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Graph Entropy to extract relevant words

Graph Entropy to extract relevant words | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

There are many definitions of graph entropy, my favorite is very well described in the work of J.Körner: Coding of an information source having ambiguous alphabet and the entropy of graphs (1973).

 

Why Graph Entropy is so important?


Based on the main concept of entropy the following assumptions are true:

 

* The entropy of a graph should be a functional of the stability of the structure (so that it depicts in some way the distribution of the edges of the graph).

* Sub sets of vertexes quite isolated from the rest of the graph are characterized by a high stability (low entropy).

* It's quite easy use the entropy as a measure for graph clustering.

 

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Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley | Video on TED.com

Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational "death valley" we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility.

 

Creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson challenges the way we're educating our children. He champions a radical rethink of our school systems, to cultivate creativity and acknowledge multiple types of intelligence

 

 

Miloš Bajčetić's insight:

“The real role of leadership in education … is not and should not be command and control. The real role of leadership is climate control, creating a climate of possibility.”

 

Great Talk!

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Tatiana Kuzmina's curator insight, September 7, 2013 11:58 AM

Worth watching..

Laurent Picard's curator insight, January 22, 9:22 AM

Une vidéo trés intéressante (et amusante) où Ken Robinson parle du système éducatif américain. Mais ses propos s'appliquent aussi au notre...

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Distance Education Timeline

Distance Education Timeline | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

According to the infographic distance learning can trace its heritage back to 1728 with the first correspondence courses sent via traditional mail.   So even as far back as 1728, education was not necessarily bound by four walls!

 

The infographic highlights a few key dates where new changes have taken place in the evolution of distance learning.  Over time, new technologies such as the radio and TV allowed for newer delivery systems for education.

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Surf anonymously - Download now and use for free | CyberGhost VPN

Surf anonymously - Download now and use for free | CyberGhost VPN | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Join now one of the world's most trusted and secure VPNs. For FREE.


HIDE YOUR IP ADDRESS AND SURF ANONYMOUSLY

CyberGhost VPN lets you surf anonymously by hiding your IP address and replacing it with that of the server you choose to connect to, making it impossible for hackers, third parties or other organizations to track you or meddle in your business.


PROTECT YOUR PRIVATE DATA

Every time you connect through CyberGhost VPN a protective tunnel is formed around your information and all your data becomes encrypted. You don’t have to worry anymore about passwords, financial transactions or private conversations.



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Special Issue of eLearning Papers just published on latest MOOC research

Special Issue of eLearning Papers just published on latest MOOC research | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

eLearning Papers Issue 37 is a special issue dedicated to the latest research on MOOCs (what is a MOOC?). The papers are based on the research contributions made to the recent European MOOCs Stakeholders Summit (EMOOCs2014).

 

In-depth

Dropout Prediction in MOOCs using Learner Activity Features

Encouraging Forum Participation in Online Courses with Collectivist, Individualist and Neutral Motivational Framings

Cultural Translation in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

Characterizing Video Use in the Catalogue of MITx MOOCs

 

From the field

Toward a Quality Model for UNED MOOCs

The Discrete Optimization MOOC: An Exploration in Discovery-Based Learning

Designing Your First MOOC from Scratch: Recommendations After Teaching “Digital Education of the Future”

Offering cMOOCs Collaboratively: The COER13 Experience from the Convenors’ Perspective

Mathematics Courses: Fostering Individuality Through EMOOCs

Analyzing Completion Rates in the First French xMOOC

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Half an Hour: Theories Related to Connectivism

Half an Hour: Theories Related to Connectivism | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

The number of theories with similar names is confusing. Here is my own take on it. I have no doubt there are other theories outside the scope of this short discussion.

Miloš Bajčetić's insight:

Stephen Downes on Connectivism. Constructivism, Constructionism,, Connectionism and some other lerarning theories.

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How Sleep Protects the Brain

How Sleep Protects the Brain | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
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What is HTML5?

This overview describes the new features of HTML5, and how it can help create rich content within various browsers. rel="nofollow">http://www.lynda.com/HTML-t...
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How algorithms shape our world

How algorithms shape our world | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Kevin Slavin argues that we're living in a world designed for -- and increasingly controlled by -- algorithms. In this riveting talk from TEDGlobal, he shows how these complex computer programs determine: espionage tactics, stock prices, movie scripts, and architecture. And he warns that we are writing code we can't understand, with implications we can't control.

