Small RNA sequencing can be used to gain an unprecedented amount of detail into the microRNA transcriptome. The relatively high cost and low throughput of sequencing bases technologies can potentially be offset by the use of multiplexing.
Mammalian genomes commonly harbor endogenous viral elements. Due to a lack of comparable genome-scale sequence data, far less is known about endogenous viral elements in avian species, even though their small genomes may enable important insights into the patterns and processes of endogenous viral element evolution.
Weill Cornell Medical College researchers have created a database that maps how a cell important for blood vessel growth regulates gene expression. The new knowledge of the cells, called macrophages, could provide strategies to stop tumor or cancer growth.
A team of scientists, led by researchers at The Wistar Institute, has found that an infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes rearrangements in telomeres, small stretches of DNA that serve as protective ends to chromosomes. The findings, which will be published in the Dec. 24 edition of the journalCell Reports, show that this manipulation of telomeres may explain how viruses like herpes are able to successfully replicate while also revealing more about the protective role that telomeres play against other viruses.
by Nili Raz, Yael Danin-Poleg, Ryan B. Hayman, Yudi Bar-On, Alex Linetsky, Michael Shmoish, Eva Sanjuán, Carmen Amaro, David R. Walt, Yechezkel Kashi Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic bacterium and an important human pathogen.
The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in...
A new computational approach predicts how sequence variations in both the coding and noncoding regions of a gene affect the gene’s expression. The method, described today inScience, may help researchers understand how specific variants contribute to disorders such as autism.
Scattered across our genome are endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), ancient “footprints” of previous viral infections. Scientists do not fully understand their functions, but Zeng et al. now report a role for ERVs in mobilizing a particular type of B cell–driven immune response in mice (T cell–independent, TID), which is usually mounted in response to viral capids or bacterial polysaccharides (see the Perspective by Grasset and Cerutti). Immunizing mice with a model TID antigen elicited an increase in ERV RNA and DNA in the cytoplasm of B cells. Innate immune receptors that recognize cytoplasmic nucleotides then triggered signaling cascades that resulted in the production of immunoglobulin M.
Plant-made or “biofarmed” viral vaccines are some of the earliest products of the technology of plant molecular farming, and remain some of the brightest prospects for the success of this field. Proofs of principle and of efficacy exist for many candidate viral veterinary vaccines; the use of plant-made viral antigens and of monoclonal antibodies for therapy of animal and even human viral disease is also well established. This review explores some of the more prominent recent advances in the biofarming of viral vaccines and therapies, including the recent use of ZMapp for Ebolavirus infection, and explores some possible future applications of the technology.
Up-to-date knowledge of cause-specific mortality is essential for the formulation of health policies. Obtaining this evidence is a massive undertaking, and probably the largest attempt to do so is the landmark Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010). This was the largest ever systematic effort to describe the global distribution and causes of major diseases, injuries, and health risk factors. In the first in a series of papers has been published in the Lancet today, GBD 2010 has been upda