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Is That Extra Hour of Study Time Worth It?

Is That Extra Hour of Study Time Worth It? | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
When students lose sleep, their performance suffers.

 

Does that extra study time help performance in school?

 

This question was explored in a studying the January, 2013 issue of Child Development by Cari Gillen-O’Neel, Virginia Huynh, and Andrew Fuligni.  They tracked a group of high school students in 9th, 10th, and 12th grade.  At each grade level, students filled out a daily diary for 2 weeks.

 

Every evening during the study, the students rated the amount of sleep they got the day before, the amount of time they spent on homework, and they answered questions about any academic problems they had the previous day (like doing poorly on a test and having difficulty understanding new material).

 

Overall, there was a tendency for high school students to sleep less as they advanced in school.  So, the 9th-grade-students slept an average of 7.6 hours a night, while the 12th-graders slept only 6.9 hours per night.  Students experienced fewer academic problems as they advanced in school.  That means that students are actually learning better school skills over the years. 

 

The most important result, though, was that when students lost sleep because they spent extra time doing schoolwork, they had significantly more problems the next day than when they got their typical amount of sleep.  This negative effect of extra study time was strongest for 12th-grade-students and weaker for the 9th- and 10th-grade students.

 

What does this mean?

 

First off, this study reinforces the general observation that teens and young adults are not sleeping enough.  Getting even an extra 30 minutes of sleep a night would be a huge benefit for this group.

 

Second, it means that students need to try to spread their work out over longer periods of time.  It is an age-old tradition to cram for exams and to finish papers at the last minute.  There are lots of good reasons to want to avoid cramming.  For example, cramming for an exam may help a student pass that particular exam, but information learned the night before the test is not remembered in the long-term as well as information that is studied over several nights.  If cramming for a test also reduces the amount of sleep a student is getting, then that just adds to the problem.


Via Heather Ramsey, Mark E. Deschaine, PhD
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Heather Ramsey's curator insight, May 2, 2013 5:25 PM

For those of you who are "burning the candle at both ends" on a regular basis, this is the article for you. Learn why sleep is important for you to function properly in school.

 

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Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley | Video on TED.com

Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational "death valley" we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility.

 

Creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson challenges the way we're educating our children. He champions a radical rethink of our school systems, to cultivate creativity and acknowledge multiple types of intelligence

 

 

Miloš Bajčetić's insight:

“The real role of leadership in education … is not and should not be command and control. The real role of leadership is climate control, creating a climate of possibility.”

 

Great Talk!

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Tatiana Kuzmina's curator insight, September 7, 2013 11:58 AM

Worth watching..

Laurent Picard's curator insight, January 22, 9:22 AM

Une vidéo trés intéressante (et amusante) où Ken Robinson parle du système éducatif américain. Mais ses propos s'appliquent aussi au notre...

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Beyond assessment - recognizing achievement in a networked world - by Stephen Downes

ePortfolios and Open Badges are only the first wave in what will emerge as a wider network-based form of assessment that makes tests and reviews unnecessary. I…

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EduGeek Journal » Research Says: Online or Face to Face Is Better?

EduGeek Journal » Research Says: Online or Face to Face Is Better? | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

You know what they say about getting into an argument with an instructional designer over learning design? Oh… they don’t? Well, they should. Anyway… if they did say anything about it, they would say not to do it because instructional designers pretty much shoot holes in everything.

People argue all the time over whether online learning is better or worse than face-to-face. But you ask an instructional designer which is better? Well, neither, both, and… it kinda depends.

Confusing? Yeah, well blame the research. Research is important. Research tells us a lot. Research raises a lot of good questions. But it seems like we as the educational community are misusing and over simplifying the results of the research.

A lot of research is based on numbers. And those numbers might tell us that, say that there is a statistically significant difference between the number of learners that passed the test in the face-to-face version of a course and the number of those that passed in the online version. Or substitute “test” with whatever metric you are using to determine which is better. And so face-to-face is declared the winner and online is the loser that has to slink off and die because it *lost*!

The problem is – online learning obviously worked great for those students that passed – even if there were statistically significantly fewer of them (did I just butcher the English there?). Research is not a contest to show which option is the one right one. We are not in a giant game of Highlander: Education. There can be more than one right way. It can be online and blended and face-to-face. We are not waiting to see which one beheads all the others to become the clear champion of the universe.

