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Everybody Wants to MOOC the World

Everybody Wants to MOOC the World | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

What’s Missing From All of This

 

In my view, there are two elements that are still missing from both of these visions. The first is a sustainability model. The MOOC-as-platform idea seems to assume that schools will know how to bring open education courses online and make them work from mission and funding perspectives. What are these things for? How do they align with university missions? How will they be paid for? We are seeing a gold rush right now, and we know how gold rushes tend to end. (Remember Fathom, anybody?) As Instructure correctly points out, there are many different flavors of open education. In order for schools to take on online education in general and open ed in particular in a valuable and sustainable way, they need to have a clear understanding of why they are doing it and how different approaches align (or don’t) with the school’s mission and strategic goals. In this regard, if you haven’t read Phil Hill’s recent EDUCAUSE article yet, you should. He does a great job of beginning to lay out the landscape.

 

Second, the biggest missing piece from both models is…you know…teaching. While the cMOOCs are doing some interesting experimentation in pedagogy, I see little innovation in either course design or platform affordances in the xMOOCs. Udacity’s big invention was multiple-choice quizzes built into videos. Coursera has messed around with peer review, but because they don’t actually work with faculty on course designs, it’s not clear that it’s being used effectively by anyone. For starters, designing effective rubrics is hard. If that step isn’t done right, then peer review falls down. Overall, while the xMOOCs may make noises about disruptive innovation, from a pedagogical perspective, they don’t fundamentally change the lecture-and-quiz model of the traditional classroom. And if we know that model doesn’t work particularly well for a class of 150 students, what makes us think it will work better for a class of 15,000?

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Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley | Video on TED.com

Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational "death valley" we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility.

 

Creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson challenges the way we're educating our children. He champions a radical rethink of our school systems, to cultivate creativity and acknowledge multiple types of intelligence

 

 

Miloš Bajčetić's insight:

“The real role of leadership in education … is not and should not be command and control. The real role of leadership is climate control, creating a climate of possibility.”

 

Great Talk!

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Tatiana Kuzmina's curator insight, September 7, 2013 2:58 PM

Worth watching..

Laurent Picard's curator insight, January 22, 12:22 PM

Une vidéo trés intéressante (et amusante) où Ken Robinson parle du système éducatif américain. Mais ses propos s'appliquent aussi au notre...

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Newsletter Issue 8 – July 2014 | ENQA

Newsletter Issue 8 – July 2014 | ENQA | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

The proposal for the revised version of the “Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area” (ESG) was discussed at the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG) meeting on 9-10 April in Athens, Greece. Following discussions at the meeting, the ESG Steering Group was asked to produce written proposals on how the suggested changes might be integrated into the revised ESG and to carry out a survey targeting the BFUG members to gain an understanding of the level of consensus on the proposed changes. This survey has now been completed and the outcome was discussed by the ESG Steering Group at a meeting in Brussels on 25 June. The revised draft will be submitted to the BFUG Secretariat for discussion at the next BFUG meeting in Rome on 18-19 September. We remain hopeful that the Ministers responsible for higher education will adopt the revised ESG at the Bologna Ministerial conference in Yerevan, Armenia in 2015.


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Studies Confirm the Power of Visuals in eLearning

Studies Confirm the Power of Visuals in eLearning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"We are now in the age of visual information where visual content plays a role in every part of life. As 65 percent of the population are visual learners, images are clearly key to engaging people in eLearning courses."


Via Beth Dichter, Rosemary Tyrrell
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Gary Harwell's curator insight, July 9, 2:24 AM

If the majority of y our students are visual learners these are things you have to take into account.

Progressive training's curator insight, July 9, 7:24 AM

Studies Confirm the Power of Visuals in eLearning

Rosemary Tyrrell's curator insight, July 9, 2:55 PM

Visual learning is an important part of learning in any platform. 

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The shape of minds to come | Learning with 'e's

The shape of minds to come | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we will explore the work of Bärbel Inhelder on deductive reasoning. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

Swiss psychologist Bärbel Inhelder is perhaps the best known of Piaget's collaborators. She made some important contributions to his stages of cognitive development theory (which will be featured in greater depth in some upcoming articles on this blog). Inhelder was particularly interested in how children's minds develop to the point where they can reason for themselves. Her work with Jean Piaget led to the proposal that there is a 'formal operations' stage marking the transition from childhood to adolescence. They argued that when children reach the age of about 11 years old, they are capable of using deductive reasoning to make sense of the world around them.