Via Ana Cristina Pratas
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Brainstorm in Progress: Connectivism, Neuroscience, and Education

Brainstorm in Progress: Connectivism, Neuroscience, and Education | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

I think there are some promising avenues of discovery in the work of Gary Marcus that could one day help address how we learn. Gary Marcus describes deep learning this way: "Instead of linear logic, deep learning is based on theories of how the human brain works. The program is made of tangled layers of interconnected nodes. It learns by rearranging connections between nodes after each new experience." In other words, the brain is not seen as a series of connected flowcharts but as intersecting nets of connections that create patterns.

Additionally, Geoffrey Hinton describes the brain as a holograph. Daniela Hernandez writes about Hinton in Wired saying that "Hinton was fascinated by the idea that the brain stores memories in much the same way. Rather than keeping them in a single location, it spreads them across its enormous network of neurons."What I like about Hinton is that he says that his work involves creating computer models of intelligence and he seems to avoid the heavy handed proclamations of discovering how learning works. His work discusses "machine learning" which is an entirely different concept. I think it is very important to remember that we are talking about models and not "how the brain works." The networks involved in learning are even more complex than his model because our layers include language, behavior, culture, society, etc. Never mind the chemical and quantum connections in the brain. It is just possible that one day Hinton's work can speak to the complexity of the interplay of all of those networks and their seemingly infinite interrelations.

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A brief History of Social Media (1969-2012) [INFOGRAPHIC]

A brief History of Social Media (1969-2012) [INFOGRAPHIC] | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

What’s your first memory of social media? Twitter, perhaps? Or maybe Facebook?If you’re of a certain age, you’ll likely remember when MySpace was very much numero uno amongst all social platforms. Roll the years back a little further, and you could have been one of the (relatively) few who were amongst the pioneers of modern social networking on Friendster.

 

But here’s the thing: the history of social media actually goes back a lot further, and its roots can be found in blogging, Google, AOL, ICQ, the beginnings of the world wide web and, perhaps surprisingly, CompuServe. This infographic from Creative Ramblings takes a closer look at the history of social media, 1969-2012.


Via ZAP s.a., John Evans, Juergen Wagner
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Javier Antonio Bellina's curator insight, April 15, 4:40 AM

Breve Historia de las Redes Sociales en una Infografía

David W. Deeds's curator insight, April 15, 5:22 AM

Shared via social media, naturally. ;)

Clay Bergen's curator insight, April 15, 11:04 AM

As I started using the Internet in 1990 I'm one of the early adopters! Ha!

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Princeton University - 'MOOC World': Experts clash over differing visions of education technology

Princeton University - 'MOOC World': Experts clash over differing visions of education technology | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Gideon Rosen, the Stuart Professor of Philosophy and chair of the Council of the Humanities at Princeton University, described a "nightmare scenario" spawned by Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs. In "MOOC World," Rosen said, institutions lured by lower costs and greater efficiencies switch fully to online learning and forsake traditional interaction between students and teachers, who may no longer know students' names.

"When those things go missing, something of real value is lost," Rosen said. "If you doubt that, just ask yourself the question, is that the sort of education you would want for your children?

"The worst-case scenario," he continued, "is that the scholar becomes a genuinely rare bird."

....

William Lawton, director of the Observatory on Borderless Higher Education in London, said MOOCs and online learning do not threaten the core values of higher education. Rather, the threats are commercial imperatives forcing universities to run as businesses and equating education goals with those of government.

"The real revolution will come when there are digital platforms everywhere that are providing hundreds and thousands of courses that are designed specifically for the needs in those places," Lawton said, and when employers and society in those countries recognize and accept such credits as valid.

Lawton predicted that rather than going to extremes, most institutions will combine traditional and online practices. "The future is basically blended," he said.


Via Susan Bainbridge
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Kristen Gates, Ed.D.'s curator insight, April 12, 9:07 AM

MOOC conversation continues...

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What We Really Need To Know About Ed Tech

What We Really Need To Know About Ed Tech | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Those "5 Things You Need to Know About EdTech" posts seem to crop up on Twitter every couple weeks -- Tech isn't the Point of EdTech, EdTech is about Learning, EdTech is Exciting. But for those who've heard and read it all before, here's a completely different take on that headline.

Via Susan Bainbridge
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Research from the Michigan Virtual University on a connectivist MOOC

Research from the Michigan Virtual University on a connectivist MOOC | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Ferdig, R. et al. (2014) Findings and reflections from the ‘K-12 Teaching in the 21st Century’ MOOC Lansing MI: Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute

We are now beginning to get some in-depth research or evaluations of MOOCs. This one is from a team at Kent State University that developed a five week ‘connectivist’ MOOC aimed principally at three distinct audiences: high school students interested in becoming teachers, preservice teachers, and inservice teachers in the K-12 system.