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A Pedagogy of Discovery: Reflections on Teaching Tech to Elementary Students

A Pedagogy of Discovery: Reflections on Teaching Tech to Elementary Students | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
When I discovered a rather nondescript blurb on Craigslist about needing an immediate replacement for a “technology specialist,” I didn’t know exactly what I’d find. Much to my joy, however,...

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J. Mark Schwanz's curator insight, July 11, 9:13 AM

More in depth reflection that I thought when I first saw the headline of this article. I identify since I began teaching in the same way, as a part-time, computer instructor in private schools, only it was 20 years ago and on Commodore 64 computers.

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A Comprehensive BYOD Toolkit for Schools ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

A Comprehensive BYOD Toolkit for Schools ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"If your school is planning to employ BYOD and is looking for some theoretical background about this trend then this comprehensive literature review is a must read. This review represents a reasonable and representative scan of the available literature on BYOD. The visual below is based on this literature review and sketches a general framework of what BYOD is all about, its models . reasons to use it and many more.This infographic is created by Pip Cleaves and the original version can be viewed from this link."


Via John Evans, WebTeachers
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The Importance of Asking Questions to Promote Higher-Order Competencies

The Importance of Asking Questions to Promote Higher-Order Competencies | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
How to use open-ended, close-ended, and a double question technique to inspire deeper thinking in your students.

 

Irving Sigel devoted his life to the importance of asking questions. He believed, correctly, that the brain responds to questions in ways that we now describe as social, emotional, and cognitive development. Questions create the challenges that make us learn.

 

The essence of Irv's perspective is that the way we ask questions fosters students' alternative and more complex representations of stories, events, and circumstances, and their ability to process the world in a wider range of ways, to create varying degrees of distance between themselves and the basis events in front of them, is a distinct advantage to learning.

 

However, Irv found that schools often do not ask the range of questions children need to grow to their potential. In this column and the next, using the story of Goldilocks and The Three Bears, we can learn from Irv about how to improve our question asking so that students learn more from text and from the world around them.


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Charles Fischer's curator insight, July 9, 10:09 AM

Asking great follow-up questions is the key to becoming an effective facilitator.

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A Short Guide to Adaptive Learning in English Language Teaching | The Round

A Short Guide to Adaptive Learning in English Language Teaching | The Round | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Adaptive learning software tailors learning materials and tasks to the individuals who are using them, and provides previously undreamt of opportunities for assessment. Promoted by most national governments and education ministries, international bodies such as the OECD or the World Bank, the biggest software companies and huge educational foundations such as the Gates Foundation, adaptive learning is coming your way soon.


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Nik Peachey's curator insight, July 9, 3:05 AM

Useful free book on adaptive learning.

june holley's curator insight, July 9, 5:12 AM

Free book on critical network leadership skill.

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Opening up: chapter one of Teaching in a Digital Age

Opening up: chapter one of Teaching in a Digital Age | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Teaching in a Digital World

As you are probably aware, I’m doing this as an open textbook, which means learning to adapt to a new publishing environment. As well as writing a darned good book for instructors on teaching in in a digital age, my aim is to push the boundaries a little with open publishing, to move it out of the traditional publishing mode into a a truly open textbook, with the help of the good folks at BCcampus who are running their open textbook project.

You will see that there’s still a long way to go before we can really exploit all the virtues of openness in publishing, and I’m hoping you can help me – and BCcampus- along the way with this.

What I’d like you to do

What I’m hoping you will do is find the time to browse the content list and preface (which is not yet finalized) and read more carefully Chapter 1, Fundamental Change in Higher Education, then give me some feedback. To do this, just go to: http://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/

The first thing you will realise is that there is nowhere to comment on the published version. (Ideally I would like to have a comment section after every section of each chapter.) I will be publishing another post about some of the technical features I feel are still needed within PressBooks, but in the meantime, please use the comment page on this post (in which case your comment will be public), or use the e-mail facility  at the bottom of the chapter or preface (in which case your comment will be private). Send to tony.bates@ubc.ca .