How it can be applied in education

Inhelder's work with Piaget was instrumental in shaping the way schools are organised today and is a key influence on the design of curricula. The transition between primary (elementary) school and secondary (high) school is marked when children reach the age of 11 (or 12 in some countries such as Scotland).

It could be argued that these decisions were made because of Inhelder and Piaget's cognitive stages theory. The Formal Operations stage is where children are capable of higher order thinking such as abstract reasoning - imagining the outcome of their actions, and it is also the stage of development where they can develop their inferential reasoning skills. A good example of inferential reasoning in education is where the teacher presents students with puzzles or challenges as a part of their learning: 'If George is older than David, and David is older than Michael, who is the oldest?' Inferential reasoning skills can be developed over time as children learn about new concepts, how they compare, and how to make decisions. The ability to deduce from the general to the specific is the basis of all good science, and runs consistently through a number of disciplines such as mathematics and statistical analysis.

Deductive reasoning methods can therefore also be applied to good effect in just about any lesson on any subject. Students could be encouraged to ask 'what if?' hypothetical questions during physics or chemistry experiments, and then test out their predictions; or to predict the trajectory of a cricket ball in sport; or be asked to judge whether a statement is true or false, on the basis of evidence; or to detect grammatical errors according to 'the rules' of a language. Indeed, the entire secondary curriculum in schools is based on the premise that children between 11-16 years old have developed their higher level cognitive capabilities sufficiently enough to be able to think creatively, use abstract reasoning and perform numerical calculations.

It should be noted that many of the theories proposed by Inhelder and Piaget are contentious and have been challenged not only on the basis of their small sample size (he mainly used his own children as subjects in his experiments) and methods, but also due to alternative findings and interpretations carried out by a number of psychologists. Are there actually stages of cognitive development, and are they as Inhelder and Piaget claimed? And of course, the most difficult problem of them all - do all children develop through these stages at the same time and in the same way? For more details on these counter arguments see the work of Margaret Donaldson.

 

 

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Convert Any Presentation Into a Talking Video in Your Preferred Language: SlideTalk.net

 

 


Via Robin Good, Marie-Hélène Fasquel, Juergen Wagner
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Anita Rissler's curator insight, April 2, 2013 6:36 AM

Om du inte tycker om att lägga på din egen röst på ett bildspel med förklaringar, ska du absolut titta på den svenskutvecklade gratistjänsten SlideTalk.net.  Idén är att man skriver text till varje bild som behöver förklaras. Sedan finns det sju svenska röster att välja bland som läser upp texterna (totalt finns 70 röster). Du kan påverka röstläget, lägga in pauser, välja snabbhet på talet och blanda manliga och kvinnliga röster.

Färdigställ bildspelet - från PowerPoint-fil eller enskilda bilder med texter - förhandsgranska, ändra och publicera. Med litet övning kan säkert texterna låta  mer naturliga och tydliga - http://bit.ly/10uTAGc.

Själva publiceringen tog ett litet tag. Bildspelet konverteras och blir en video som laddas upp till SlideTalks kanal hos YouTube. Med gratistjänsten blir videon offentlig. Om det här sättet att lägga på texter passar dig, kan du köpa ett årsabonnemang på tjänsten ganska billigt. En väldigt trevlig tjänst med svenska röster!

Patricia Christian's curator insight, April 7, 2013 11:07 PM

Presentation using high quality voiceover which may be uploaded on You Tube.  SlideTalk.net     Show Describe and Share

Javier Arana's curator insight, July 3, 10:18 AM

Un manera de subir presentaciones, escribir texto y que una voz profesional de voz a texto grabe la presentación. La cuenta libre permite hasta 15 slides por presentación. Me parece, interesante. Lo comparto.

