y la ingeniería, con el objetivo de diseñar y construir sistemas y funciones biológicas ...
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Cuba: expertos de 19 países en foro de Biología y Conservación ...

Cuba: expertos de 19 países en foro de Biología y Conservación ... | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it
El XVII Congreso Mesoamericano de Biología y Conservación se realizó esta semana en la capital cubana, con ponencias y debates a cargo de expertos de 19 países. El programa anunciado incluye sesiones libres, ...
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Creación de Contenidos Digitales con Moovly.-

Creación de Contenidos Digitales con Moovly.- | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it

 ¿Qué es Moovly?
Moovly es un conjunto de herramientas de edición de vídeos, mediante la cual podremos crear vídeos animados, banners y presentaciones interactivas, todo esto a través de un entorno de trabajo amigable e intuitivo.


Via Mauricio M. Escudero
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New gut bacterium discovered mainly responsible for termites' capability to digest wood

New gut bacterium discovered mainly responsible for termites' capability to digest wood | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it

When termites munch on wood, the small bits are delivered to feed a community of unique microbes living in their guts, and in a complex process involving multiple steps, these microbes turn the hard, fibrous material into a nutritious meal for the termite host. One key step uses hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into organic carbon -- a process called acetogenesis -- but little is known about which gut bacteria play specific roles in the process. Utilizing a variety of experimental techniques, researchers from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have now discovered a previously unidentified bacterium -- living on the surface of a larger microorganism in the termite gut -- that may be responsible for most gut acetogenesis.

 

"In the termite gut, you have several hundred different species of microbes that live within a millimeter of one another. We know certain microbes are present in the gut, and we know microbes are responsible for certain functions, but until now, we didn't have a good way of knowing which microbes are doing what," says Jared Leadbetter, professor of environmental microbiology at Caltech, in whose laboratory much of the research was performed.

 

Acetogenesis is the production of acetate (a source of nutrition for termites) from the carbon dioxide and hydrogen generated by gut protozoa as they break down decaying wood. In their study of "who is doing what and where," Leadbetter and his colleagues searched the entire pool of termite gut microbes to identify specific genes from organisms responsible for acetogenesis.

 

The researchers began by sifting through the microbes' RNA -- genetic information that can provide a snapshot of the genes active at a certain point in time. Using RNA from the total pool of termite gut microbes, they searched for actively transcribed formate dehydrogenase (FDH) genes, known to encode a protein necessary for acetogenesis. Next, using a method called multiplex microfluidic digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR), the researchers sequestered the previously unstudied individual microbes into tiny compartments to identify the actual microbial species carrying each of the FDH genes. Some of the FDH genes were found in types of bacteria known as spirochetes -- a previously predicted source of acetogenesis. Yet it appeared that these spirochetes alone could not account for all of the acetate produced in the termite gut.

 

Initially, the Caltech researchers were unable to identify the microorganism expressing the single most active FDH gene in the gut. However, the first authors on the study, Adam Rosenthal, a postdoctoral scholar in biology at Caltech, and Xinning Zhang (PhD '10, Environmental Science and Engineering), noticed that this gene was more abundant in the portion of the gut extract containing wood chunks and larger microbes, like protozoans. After analyzing the chunkier gut extract, they discovered that the single most active FDH gene was encoded by a previously unstudied species from a group of microbes known as the deltaproteobacteria. This was the first evidence that a substantial amount of acetate in the gut may be produced by a non-spirochete.

 

Because the genes from this deltaproteobacterium were found in the chunky particulate matter of the termite gut, the researchers thought that perhaps the newly identified microbe attaches to the surface of one of the chunks. To test this hypothesis, the researchers used a color-coded visualization method called hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization, or HCR-FISH.

 

The technique -- developed in the laboratory of Niles Pierce, professor of applied and computational mathematics and bioengineering at Caltech, and a coauthor on the PNAS study -- allowed the researchers to simultaneously "paint" cells expressing both the active FDH gene and a gene identifying the deltoproteobacterium with different fluorescent colors simultaneously. "The microfluidics experiment suggested that the two colors should be expressed in the same location and in the same tiny cell," Leadbetter says. And, indeed, they were. "Through this approach, we were able to actually see where the new deltaproteobacterium resided. As it turns out, the cells live on the surface of a very particular hydrogen-producing protozoan."

 

This association between the two organisms makes sense based on what is known about the complex food web of the termite gut, Leadbetter says. "Here you have a large eukaryotic single cell -- a protozoan -- which is making hydrogen as it degrades wood, and you have these much smaller hydrogen-consuming deltaproteobacteria attached to its surface," he says. "So, this new acetogenic bacterium is snuggled up to its source of hydrogen just as close as it can get."

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Ombligo | La biología estupenda - Blog elcorreo.com

Nuestra piel está llena de bacterias, de trillones de bacterias que pertenecen a centenas o, quizá, a miles de especies. Muchas de ellas ni siquiera tien.
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Científicos británicos creen haber encontrado vida extraterrestre en la atmósfera

Científicos británicos creen haber encontrado vida extraterrestre en la atmósfera | BIOLOGÍA PARA MALDONADO | Scoop.it
Están convencidos de que una serie de microorganismos hallados en la estratosfera, a 27 km de altura, no pueden proceder de nuestro planeta (S'haura pogut finalment trobar vida extraterrestre ?
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