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To Improve Student Performance, Start Thinking Like a Coach

To Improve Student Performance, Start Thinking Like a Coach | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
I have a confession to make. I was wrong. You see, I once thought that teaching was lecturing, and I thought that because that is how my graduate mentors taught me to teach.

But I was wrong. Studies have shown that lecturing has little to do with teaching. A University of Maryland study found that right after a physics lecture, almost none of the students could answer the question: “What was the lecture you just heard about?” Another physics professor simply asked students about the material that he had presented only 15 minutes earlier, and he found that only ten percent showed any sign of remembering it (Freedman, 2012).
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Help yourself | Learning with 'e's

Help yourself | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we take a look at an emerging theory of learning proposed by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, known as Heutagogy. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

Heutagogy is a theory that focuses on meta-learning (learning to learn), double loop learning (reflection on learning), and non-linear forms of learning, but ultimately it is about the study of self-determined learning. I would like to argue that technology plays a key role in this process. There is a sense that personal technologies encourage learners to be self-determined in their approach to education. Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon’s (2007) conceptualisation of self determined learning places the emphasis on non-linear, self-directed and self-regulated forms of learning, and embraces both formal and informal education contexts. The central tenet of heutagogy is that people inherently know how to learn, and will pursue that learning if they are interested enough.

The role of formal education is to enable them to confidently develop these skills, encouraging them to critically evaluate and interpret their own personal reality according to their own personal skills and competencies. The ethos of heutagogy extends to learner choice, where students can create their own programmes of study, a feature often seen in the loosely aggregated and unstructured aspects of some Massive Open Online Courses. In many ways, heutagogy is aligned to other digital age theories, in that it places an importance on ‘learning to learn’, and the sharing rather than hoarding of that knowledge. It is not difficult to see that such sharing of knowledge can be easily achieved through social media and the use of personal digital technologies.

How it can be applied to education

Clearly, heutagogy is a specific kind of learning theory, in the sense that it points out the distinction between self-determined learning and learning that is more likely to be driven by formal pedagogy. In essence, it highlights the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the potentially different learning outcomes each might yield. Heutagogy can of course be viewed as an explanation of learning that occurs both inside and outside of formal contexts, but really comes into its own when applied to informal learning.

The question that is often uppermost in the minds of good educators is how to inspire students to go 'the extra mile' and begin to take the responsibility to learn for themselves. Independent learning, one of the central tenets of heutagogy, usually becomes evident when students become so fascinated by their topic that they can do nothing else but continue to pursue a deeper understanding of it. The era of personal technologies is one of the most important factors in the rise of heutagogy, and will be instrumental in sustaining it. Teachers should consider that students' personal technologies should not be banned from the classroom, but could instead be integrated into lessons and embedded as mind tools to extend and enrich the experience of learning.

 

 

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Socrative - User Guide


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Judith Morais's curator insight, July 7, 3:19 AM

A great way to engage learners. I love the interactive nature of the quizzes.

Kaylin Burleson's curator insight, July 7, 10:01 AM

Great resource for all content areas. 

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How To Curate Content Without Breaking the Rules or Risking of Being Penalized

How To Curate Content Without Breaking the Rules or Risking of Being Penalized | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Google has introduced its new algorithm, Panda 4.0, in an effort to reward high quality, original content in the search engine's rankings. But, this doesn't mean marketers should stop curating

Via Robin Good
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Stewart-Marshall's curator insight, July 9, 5:52 AM

Frankly I'm sick of jumping through Google hoops that keep moving. But the tips given here are mostly the same as you would give for good, honest blog writing anyway - and that's the key. Forget Google (yes please) and just write about other people's stuff as you would hope they would write about yours :-)

Nicoletta Gay's curator insight, July 11, 1:46 AM

An interesting list of  content curation and SEO do's and don'ts in the era of Google Panda 4.0.

Caren Taubman Glasser's curator insight, July 11, 7:31 AM

Great list of Do's and Don'ts when curating content.

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Personalize your learning environment

Personalize your learning environment | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Transforming a traditional classroom into a personalized learning environment takes a process. Personalized learning experts Barbara Bray and Kathleen McClaskey tell you how you can set it in motion.