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Drive through learning | Learning with 'e's

Drive through learning | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we will explore Clark Hull's drive reduction theory of motivation. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

American psychologist Clark Hull is credited with developing the first theory of human motivation. Known as drive reduction theory, his approach sits in the behavioural school of thinking. Drive is the tension caused by the desire to satisfy basic biological needs such as thirst, hunger and the need for warmth. Hull believed that as we seek to maintain an internal balance (homeostasis) where these needs are fulfilled, so we then repeat these behaviours (reinforcement) to maintain pleasant feelings, whilst avoiding the tension or unpleasant feelings created by the imbalance. In a nutshell, people are motivated by the need to reduce unpleasant feelings by reinstating internal biological balances.

How it can apply in education

Clearly, although this was considered a useful theory many years ago, our thinking has moved on, and many behaviouristic theories such as drive theory have been largely rejected. Hull's theory fails to explain complex human behaviours with simple stimulus-response chains that characterise behaviourism. There is no room in Hull's theory for example, to explain how humans can continue to explore their environment, solve problems and generate creative work even though they may be cold, hungry or thirsty.

And yet, there are areas of learning within which Hull's theory could possibly apply. Elements of his theory are present in Maslow's more humanistic and learner-centred Hierarchy of Human Needs model. Although this is in itself a flawed and contentious model, Maslow's hierarchy has been used to explain more compex motivational processes. Furthermore, although drive reduction describes simple biological needs such as hunger and thirst, more complex human phenomena such as uncertainty and doubt could be considered drives which need to be reduced. Students who experience a dissonance that brings uncertainty may become anxious or stressed. If this happens students may seek to reduce this drive by putting more effort into mastering their subject.

Or they may simply run away.

 

 

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3 Myths of Flipped Learning

3 Myths of Flipped Learning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Flipped Learning is a philosophy, not a method of teaching. It provides an approach where “students can learn information without the presence of a teacher”

 

Myth 1: Flipped Learning Is A Specific Teaching Method.Myth 2: Flipped Learning Is All About Video Lessons.Myth 3: It’s One Approach That Won’t Work For Everyone.
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Open Badges: Why and How

Open Badges: Why and How | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Open Badges: Why and Why Not I have been wanting for so…

Via Ana Cristina Pratas
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Paul West's curator insight, July 6, 2:38 AM

How to try out badges. 

Jean Jacoby's curator insight, July 7, 4:34 AM

A great intro

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How Instructional Designers Can Cope with Continuous Partial Attention in "The Age of Distraction"

Continuous partial attention has particular significance to eLearning because the very nature of such learning demands users to be connected on a computer or mobile device, therefore competing with blogs, chats, games, and other online distractions learner's can be dealing with at the same time. In order for eLearning courses to be successful, instructors require learners’ full attention to avoid users missing or forgetting important information. After all, attention is an essential condition for the functioning of any learning environment.

To overcome the issues related to continuous partial attention, instructional designers must think differently about attention and furthermore accept that learners’ attention is constantly fractured. Developers need to design eLearning courses with the idea that people are easily distracted and prone to switching tasks in mind.

It becomes necessary to use technology both to minimize distractions and to support learners in developing their own attention strategies. This means using interfaces and interactivity that promote focus and reflection; using technology to highlight the fact that attention is divided; and helping users monitor their attention.

In the own words of researcher Ellen Rose, “we need to find ways to use technology’s strengths and capabilities, first, to foster learners’ awareness of the extent to which their attention is dispersed; and second, and to help them to deliberately monitor and regulate their attentional resources”.

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What you see is what you get | Learning with 'e's

What you see is what you get | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we explore the work of James Jerome Gibson on the perception of everyday objects and his theory of  affordances. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

During the 80s and 90s there was a protracted debate between Richard Clark and Robert Kozma. Clark held that media were neutral and didn't influence learning whilst Kozma argued that media were laced with nuances that shaped our behaviour as we used them. Even before this, during the 60s, Marshall McLuhan had famously proclaimed that we shape our tools and then our tools shape us', but had then gone on to argue that 'the medium is the message'.  The waters were well and truly muddied and many were bemused by the entire discourse around media. Are they neutral tools or are they loaded with meaning - and do they actually influence learning in any way?

