Billion Genomes Project
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Billion Genomes Project
Billion Genomes (BiG) Project is a project of Genome Research Foundation and Jong Bhak to sequence and analyze all the human beings on Earth (now over 7 billion).
Curated by Jong Bhak
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FDA destroys business of anti-aging supplement manufacturer by classifying amino acid derivative as 'unapproved drug'

FDA destroys business of anti-aging supplement manufacturer by classifying amino acid derivative as 'unapproved drug' | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has once again annihilated the business of a reputable dietary supplement company by arbitrarily declaring its primary product to be an "unapproved drug." Those who now try to purchase the all-natural,...

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Anti-Aging Protein Extends Life Span in Mice, and Maybe Humans

Anti-Aging Protein Extends Life Span in Mice, and Maybe Humans | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
Things are looking up for aging mice and, if this research pays off, for aging humans, too.

 

Researchers have found that a long-suspected anti-aging protein called sirtuin can make male mice live about 16 percent longer than average, the first such advance for mammals in a field that has thus far only offered the blessings of extended life span to yeast, nematodes and fruit flies...


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Coconut - The anti-aging skin treatment miracle

Coconut - The anti-aging skin treatment miracle | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
Coconut - The anti-aging skin treatment miracle

Via #BBBundyBlog #NOMORELIES Tom Woods #Activist Award #Scoopiteer >20,000 Sources >250K Connections http://goo.gl/ruHO3Q
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Srinivas's curator insight, March 9, 2014 3:04 AM

One more efficient use of Coconut OIl, which is still widely used as the base for hair oils in India. It is also applied on wounds, as cooking oil etc.

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Tiger Genome Sequenced, Shows Big Cats Evolved to Kill - National Geographic

Tiger Genome Sequenced, Shows Big Cats Evolved to Kill - National Geographic | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
National Geographic
Tiger Genome Sequenced, Shows Big Cats Evolved to Kill
National Geographic
The first sequenced tiger genome shows that big cats evolved to kill.
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Genomes of big cats revealed

Genomes of big cats revealed | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
International scientists have mapped the genomes of the tiger, lion and snow leopard, in conservation efforts to protect endangered species.

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BMC Genomics | Abstract | "A draft Musa balbisiana genome sequence for molecular genetics in polyploid, inter- and intra-specific Musa hybrids"

Background: Modern banana cultivars are primarily interspecific triploid hybrids of two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, which respectively contribute the A- and B-genomes. The M. balbisiana genome has been associated with improved vigour and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and is thus a target for Musa breeding programs. However, while a reference M. acuminata genome has recently been released (Nature 488:213--217, 2012), little sequence data is available for the corresponding B-genome.To address these problems we carried out Next Generation gDNA sequencing of the wild diploid M. balbisiana variety 'Pisang Klutuk Wulung' (PKW). Our strategy was to align PKW gDNA reads against the published A-genome and to extract the mapped consensus sequences for subsequent rounds of evaluation and gene annotation. Results: The resulting B-genome is 79% the size of the A-genome, and contains 36,638 predicted functional gene sequences which is nearly identical to the 36,542 of the A-genome. There is substantial sequence divergence from the A-genome at a frequency of 1 homozygous SNP per 23.1 bp, and a high degree of heterozygosity corresponding to one heterozygous SNP per 55.9 bp. Using expressed small RNA data, a similar number of microRNA sequences were predicted in both A- and B-genomes, but additional novel miRNAs were detected, including some that are unique to each genome. The usefulness of this B-genome sequence was evaluated by mapping RNA-seq data from a set of triploid AAA and AAB hybrids simultaneously to both genomes. Results for the plantains demonstrated the expected 2:1 distribution of reads across the A- and B-genomes, but for the AAA genomes, results show they contain regions of significant homology to the B-genome supporting proposals that there has been a history of interspecific recombination between homeologous A and B chromosomes in Musa hybrids. Conclusions: We have generated and annotated a draft reference Musa B-genome and demonstrate that this can be used for molecular genetic mapping of gene transcripts and small RNA expression data from several allopolyploid banana cultivars. This draft therefore represents a valuable resource to support the study of metabolism in inter- and intraspecific triploid Musa hybrids and to help direct breeding programs.

 


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Next generation sequencing improved by genome mapping

Next generation sequencing improved by genome mapping | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

Last month we ran a series of blog posts about next-generation sequencing. Among the topics discussed were the limitations of next generation sequencing.