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Kathleen McClaskey's curator insight, July 3, 11:57 AM

Personalized learning is built on the idea that each learner is unique and learns in different ways. This is called variability in learning. To support all learners’ unique needs and preferences, learning environments have to be flexible. It takes a process to transform learning environments and change learner and teacher roles.

Kim Flintoff's curator insight, July 3, 6:00 PM

University learners need to be similarly considered.  There is very little ubiquity of prior experience with such diverse intakes - Plan to shift from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy.  Student needs shift from early engagement where pedagogy (teacher direction) is the norm, to andragogy where the role of the teacher shifts to facilitating student engagement in the processes of learning, to heutagogy where students define and organise their own learning requirements.

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Content Curation at Work: Startupery - A Library of Startup Best-Practices Curated by True Subject Matter Experts

Content Curation at Work: Startupery - A Library of Startup Best-Practices Curated by True Subject Matter Experts | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

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Robin Good's curator insight, Today, 6:34 AM



Startupery is a new online resource which organizes and curates best-practices, strategy advice, tips and methods for business startups.


The present library currently comprises over 500 hundred resources organized under 372 topics by 12 selected "experts", which include, among others, Fred Wilson (Vevnture Capitalist), Eric Ries (The Lean Startup), Chris Dixon (Investor) and Brad Feld (Early Stage Investor / Entrepreneur). 


For each expert you will find a page outlining his profile and presenting, in a categorized fashion, a selected number of sources suggested by him.


"For years, and now more than ever, startup founders, investors and operators have been sharing advice on how to succeed in business. From personal blogs to up-and-coming publications, this advice has been scattered and often hard to find when you need it mostStartup{ery is a library for this advice, giving each resource and the important topics that they cover a home on the internet."


An excellent and well-organized resource hub for startups, Simple, easy to navigate and staffed by a highly reputable set of subject-matter-experts / curators.

A great example of the value that content curation can bring to just about any field, where there is lot of precious information scattered around and which can greatly benefit from competent and trusted "organizers". 


Free to use.



Startupery: http://startupery.com/ 


Added to Content Curation Examples board.





Pierre Dejean's curator insight, Today, 7:16 AM

Great content about Start-up ! 

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Blended and Flipped: New Models for Effective Teaching & Learning | Faculty Focus

Blended and Flipped: New Models for Effective Teaching & Learning | Faculty Focus | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Featuring 12 articles dedicated to blended and flipped, this report provides shows how faculty are using these approaches to reshape the college classroom.

 

Featuring 12 articles dedicated to blended and flipped, this report provides shows how faculty are using these approaches to reshape the college classroom.

 

It’s hard to pick up a publication these days without reading something about blended course design or the flipped classroom. Even mainstream media have begun to cover these new approaches to teaching and learning that put more emphasis on active learning.

But despite their growing popularity, defining blended learning and flipped learning is more difficult than one would expect. Both models have a variety of definitions, and many consider the flipped classroom a form of blended learning. The Sloan Consortium has one of the most precise definitions, defining blended as “instruction that has between 30 and 80 percent of the course content delivered online.” For the sake of this report, we’re using a more broad definition of blended learning as a course that uses a combination of face-to-face and online learning.

The flipped classroom, sometimes called the inverted classroom, is a pedagogical model which reverses what typically occurs in class and out of class. Students are first exposed to the material outside of class, typically in the form of video-based lectures, and then class time is used to engage in activities such as problem solving, discussion, and analysis

This special report features 12 articles curated from past issues of The Teaching Professor, Online Classroom, and Faculty Focus. With six articles dedicated to blended learning and six articles on the flipped classroom, Blended and Flipped: Exploring New Models for Effective Teaching & Learning provides an inside look at how faculty are using these approaches to reshape the college classroom. Articles include:

* Putting the Learning in Blended Learning
* Recommendations for Blended Learning Course Design
* The Process Approach to Online and Blended Learning
* Expanding the Definition of a Flipped Learning Environment
* “I Don’t Like This One Little Bit.” Tales from a Flipped Classroom
* Looking for ‘Flippable’ Moments in Your Class

Regardless of the definitions used to describe each approach, at the heart of both blended learning and flipped learning is a learner-centered curriculum that changes the traditional roles of instructor and student. In the article “Expanding the Definition of a Flipped Learning Environment,” Honeycutt and Garrett write, “When planning a flipped lesson, an instructor should begin with the question, ‘What do the students need to DO to achieve the learning outcome?’ This change in perspective will immediately flip the focus of the lesson since the question emphasizes the efforts of the learners, not the instructor.”