Even before any of the above discussions took place, James Gibson, a psychologist studying human perception presented an interesting theory that framed the entire debate.   In 1950 Gibson proposed that visual perception was direct perception. That is, what we see and the meaning we extract from it is directly obtained from the appearance of the object we are looking at. We see the object as it is. Correctly referred to as the ecological model of visual perception, we process the world we see bottom up, not top down.

Gibson later proposed that each object has affordances - the shape and design of the object suggests to us (possibly from our previous experiences) what we can do with the object and what we cannot do with it. A door handle provides us with the affordance of twisting and pushing (or pulling) and may also have a right-handed or left-handed affordance depending on which side of the door we are standing. A teapot and cups such as those in the image above also have affordances suggested by their shapes and their handles - and possibly even their relative positions to each other in space. Affordance theory represents the relationship between the design of an everyday object and its perceived purpose.

How it can apply to education

Some teachers might be surprised to hear that all children are creative. Most would understand however, that all children have wonderful imaginations, and can think divergently about almost anything if they are given the chance. Ask a young child how many uses there are for a brick, or a paper clip or a cup, and they will come up with hundreds of possible uses. This is because their creativity knows no bounds, and they are not influenced by a lifetime of learning that some things are not permissible or possible. Adults don't think of a paper clip that is a mile high and made of rubber, or a cup that can hold a million gallons of lemonade. As children grow older, this kind of divergent thinking sadly fades as they are indoctrinated into understanding 'the rules'. And yet Gibson's affordances theory implies that the use of the object, even if it is designed for specific purposes, can in fact be interpreted for other purposes by the perceiver. If this is true, then teachers have a huge opportunity to promote better learning through creativity. They could for example bring objects into the classroom as a part of a lesson to promote creative thinking and better problem solving skills.

Conversely, it is clear that good design makes the intended uses of objects much more explicit. The design of computer interfaces, software, games and even curricula, should be undertaken with affordances in mind. Designers can send direct messages to potential users simply by designing easily interpreted and unambiguous features into objects. These principles have spawned an entirely different approach to education which involves active engagement through design thinking, solution based learning, and even learning through wicked problems (a form of problem based learning).  For example, where do young people turn to when the answer to a question is not Googleable? And we would still like to know ... do media influence learning?

 

 

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Many pathways | Learning with 'e's

Many pathways | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we explore the work of Howard Gardner, known universally as Multiple Intelligences Theory. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

Intelligence testing has long been practised in the education, military and business communities. In business and the military it is used to correlate intelligence quotient (IQ) scores against performance. Essentially, IQ is a psychological measurement of individual differences. In education, IQ testing has been used to measure children's intelligence so that they can be placed in the appropriate ability group. Later in life, students can be IQ tested for admission into university. Yet IQ has been shown to fluctuate over a period of time, and is now viewed by many as an unreliable indicator of holistic abilities and potential. One critic of IQ tests, Howard Gardner - a professor of psychology at Harvard University - argued that it IQ tests were too limited and only measured specific abilities such as visual-spatial awareness and logical-mathematical reasoning. He surmised that there must be a better way of showing how individuals differ in their potential and actual abilities. Gardner developed a new approach to the study of intelligence, by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences.

In MI, according to Gardner, there are at least nine discrete intelligences, including interpersonal, intra-personal, existential, spatial, mathematical, naturalistic and musical. Each can be developed in every individual, depending not only on their natural abilities, but also on their motivation and other external factors. Gardner argues that each individual has a unique blend of intelligences, and that labeling students as being predominantly one kind of intelligence is inaccurate and disempowering. In short, there are many pathways to learning, and we all choose our own.

How it can be applied in education

Gardner's theory is a student centred theory in as much as it recognises the many individual differences and acknowledges that there are many ways to learn. Teachers should be aware that every child is different, and will excel in different circumstances. This means varying the pace, focus, method and content of lessons so that a menu of different experiences are available. It also means rejecting the labeling of children as failures or lacking intelligence because they do not excel in particular subjects. Not all children have good logical or mathematical skills, but they can be taught to acquire them if the subject is made interesting. For Gardner, a rounded education is where all children are served by a 'broader vision of education' where a wide range of methods, experiences and opportunities are presented.

