Biochemistry
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Overview of Metabolism - Anabolism and Catabolism

What is the purpose of metabolism? Learn about the two major divisions in metabolism: anabolism (building up) and catabolism (breaking down).
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If you are new to metabolism, or find it daunting and/or somewhat scary, this is a good place to start.  The broad concepts are outlined well and the explanations are good, with the meanings of key terms explained and not assumed. 

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Cellular Respiration 1 - Overview

Cellular Respiration 1 - Overview | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
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This is the first in series of video tutorials in this excellent series from Handwritten Tutorials - the others can be all accessed from this webpage.  Each video has an accompanying completed diagram in pdf format which you can download.  Other tutorials in the series can be found on this scoop.it page, but all you really need is this link.

 

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▶ Molarity, Molality, Osmolarity, Osmolality, and Tonicity - What's the difference? - YouTube

See how each of these terms tells us something different about a solution. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. More ...
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Nice, easy to follow explanation of what the different terms mean.  To clarify on tonicity - this is used to describe one solution with respect to another, and not really to describe two solutions.

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Duncan Cole's curator insight, November 17, 2014 11:46 AM

Nice, easy to follow explanation of what the different terms mean.  To clarify on tonicity - this is used to describe one solution with respect to another, and not really to describe two solutions.

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ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7 - YouTube

In which Hank does some push ups for science and describes the "economy" of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies create energy i...
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Quirky and fun introduction to how a molecule of glucose is turned into ATP.  It covers glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.  I would suggest you view this with the relevant pathway diagrams and frequent pauses so you can follow what is going on.  Handwritten tutorials (see other posts) provide an additional level of detail once you have grasped the material contained here.

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Nutrient Metabolism, Human | Learn Science at Scitable

Nutrient Metabolism, Human | Learn Science at Scitable | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
The human body is a changing environment in which each cell has to continually adapt. For example, energy needs vary widely from one physiological situation to another within a cell type, as well as among different tissues.
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Helpful resource for integrating knowledge of multiple metabolic pathways.

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Exercise Physiology: musculoskeletal system

Exercise Physiology: musculoskeletal system | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Exercise Physiology. Exercise represents one the highest levels of extreme stresses to which the body can be exposed.
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This is a good description of the events that occur in the muscle during exercise, and will help provide context for those learning metabolism.  It has discussions on recovery and oxygen debt, fuel use during exercise, and does describe some of the interactions between metabolic pathways at different intensities of exercise.  There is also a description of the events involved in muscle contraction, and other pages discuss exercise-realted changes in other organ systems.

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Lisa Rhiannon Jeffers's curator insight, October 13, 2013 3:50 PM

Very good at explaining muscle contraction and where the ATP required for this process is from in a clear way. If you want the process written in bullet points for you this is a good document.

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How Exercise Changes Fat and Muscle Cells

How Exercise Changes Fat and Muscle Cells | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Several striking new studies provide some clarity by showing that exercise seems able to drastically alter how genes operate, perhaps altering the risk for problems like obesity and diabetes.
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Interesting article reviewing research on how DNA methylation patterns are influenced by exercise.  Adaptations to exercise are not just related to alterations in the flux through metabolic pathways - they also involve epigenetic alterations that regulate expression of genes involved in these pathways.    

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Metabolism - ChemWiki

Metabolism - ChemWiki | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
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Some good brief articles are available here on various metabolism topics from UC Davis in the USA.  I have spotted one or two mistakes, although these are not too serious, so be careful and check anything you are not sure about.

 

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UNC student lives with rare illness

Despite living with a rare genetic illness that keeps his muscles from storing glycogen, UNC student Andrew Ashley maintains his passion for soccer.
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An insight into living with McArdle disease, and the problems encountered when exercising.

 

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Cell Metabolism | Learn Science at Scitable

Cell Metabolism | Learn Science at Scitable | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Cells constantly adjust the flow of molecules through metabolic pathways in response to energy needs. Learn how enzymes control these molecular transformations.
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This is an overview of metabolism from a cell biology perspective, and so will complement some of the whole organism and individual pathway perspectives found elsewhere.  The diagrams are particularly good, and the article is stated as at a Basic level within Nature's Scitable education site.  It isn't as clear as it could be in terms of structure however, but it does cover the major concepts. To get the most out of it you'll need to follow up the concepts highlighted in bold, as these are not eleaborated in any detail.