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Breathe New Life into Your eLearning Courses: 5 Helpful Mantras to Live By

Breathe New Life into Your eLearning Courses: 5 Helpful Mantras to Live By | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
The following five helpful mantras provide refreshing ideas for creating eLearning courses that go beyond a conventional approach.

Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, July 10, 4:44 PM

Once again SHIFT Learning has published an article that focuses on eLearning, but is applicable to face2face learning. The five mantras that are discussed work in either location. What are they? (All are quoted below):

* Think visually.

* We don't remember data, we remember stories.

* Design smarter, not harder.

* Visual clutter is the evidence of a failed search for clarity.

* Leave your learners feeling inspired.

Additional detail is provided in the post and an additional resource is shared in three of the five areas listed above.

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Making change: Produsing hybrid learning products - Hybrid Pedagogy

Making change: Produsing hybrid learning products - Hybrid Pedagogy | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Design Pattern Name: Hybrid learning products Problem Statement: Digital humanities students are too often subjected to an over-emphasis of critical reflection and not enough experiential learning and corresponding presentation formats....

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Newsletter Issue 8 – July 2014 | ENQA

Newsletter Issue 8 – July 2014 | ENQA | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

The proposal for the revised version of the “Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area” (ESG) was discussed at the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG) meeting on 9-10 April in Athens, Greece. Following discussions at the meeting, the ESG Steering Group was asked to produce written proposals on how the suggested changes might be integrated into the revised ESG and to carry out a survey targeting the BFUG members to gain an understanding of the level of consensus on the proposed changes. This survey has now been completed and the outcome was discussed by the ESG Steering Group at a meeting in Brussels on 25 June. The revised draft will be submitted to the BFUG Secretariat for discussion at the next BFUG meeting in Rome on 18-19 September. We remain hopeful that the Ministers responsible for higher education will adopt the revised ESG at the Bologna Ministerial conference in Yerevan, Armenia in 2015.


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Studies Confirm the Power of Visuals in eLearning

Studies Confirm the Power of Visuals in eLearning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"We are now in the age of visual information where visual content plays a role in every part of life. As 65 percent of the population are visual learners, images are clearly key to engaging people in eLearning courses."


Via Beth Dichter, Rosemary Tyrrell
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Gary Harwell's curator insight, July 8, 11:24 PM

If the majority of y our students are visual learners these are things you have to take into account.

Progressive training's curator insight, July 9, 4:24 AM

Studies Confirm the Power of Visuals in eLearning

Rosemary Tyrrell's curator insight, July 9, 11:55 AM

Visual learning is an important part of learning in any platform. 

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The shape of minds to come | Learning with 'e's

The shape of minds to come | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we will explore the work of Bärbel Inhelder on deductive reasoning. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

Swiss psychologist Bärbel Inhelder is perhaps the best known of Piaget's collaborators. She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). Inhelder was particularly interested in how children's minds develop to the point where they can reason for themselves. Her work with Jean Piaget led to the proposal that there is a 'formal operations' stage marking the transition from childhood to adolescence. They argued that when children reach the age of about 11 years old, they are capable of using deductive reasoning to make sense of the world around them.

How it can be applied in education

Inhelder's work with Piaget was instrumental in shaping the way schools are organised today and is a key influence on the design of curricula. The transition between primary (elementary) school and secondary (high) school is marked when children reach the age of 11 (or 12 in some countries such as Scotland).

It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget's cognitive stages theory. The Formal Operations stage is where children are capable of higher order thinking such as abstract reasoning - imagining the outcome of their actions, and it is also the stage of development where they can develop their inferential reasoning skills. A good example of inferential reasoning in education is where the teacher presents students with puzzles or challenges as a part of their learning: 'If George is older than David, and David is older than Michael, who is the oldest?' Inferential reasoning skills can be developed over time as children learn about new concepts, how they compare, and how to make decisions. The ability to deduce from the general to the specific is the basis of all good science, and runs consistently through a number of disciplines such as mathematics and statistical analysis.