Schools do not fail because they do not call at every station along the curriculum. They fail because their pedagogic carriage is restricted, and they are unable to bring all the children with them on the education journey.

 

 

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One type of motivation may be key to success

Novel study reveals why some people are better at achieving their goals than others

 

There are two types of motivation. Internal motivation drives people to achieve a goal for its own sake, whereas external motivation is not directly related to the goal itself. For example, if you are learning how to play the violin, you may be internally motivated by your love of the instrument, but also externally motivated by your parents’ pride or your hope that the skill will help you get into a better college.

 

According to one school of thought, internal motivations and external motivations are both effective. But some psychologists argue that only the internal motivations work for long-term goals, such as career achievement or learning new skills. The problem is that laboratory studies of motivation have focused only on short-term goals.

 

So a team of psychologists has turned to a natural experiment that has been playing out for more than 200 years. Every year, about 1300 young men and women enter the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York. Only about 1000 of them graduate. Of those graduates, a smaller portion pursue military careers beyond the mandatory 5 years of service. And fewer still are selected for early promotion, a mark for those on their way to the top ranks. What motivations do these students have when they enter West Point? It turns out that the academy has recorded just that through its annual survey of the incoming cadets, as well as by tracking their career outcomes.

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The study "reveals that intrinsic motivation is powerful, but it is also fragile," says Adam Grant, a psychologist at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. "Even when West Point cadets found their work interesting and meaningful, if they were also strongly motivated by extrinsic rewards," such as a good salary or the respect of their peers, "they were less likely to complete their studies, continue their service, and get promoted early." This creates a paradox for ambitious people. If achieving a goal strikes you as having many benefits beyond the goal itself, but you care too much about those added benefits, you are more likely to fail.

 

P

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Onlea - Canadian, not-for-profit MOOC company

Onlea - Canadian, not-for-profit MOOC company | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

We are a Canadian, not-for-profit company producing flexible, mobile-friendly, interactive learning courses, educational experiences, and assessment solutions that can be distributed across the wide variety of Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platforms, open source learning platforms, and Learning Management Systems (LMS) used by academia and industry.


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A Comprehensive BYOD Toolkit for Schools ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

A Comprehensive BYOD Toolkit for Schools ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"If your school is planning to employ BYOD and is looking for some theoretical background about this trend then this comprehensive literature review is a must read. This review represents a reasonable and representative scan of the available literature on BYOD. The visual below is based on this literature review and sketches a general framework of what BYOD is all about, its models . reasons to use it and many more.This infographic is created by Pip Cleaves and the original version can be viewed from this link."


Via John Evans, WebTeachers
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The Importance of Asking Questions to Promote Higher-Order Competencies

The Importance of Asking Questions to Promote Higher-Order Competencies | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
How to use open-ended, close-ended, and a double question technique to inspire deeper thinking in your students.

 

Irving Sigel devoted his life to the importance of asking questions. He believed, correctly, that the brain responds to questions in ways that we now describe as social, emotional, and cognitive development. Questions create the challenges that make us learn.

 

The essence of Irv's perspective is that the way we ask questions fosters students' alternative and more complex representations of stories, events, and circumstances, and their ability to process the world in a wider range of ways, to create varying degrees of distance between themselves and the basis events in front of them, is a distinct advantage to learning.

 

However, Irv found that schools often do not ask the range of questions children need to grow to their potential. In this column and the next, using the story of Goldilocks and The Three Bears, we can learn from Irv about how to improve our question asking so that students learn more from text and from the world around them.


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Charles Fischer's curator insight, July 9, 1:09 PM

Asking great follow-up questions is the key to becoming an effective facilitator.

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A Short Guide to Adaptive Learning in English Language Teaching | The Round

A Short Guide to Adaptive Learning in English Language Teaching | The Round | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Adaptive learning software tailors learning materials and tasks to the individuals who are using them, and provides previously undreamt of opportunities for assessment. Promoted by most national governments and education ministries, international bodies such as the OECD or the World Bank, the biggest software companies and huge educational foundations such as the Gates Foundation, adaptive learning is coming your way soon.


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Nik Peachey's curator insight, July 9, 6:05 AM

Useful free book on adaptive learning.

june holley's curator insight, July 9, 8:12 AM

Free book on critical network leadership skill.