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DNA Crunchers Ditch Hadoop for Homegrown Software

DNA Crunchers Ditch Hadoop for Homegrown Software | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

In 2009, a researcher named Michael Schatz revolutionized the world of genetics research when he showed how an open source software tool called Hadoop could help find mutations hidden in the long and winding string of DNA that is the human genome.


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A coming of age for PacBio and long read sequencing? #AGBT13

A coming of age for PacBio and long read sequencing? #AGBT13 | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
Summary of the Moleculo and PacBio talks. (RT @matthewherper: Promising: A coming of age for PacBio and long read sequencing?
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Comparative genomics of the core and accessory genomes of 48 Sinorhizobium strains comprising five genospecies.

Comparative genomics of the core and accessory genomes of 48 Sinorhizobium strains comprising five genospecies. | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

BACKGROUND: The sinorhizobia are amongst the most well studied members of nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria and contribute substantial amounts of fixed nitrogen to the biosphere. While the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti RM 1021 was one of the first rhizobial strains to be completely sequenced, little information is available about the genomes of this large and diverse species group.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Here we report the draft assembly and annotation of 48 strains of Sinorhizobium comprising five genospecies. While S. meliloti and S. medicae are taxonomically related, they displayed different nodulation patterns on diverse Medicago host plants, and have differences in gene content including those involved in conjugation and organic sulfur utilization. Genes involved in Nod-factor and polysaccharide biosynthesis, denitrification and Type III, IV, and VI secretion systems also vary within and between species. Symbiotic phenotyping and mutational analyses indicated that some Type IV secretion genes are symbiosis-related and involved in nitrogen fixation efficiency. Moreover, there is a correlation between the presence of Type IV secretion systems, heme biosynthesis and microaerobic denitrification genes, and symbiotic efficiency.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that each Sinorhizobium strain uses a slightly different strategy to obtain maximum compatibility with a host plant. This large genome data set provides useful information to better understand the functional features of five Sinorhizobium species, especially compatibility in legume-Sinorhizobium interactions. The diversity of genes present in the accessory genomes of members of this genus indicates that each bacterium has adopted slightly different strategies to interact with diverse plant genera and soil environments.

 Sugawara M, Epstein B, Badgley B, Unno T, Xu L, Reese J, Gyaneshwar P, Denny R, Mudge J, Bharti AK, Farmer AD, May GD, Woodward JE, Medigue C,Vallenet D, Lajus A, Rouy Z, Martinez-Vaz B, Tiffin P, Young ND, Sadowsky MJ. (2013) Genome Biol.  Feb 20;14(2):R17. [Epub ahead of print]


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IvanOresnik's curator insight, February 22, 2013 3:37 PM

48 genomes!  I still remember the first!  

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Anti-aging drug breakthrough

Anti-aging drug breakthrough | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

Drugs that combat aging may be available within five years, following landmark work. The work finally demonstrates that a single anti-aging enzyme in the body can be targeted, with the potential to prevent age-related diseases and extend lifespans.


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Scientists Develop Initial Anti-Aging Formula: Progeria Mice live 30% longer

Scientists Develop Initial Anti-Aging Formula: Progeria Mice live 30% longer | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

A new study indicates that scientists have found a new way of delaying the aging process in mice, and they hope to replicate the finding in people. The research was built upon an earlier study that shed light on progeria, a rare genetic disease that prematurely ages one in four million babies.

 

A mutation was found in the Lamin A protein, which lines the nucleus in human cells, disrupting the repair process and accelerating aging. They also found that normal and healthy Lamin A binds to and activates the gene SIRT1, which has been long associated with longevity. If scientists can develop drugs that mimic Lamin A or increase the binding between Lamin A and SIRT1, this may lead to anti-aging drugs.

 

The team also examined if the binding efficiency was boosted with resveratrol, a compound found in the skin of red grapes. Mice fed with concentrated resveratrol fared significantly better than healthy mice that weren’t given it and the onset of aging was delayed and the life expectancy was extended. Mice with progeria lived 30% longer when fed with resveratrol compared with progerial mice not given the compound.

 


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NoAging's curator insight, July 7, 2013 5:29 AM

Extending lifespan of mutated mice is the first key to extending our healthspans!

Linda Holroyd's curator insight, November 12, 2014 12:01 PM

Let's fund research on Lamin A and SIRT1

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Genomes of big cats revealed

Genomes of big cats revealed | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
International scientists have mapped the genomes of the tiger, lion and snow leopard, in conservation efforts to protect endangered species.