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Normal Acid-Base Regulation (Understanding ABGs - Lecture 2)

A lecture on the physiology of normal acid-base regulation, including a discussion of the bicarbonate buffering system, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, a...
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Well explained, easy to follow lecture on acid-base physiology.  This is ideal for year 1 medical students, and for all those who need to brush up on the underlying principles of acid-base homeostasis.  It is a little long for an online video, but it is worth the effort.

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Anne Marie Cunningham's curator insight, November 7, 2014 12:38 PM

From Dr Cole : Well explained, easy to follow lecture on acid-base physiology.  This is ideal for year 1 medical students, and for all those who need to brush up on the underlying principles of acid-base homeostasis.  It is a little long for an online video, but it is worth the effort

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▶ Tonicity - comparing 2 solutions - YouTube

Find out how tonicity is determined by ions that don't move across membranes and how it affects the movement of water. Rishi is a pediatric infectious diseas...
Duncan Cole's insight:

Covers the core concepts of tonicity and fluid shifts very well - you really need to know this in order to understand fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.  To relate this to human biochemistry more specifically, urea crosses cell membrane and so is equivalent to "solute a" and sodium does not (without help from membrane pumps) and so is equivalent to "solute b".

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Duncan Cole's curator insight, November 17, 2014 11:45 AM
Covers the core concepts of tonicity and fluid shifts very well - you really need to know this in order to understand fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. To relate this to human biochemistry more specifically, urea crosses cell membrane and so is equivalent to "solute a" and sodium does not (without help from membrane pumps) and so is equivalent to "solute b".
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Codon-Amino Acid Abbreviations

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A full list of codons, the full name of the amino acid coded for, and both the 3 letter and 1 letter amino acid abbreviations can be found here.  A useful resource!

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pH (Acid) Homeostasis: Part 1

Part 1 of a short two part video outlining the homeostatic methods the body uses to maintain balance of hydrogen ion, hydroxyl ion, and pH. Causes, effects a...
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A good, short, introduction to acid-base homeostasis, which covers buffers in the body, effects of pH dysregulation, and discusses some of the causes.  I would recommend other resources for discussion of causes of acidosis and alkalosis, but for an overview of basic principles this is worth a look.

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Interaction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense Exercise

Interaction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense Exercise | Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of nutrition and metabolism.
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For those who want a little bit more detail...  this is a recent review focussing on the interaction of various energy systems during exercise.  It contains excellent figures and explains it all well, but only have a look beyond the abstract if you are reasonably familiar with metabolic pathways!

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Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness?

“Stephen M. Roth, a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland, explains. As our bodies perform strenuous exercise, we begin to breathe faster as we attempt to shuttle more oxygen to our working muscles.”

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Good clear explanation of why muscles get sore after exercise. It isn't just down to lactic acid...

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Cellular Respiration 4 - Beta-Oxidation

http://www.handwrittentutorials.com - This tutorial is the fourth in the Cellular Respiration series. This tutorial provides an overview of Beta-Oxidation, i...
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Nice tutorial on Beta-oxidation, although it goes into a little more detail than is required for a medical student.

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Glycolysis: An Overview

NDSU VCell Production's animation "Glycolysis: An Overview". For more information please see http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations. Glycolysis is a series of 10 r...
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An overview of glycolysis - contains some nice animations and helpful ways to visualise what is going on.  If you are just starting out learning metabolism you may need to pause frequently as the narration goes quite fast. 

 

If you follow the weblink above there are a number of other biochemistry-related videos/animations you may find helpful.

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McArdle disease - second wind

Andrew Wakelin and Andy Williams discuss the need for people with McArdle Disease to carefully manage getting into "second wind" at the start of exercise. A ...
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McArdle disease is caused by a deficiency in muscle glycogen phosphorylase, and so the metabolic problem lies in releasing glucose from glycogen stored in muscle.  This means exercising muscles run into energy deficit when requiring energy from glycogen.  Here the phenomenon of "second wind" is described, a characteristic feature of this condition, and how somebody with McArdle disease manages getting to this point most effectively when starting to exercise.

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