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Opening up: chapter one of Teaching in a Digital Age

Opening up: chapter one of Teaching in a Digital Age | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Teaching in a Digital World

As you are probably aware, I’m doing this as an open textbook, which means learning to adapt to a new publishing environment. As well as writing a darned good book for instructors on teaching in in a digital age, my aim is to push the boundaries a little with open publishing, to move it out of the traditional publishing mode into a a truly open textbook, with the help of the good folks at BCcampus who are running their open textbook project.

You will see that there’s still a long way to go before we can really exploit all the virtues of openness in publishing, and I’m hoping you can help me – and BCcampus- along the way with this.

What I’d like you to do

What I’m hoping you will do is find the time to browse the content list and preface (which is not yet finalized) and read more carefully Chapter 1, Fundamental Change in Higher Education, then give me some feedback. To do this, just go to: http://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/

The first thing you will realise is that there is nowhere to comment on the published version. (Ideally I would like to have a comment section after every section of each chapter.) I will be publishing another post about some of the technical features I feel are still needed within PressBooks, but in the meantime, please use the comment page on this post (in which case your comment will be public), or use the e-mail facility  at the bottom of the chapter or preface (in which case your comment will be private). Send to tony.bates@ubc.ca .

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To Improve Student Performance, Start Thinking Like a Coach

To Improve Student Performance, Start Thinking Like a Coach | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
I have a confession to make. I was wrong. You see, I once thought that teaching was lecturing, and I thought that because that is how my graduate mentors taught me to teach.

But I was wrong. Studies have shown that lecturing has little to do with teaching. A University of Maryland study found that right after a physics lecture, almost none of the students could answer the question: “What was the lecture you just heard about?” Another physics professor simply asked students about the material that he had presented only 15 minutes earlier, and he found that only ten percent showed any sign of remembering it (Freedman, 2012).
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Help yourself | Learning with 'e's

Help yourself | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

In this post, we take a look at an emerging theory of learning proposed by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, known as Heutagogy. As usual, this is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

Heutagogy is a theory that focuses on meta-learning (learning to learn), double loop learning (reflection on learning), and non-linear forms of learning, but ultimately it is about the study of self-determined learning. I would like to argue that technology plays a key role in this process. There is a sense that personal technologies encourage learners to be self-determined in their approach to education. Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon’s (2007) conceptualisation of self determined learning places the emphasis on non-linear, self-directed and self-regulated forms of learning, and embraces both formal and informal education contexts. The central tenet of heutagogy is that people inherently know how to learn, and will pursue that learning if they are interested enough.

The role of formal education is to enable them to confidently develop these skills, encouraging them to critically evaluate and interpret their own personal reality according to their own personal skills and competencies. The ethos of heutagogy extends to learner choice, where students can create their own programmes of study, a feature often seen in the loosely aggregated and unstructured aspects of some Massive Open Online Courses. In many ways, heutagogy is aligned to other digital age theories, in that it places an importance on ‘learning to learn’, and the sharing rather than hoarding of that knowledge. It is not difficult to see that such sharing of knowledge can be easily achieved through social media and the use of personal digital technologies.

How it can be applied to education

Clearly, heutagogy is a specific kind of learning theory, in the sense that it points out the distinction between self-determined learning and learning that is more likely to be driven by formal pedagogy. In essence, it highlights the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the potentially different learning outcomes each might yield. Heutagogy can of course be viewed as an explanation of learning that occurs both inside and outside of formal contexts, but really comes into its own when applied to informal learning.

The question that is often uppermost in the minds of good educators is how to inspire students to go 'the extra mile' and begin to take the responsibility to learn for themselves. Independent learning, one of the central tenets of heutagogy, usually becomes evident when students become so fascinated by their topic that they can do nothing else but continue to pursue a deeper understanding of it. The era of personal technologies is one of the most important factors in the rise of heutagogy, and will be instrumental in sustaining it. Teachers should consider that students' personal technologies should not be banned from the classroom, but could instead be integrated into lessons and embedded as mind tools to extend and enrich the experience of learning.