Via Marina Marceline
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Tiger genome sequenced: Tiger, lion and leopard genomes compared

Tiger genome sequenced: Tiger, lion and leopard genomes compared | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
Scientists have unraveled the first whole genome of a nine-year-old male Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), and compared it with the genomes of other big cats including the white Bengal tiger, lions, and snow leopards.

Via Ioannis
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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes under dehydration and rehydration conditions

Background: Soybean is an important crop that provides valuable proteins and oils for human use. Because soybean growth and development is extremely sensitive to water deficit, quality and crop yields are severely impacted by drought stress. In the face of limited water resources, drought-responsive genes are therefore of interest. Identification and analysis of dehydration- and rehydration-inducible differentially expressed genes (DEGs) would not only aid elucidation of molecular mechanisms of stress response, but also enable improvement of crop stress tolerance via gene transfer. Using Digital Gene Expression Tag profiling (DGE), a new technique based on Illumina sequencing, we analyzed expression profiles between two soybean genotypes to identify drought-responsive genes. Results: Two soybean genotypes---drought-tolerant Jindou21 and drought-sensitive Zhongdou33---were subjected to dehydration and rehydration conditions. For analysis of DEGs under dehydration conditions, 20 cDNA libraries were generated from roots and leaves at two different time points under well-watered and dehydration conditions. We also generated eight libraries for analysis under rehydration conditions. Sequencing of the 28 libraries produced 25,000--33,000 unambiguous tags, which were mapped to reference sequences for annotation of expressed genes. Many genes exhibited significant expression differences among the libraries. DEGs in the drought-tolerant genotype were identified by comparison of DEGs among treatments and genotypes. In Jindou21, 518 and 614 genes were differentially expressed under dehydration in leaves and roots, respectively, with 24 identified both in leaves and roots. The main functional categories enriched in these DEGs were metabolic process, response to stresses, plant hormone signal transduction, protein processing, and plant-pathogen interaction pathway; the associated genes primarily encoded transcription factors, protein kinases, and other regulatory proteins. The seven most significantly expressed (|log2 ratio| >= 8) genes--- Glyma15g03920, Glyma05g02470, Glyma15g15010, Glyma05g09070, Glyma06g35630, Glyma08g12590, and Glyma11g16000---are more likely to determine drought stress tolerance. The expression patterns of eight randomly-selected genes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR; the results of QRT-PCR analysis agreed with transcriptional profile data for 96 out of 128 (75%) data points. Conclusions: Many soybean genes were differentially expressed between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive genotypes. Based on GO functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis, some of these genes encoded transcription factors, protein kinases, and other regulatory proteins. The seven most significant DEGs are candidates for improving soybean drought tolerance. These findings will be helpful for analysis and elucidation of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance; they also provide a basis for cultivating new varieties of drought-tolerant soybean.


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Scientists Find "Bully" Genes in Common Childhood Tumor

Scientists Find "Bully" Genes in Common Childhood Tumor | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

In a genome sequencing study of 74 neuroblastoma tumors in children, scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) found that patients with changes in two genes, ARID1A and ARID1B, survive only a quarter as long as patients without the changes. The discovery could eventually lead to early identification of patients with aggressive neuroblastomas who may need additional treatments.


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The Reimbursed Personal Genome----Five Years Away?

The Reimbursed Personal Genome----Five Years Away? | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

Genome sequencing will be a routine diagnostic test for patients at the new Institute for Precision Medicine in New York City, a joint project of the Weill Cornell Medical College and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. Doctors will be searching for new genetic clues about disease by taking an unbiased survey along the genome, rather than scanning only for genes already known to cause illness.


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Genome-wide imaging study identifies new gene associated with Alzheimer’s plaques

Genome-wide imaging study identifies new gene associated with Alzheimer’s plaques | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it

A study combining genetic data with brain imaging, designed to identify genes associated with the amyloid plaque deposits found in Alzheimer’s disease patients, has not only identified the APOE gene -- long associated with development of Alzheimer’s -- but has uncovered an association with a second gene, called BCHE.


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An eye for an eye, a newt for a newt: the genomics of tissue regeneration

An eye for an eye, a newt for a newt: the genomics of tissue regeneration | Billion Genomes Project | Scoop.it
On the list of humanity’s priorities, tissue regeneration finds itself near the very top; together with eternal youth and immortality.
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