While neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists across the globe have focused on different aspects of task-switching over the years, to date, they have not looked at how switching tasks and monitoring errors intersect. Moser and graduate student Hans Schroder believed that the two are closely connected and ultimately influence task performance. To test the idea, they measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs), or the brain’s electrophysiological response to stimuli, using electrodes placed on the scalp, as study participants looked at strings of M’s and N’s. If the letter M was in the middle of the string, participants were to press a button on the left; if the letter N was in that position, they were to press one on the right. After 50 trials with those rules, the experimenters reversed the rules, asking participants to press the left button when the N was in the middle and the right button for the M. Using ERPs allowed the group to not only look at task performance and response times but also brain activity in regions implicated in action-monitoring and error awareness. The results were published online in Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience on July 15.