 

 

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Socrative - User Guide


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Judith Morais's curator insight, July 7, 6:19 AM

A great way to engage learners. I love the interactive nature of the quizzes.

Kaylin Burleson's curator insight, July 7, 1:01 PM

Great resource for all content areas. 

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How To Curate Content Without Breaking the Rules or Risking of Being Penalized

How To Curate Content Without Breaking the Rules or Risking of Being Penalized | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Google has introduced its new algorithm, Panda 4.0, in an effort to reward high quality, original content in the search engine's rankings. But, this doesn't mean marketers should stop curating

Via Robin Good
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TeresaSiluar's curator insight, July 6, 4:21 AM

Artículo en Curata,  curado por Robin Good, sobre cómo realizar una buena content curation sin incurrir en ilegalidades.

Tom George's curator insight, July 8, 5:01 AM

Great tips and thanks Robin Good for the find and share.

Stewart-Marshall's curator insight, July 9, 8:52 AM

Frankly I'm sick of jumping through Google hoops that keep moving. But the tips given here are mostly the same as you would give for good, honest blog writing anyway - and that's the key. Forget Google (yes please) and just write about other people's stuff as you would hope they would write about yours :-)

Rescooped by Miloš Bajčetić from Personalize Learning (#plearnchat)
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Personalize your learning environment

Personalize your learning environment | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Transforming a traditional classroom into a personalized learning environment takes a process. Personalized learning experts Barbara Bray and Kathleen McClaskey tell you how you can set it in motion.

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Kathleen McClaskey's curator insight, July 3, 2:57 PM

Personalized learning is built on the idea that each learner is unique and learns in different ways. This is called variability in learning. To support all learners’ unique needs and preferences, learning environments have to be flexible. It takes a process to transform learning environments and change learner and teacher roles.

Kim Flintoff's curator insight, July 3, 9:00 PM

University learners need to be similarly considered.  There is very little ubiquity of prior experience with such diverse intakes - Plan to shift from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy.  Student needs shift from early engagement where pedagogy (teacher direction) is the norm, to andragogy where the role of the teacher shifts to facilitating student engagement in the processes of learning, to heutagogy where students define and organise their own learning requirements.

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Personal Learning Networks, CoPs Connectivism: Creatively Explained

Personal Learning Networks, CoPs Connectivism: Creatively Explained | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

As part of a graduate course in Social Network Learning, I ask students to create a non-linguistical representation.  Here is the description of this assignment: .


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Joyce Valenza's curator insight, July 4, 9:30 AM

Inspiration from Jackie Gerstein.  Will share with my Social Media class.

Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, July 4, 12:41 PM

Communities of Practice are organic and creative processes. Several years ago the term came into education as if School managers could structure them and order them.

Helen Teague's curator insight, July 5, 3:05 PM

Dynamic assignment that makes essential connections!

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9 Great Google Alternatives for Academics and Student Researchers

9 Great  Google Alternatives for Academics and Student Researchers | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

While Google remains a robust search engine with great capabilities and potential for us in education and academia, sometimes it seems more plausible to use specific and topic-based search engines to look for better search results.


Via Becky Roehrs, Rui Guimarães Lima
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Conflict resolution | Learning with 'e's

Conflict resolution | Learning with 'e's | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

n my most recent post I examined Leon Festinger's work on social comparison and its applications to education. In this post, we continue to explore Festinger's work, this time focusing on his theory of cognitive dissonance. This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the associated literature.

The theory

American psychologist Leon Festinger was interested in the conflict that we experience when our beliefs or values do not coincide with other values and beliefs. We naturally like consistency but if this consistency is challenged by external influences, we experience discomfort, and tend to attempt to rationalise this through reasoning. Festinger called this phenomenon cognitive dissonance. In effect, says Festinger, we seek to reduce our dissonance through attempting to rationalise our thoughts and beliefs and those with which they conflict. This may emerge as modified behaviour to reduce the dissonance, or alternatively an entrenchment of our previous beliefs and a rejection of those inconsistent with our own beliefs. Cognitive dissonance is essentially a theory of motivation through conflict resolution.