Deductive reasoning methods can therefore also be applied to good effect in just about any lesson on any subject. Students could be encouraged to ask 'what if?' hypothetical questions during physics or chemistry experiments, and then test out their predictions; or to predict the trajectory of a cricket ball in sport; or be asked to judge whether a statement is true or false, on the basis of evidence; or to detect grammatical errors according to 'the rules' of a language. Indeed, the entire secondary curriculum in schools is based on the premise that children between 11-16 years old have developed their higher level cognitive capabilities sufficiently enough to be able to think creatively, use abstract reasoning and perform numerical calculations.

It should be noted that many of the theories proposed by Inhelder and Piaget are contentious and have been challenged not only on the basis of their small sample size (he mainly used his own children as subjects in his experiments) and methods, but also due to alternative findings and interpretations carried out by a number of psychologists. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed? And of course, the most difficult problem of them all - do all children develop through these stages at the same time and in the same way? For more details on these counter arguments see the work of Margaret Donaldson.

 

 

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Convert Any Presentation Into a Talking Video in Your Preferred Language: SlideTalk.net

 

 


Via Robin Good, Marie-Hélène Fasquel, Juergen Wagner
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Patricia Christian's curator insight, April 7, 2013 8:07 PM

Presentation using high quality voiceover which may be uploaded on You Tube.  SlideTalk.net     Show Describe and Share

Javier Arana's curator insight, July 3, 7:18 AM

Un manera de subir presentaciones, escribir texto y que una voz profesional de voz a texto grabe la presentación. La cuenta libre permite hasta 15 slides por presentación. Me parece, interesante. Lo comparto.

Minerva Bueno's curator insight, Today, 6:19 AM

añada su visión ...

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Drive through learning | Learning with 'e's

Drive through learning | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we will explore Clark Hull's drive reduction theory of motivation. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

American psychologist Clark Hull is credited with developing the first theory of human motivation. Known as drive reduction theory, his approach sits in the behavioural school of thinking. Drive is the tension caused by the desire to satisfy basic biological needs such as thirst, hunger and the need for warmth. Hull believed that as we seek to maintain an internal balance (homeostasis) where these needs are fulfilled, so we then repeat these behaviours (reinforcement) to maintain pleasant feelings, whilst avoiding the tension or unpleasant feelings created by the imbalance. In a nutshell, people are motivated by the need to reduce unpleasant feelings by reinstating internal biological balances.

How it can apply in education

Clearly, although this was considered a useful theory many years ago, our thinking has moved on, and many behaviouristic theories such as drive theory have been largely rejected. Hull's theory fails to explain complex human behaviours with simple stimulus-response chains that characterise behaviourism. There is no room in Hull's theory for example, to explain how humans can continue to explore their environment, solve problems and generate creative work even though they may be cold, hungry or thirsty.

And yet, there are areas of learning within which Hull's theory could possibly apply. Elements of his theory are present in Maslow's more humanistic and learner-centred Hierarchy of Human Needs model. Although this is in itself a flawed and contentious model, Maslow's hierarchy has been used to explain more compex motivational processes. Furthermore, although drive reduction describes simple biological needs such as hunger and thirst, more complex human phenomena such as uncertainty and doubt could be considered drives which need to be reduced. Students who experience a dissonance that brings uncertainty may become anxious or stressed. If this happens students may seek to reduce this drive by putting more effort into mastering their subject.

Or they may simply run away.

 

 

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3 Myths of Flipped Learning

3 Myths of Flipped Learning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Flipped Learning is a philosophy, not a method of teaching. It provides an approach where “students can learn information without the presence of a teacher”

 

Myth 1: Flipped Learning Is A Specific Teaching Method.Myth 2: Flipped Learning Is All About Video Lessons.Myth 3: It’s One Approach That Won’t Work For Everyone.
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Open Badges: Why and How

Open Badges: Why and How | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Open Badges: Why and Why Not I have been wanting for so…

Via Ana Cristina Pratas
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Paul West's curator insight, July 5, 11:38 PM

How to try out badges. 