Here is one of Festinger's examples of cognitive dissonance in real life: "The person who continues to smoke, knowing that it is bad for his health, may also feel (a) he enjoys smoking so much it is worth it; (b) the chances of his health suffering are not as serious as some would make out; (c) he can't always avoid every possible dangerous contingency and still live; and (d) perhaps even if he stopped smoking he would put on weight which is equally bad for his health. So, continuing to smoke is, after all, consistent with his ideas about smoking." (Festinger, 1957, p 2)

How it can be applied in education

A lot of learning is based upon making decisions and solving problems. Indeed, problem based learning is thought to be one of the most effective situated learning methods. Some problems we encounter in education have conflicting outcomes. As Kendra Cherry argues: "Cognitive dissonance plays a role in many value judgements, decisions and evaluations. Becoming aware of how conflicting beliefs impact the decision-making process is a great way to improve your ability to make faster and more accurate choices." Teachers should be aware that often, such conflicting outcomes can lead to confusion. However, if managed appropriately, this can be a positive motivator for students to learn more. Ill-structured problems, where the problem is only partially defined and where students need to 'fill in the gaps' discover that such problems can have several possible solutions. Each solution is valid, and deeper learning occurs through discussion between students on which solution is the best.

I have previously stated that I sometimes send my students out confused. This is a deliberate pedagogical method to spur them on to learn more - to attempt to reduce their cognitive dissonance by wider study of their course material and deeper critical reflection on their learning.

Often in learning, our expectations are not realised by the reality of a situation. This results in disappointment, which can be described as a form of cognitive dissonance. How we cope with this disappointment defines who we become. Teachers should be aware that not all disappointment is negative, and that some experiences where reality does not meet expectation could be exactly the motivation students need to try harder. As ever however, such classroom tactics should be premised on a good knowledge of one's students.

Even in behaviour management, cognitive dissonance can provide some useful guidance. Where behaviour is concerned, personal learning through reasoning is stronger than the threat of punishment. Hans and Michael Eysenck (1981) wrote that teaching children that stone-throwing is anti-social can be more effective if they are challenged to think about their actions, rather than being threatened with punishment. They comment that it is better for a child to reduce his cognitive dissonance by reasoning that he should stop throwing stones because he realises it is wrong, than to think 'I was forced to stop throwing stones but I still want to do it'. If he reasons for himself, he is more likely to think 'I don't really want to throw stones anyway.'

 

 

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Best Websites for Teaching & Learning 2014

Best Websites for Teaching & Learning 2014 | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"The 2014 Best Websites for Teaching & Learning foster the qualities of innovation, creativity, active participation, and collaboration. They are free, Web-based sites that are user friendly and encourage a community of learners to explore and discover."


Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, July 2, 7:49 PM

Yesterday I posted the top choices from the American Association of School LIbrarians (AASL) on the best apps for 2014. Today they listed the top websites in the following categories:

* Media Sharing

* Digital Stories

* Manage & Organize

* Social Networking & Communication

* Content Resources

* Curriculum Collaboration

As you review the websites you will find one or more standards that are addressed by the websites.

Although I know many of the websites, there are some that are new to me that I look forward to exploring. Below are several that I have used and really like, or are ones I have checked out and will be using in the future.

Are you looking for new tools and want ideas on how to use them as well as examples and links to learn more about the tool. Check out Remix-t, a site from the University of Notre Dame, that is chock full of great ideas and resources. Although this site is geared to college teachers the resources and examples will provide you with great ideas and you will be able to modify them for your classroom. You will find in under Content Resources.

Mixed Ink is a new site to me. It allows you to create a group of students who will write together. They may comment and evaluate the submissions and each students' writing will show up in a different color. This looks like  a great site, esp. for schools that are not using Google apps.

There are many more that I will be exploring. Do you have a favorite website? Share them in the comment section and let us know why it is a favorite of yours.

Murielle Godement's curator insight, July 3, 1:54 AM

Annuaire (partiel et) commenté par catégorie.

Rosemary Tyrrell's curator insight, July 3, 1:01 PM

the American Association of School LIbrarians (AASL) listed the top websites in the following categories:

* Media Sharing

* Digital Stories

* Manage & Organize

* Social Networking & Communication

* Content Resources

* Curriculum Collaboration