Jean Jacoby's curator insight, July 7, 1:34 AM

A great intro

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How Instructional Designers Can Cope with Continuous Partial Attention in "The Age of Distraction"

Continuous partial attention has particular significance to eLearning because the very nature of such learning demands users to be connected on a computer or mobile device, therefore competing with blogs, chats, games, and other online distractions learner's can be dealing with at the same time. In order for eLearning courses to be successful, instructors require learners’ full attention to avoid users missing or forgetting important information. After all, attention is an essential condition for the functioning of any learning environment.

To overcome the issues related to continuous partial attention, instructional designers must think differently about attention and furthermore accept that learners’ attention is constantly fractured. Developers need to design eLearning courses with the idea that people are easily distracted and prone to switching tasks in mind.

It becomes necessary to use technology both to minimize distractions and to support learners in developing their own attention strategies. This means using interfaces and interactivity that promote focus and reflection; using technology to highlight the fact that attention is divided; and helping users monitor their attention.

In the own words of researcher Ellen Rose, “we need to find ways to use technology’s strengths and capabilities, first, to foster learners’ awareness of the extent to which their attention is dispersed; and second, and to help them to deliberately monitor and regulate their attentional resources”.

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What you see is what you get | Learning with 'e's

What you see is what you get | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we explore the work of James Jerome Gibson on the perception of everyday objects and his theory of  affordances. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

During the 80s and 90s there was a protracted debate between Richard Clark and Robert Kozma. Clark held that media were neutral and didn't influence learning whilst Kozma argued that media were laced with nuances that shaped our behaviour as we used them. Even before this, during the 60s, Marshall McLuhan had famously proclaimed that we shape our tools and then our tools shape us', but had then gone on to argue that 'the medium is the message'.  The waters were well and truly muddied and many were bemused by the entire discourse around media. Are they neutral tools or are they loaded with meaning - and do they actually influence learning in any way?

Even before any of the above discussions took place, James Gibson, a psychologist studying human perception presented an interesting theory that framed the entire debate.   In 1950 Gibson proposed that visual perception was direct perception. That is, what we see and the meaning we extract from it is directly obtained from the appearance of the object we are looking at. We see the object as it is. Correctly referred to as the ecological model of visual perception, we process the world we see bottom up, not top down.

Gibson later proposed that each object has affordances - the shape and design of the object suggests to us (possibly from our previous experiences) what we can do with the object and what we cannot do with it. A door handle provides us with the affordance of twisting and pushing (or pulling) and may also have a right-handed or left-handed affordance depending on which side of the door we are standing. A teapot and cups such as those in the image above also have affordances suggested by their shapes and their handles - and possibly even their relative positions to each other in space. Affordance theory represents the relationship between the design of an everyday object and its perceived purpose.

How it can apply to education

Some teachers might be surprised to hear that all children are creative. Most would understand however, that all children have wonderful imaginations, and can think divergently about almost anything if they are given the chance. Ask a young child how many uses there are for a brick, or a paper clip or a cup, and they will come up with hundreds of possible uses. This is because their creativity knows no bounds, and they are not influenced by a lifetime of learning that some things are not permissible or possible. Adults don't think of a paper clip that is a mile high and made of rubber, or a cup that can hold a million gallons of lemonade. As children grow older, this kind of divergent thinking sadly fades as they are indoctrinated into understanding 'the rules'. And yet Gibson's affordances theory implies that the use of the object, even if it is designed for specific purposes, can in fact be interpreted for other purposes by the perceiver. If this is true, then teachers have a huge opportunity to promote better learning through creativity. They could for example bring objects into the classroom as a part of a lesson to promote creative thinking and better problem solving skills.

Conversely, it is clear that good design makes the intended uses of objects much more explicit. The design of computer interfaces, software, games and even curricula, should be undertaken with affordances in mind. Designers can send direct messages to potential users simply by designing easily interpreted and unambiguous features into objects. These principles have spawned an entirely different approach to education which involves active engagement through design thinking, solution based learning, and even learning through wicked problems (a form of problem based learning).  For example, where do young people turn to when the answer to a question is not Googleable? And we would still like to know ... do media influence learning?

 

 

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