I provide here a very brief summary of the report (as always, you should read the report for yourself if my summary gets you interested). Italics are direct quotes from the report.
...

The authors’ main conclusions

The seeking and sharing of digital media highlights that people want to form and engage in communities, and the growing interest in MOOCs shows this is true of educational communities as well….

Learning takes place in communities; depending on the implementation, technology has the capability to create and sustain the communities’ learning and practice….. Evidence in this report suggests that such activities can lead to positive outcomes, particularly as they relate to getting teachers to think more deeply about teaching and learning in the 21st century.

 

My comments

 

Even though (or perhaps because) this is a self-evaluation, this is a very useful report. I was fascinated for instance that this course ended with more participants than when it started, due to the ‘publicity’ of social media connections during the course itself.  It was interesting too that some of the participants in this MOOC were not necessarily willing participants – being forced to participate as part of a formal credit program. This seems to me to go against the whole purpose of a connectivist MOOC.

...
Finally, I also agree with the authors that completion rates are not the best measure of success for MOOCs. This MOOC does seem to have raised some interesting questions for participants. I’m just curious about their answers. Despite the very good work done by the instructors/researchers of this MOOC, I am still left with the question: what did the participants actually learn from this MOOC? For instance, what would an analysis of the student ‘artifacts’ have told us about their learning? Unless we try to answers questions about what actual learning took place then it will remain difficult if not impossible to measure the true value of different kinds of MOOC, and I think that would be a pity.

In the meantime, this report is definitely recommended reading for anyone interested in doing research on or evaluating MOOCs.

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The Innovation of Loneliness - The connection between social media and loneliness

What is the connection between Social Networks and Being Lonely? Quoting the words of Sherry Turkle from her TED talk - Connected, But Alone. (http://www.ted.com/talks/sherry_turkle_alone_together.html)

 

Also Based on Dr. Yair Amichai-Hamburgers hebrew article -The Invention of Loneliness.

 

Script, Design & Animation: Shimi Cohen

Final Project at Shenkar College of Engineering and Design.

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Stephen Downes: The MOOC of One: Personal Learning Technologies - YouTube

What will it happen after the MOOC? How will they influence the next generation technology? Stephen Downes, who built the world's first MOOC software, describes the development of MOOC and examines the transition from the idea of the massive open online course to the personal learning environment. 

While much attention has been paid in recent years to the massive numbers of students able to participate in open online learning, what is often overlooked is the capacity of individual learners to use open online learning to shape and design their own curriculum and pedagogy.

This talk will examine how open online learning puts the control of learning into the hands of learners, how educators will adapt with new learner-driven pedagogies and curriculum design, and the technical infrastructure supporting personal learning in a community and cooperative environment.


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María Dolores Díaz Noguera's curator insight, Today, 4:33 AM

Stephen Downes: The MOOC of One: Personal Learning Technologies

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New! Blended Learning Infographic

New! Blended Learning Infographic | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"Blended learning incorporates multiple methods of instruction in order to customize the learning experience for each student, leading to increased student interaction and engagement."


Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, April 15, 6:41 PM

The blended classroom is beginning to happen in many school districts. This infographic provides a great overview of blended learning. In addition to the section shown above, which looks at how teacher-led instruction connects to quality digital learning time to group work and projects (and the ongoing cycle) you will find sections on:

* Turning Computer Time into Quality Learning Time

* Empowering Teachers with Real-Time Student Performance Information

* Tying It All Together

Online learning happens in a variety of ways. This post looks at some of the critical features that must be included for an online or blended class to be successful.

Coolwired's curator insight, Today, 11:31 AM

This Infographic  illustrates the best of both worlds in modern education!

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Statisticians slam popular teacher evaluation method

Statisticians slam popular teacher evaluation method | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
The evidence against VAM is at this point overwhelming. The refusal of school reformers to acknowledge it is outrageous.

 

"*VAMs are generally based on standardized test scores and do not directly measure potential teacher contributions toward other student outcomes."

 

"*VAMs typically measure correlation, not causation: Effects – positive or negative – attributed to a teacher may actually be caused by other factors that are not captured in the model."


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Srdjan Verbić's curator insight, April 14, 11:52 PM

"value-added method" seems to be unreliable

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OPINION: Ban "Digital" Learning (EdSurge News)

OPINION: Ban "Digital" Learning (EdSurge News) | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

It’s time to ban “digital” learning.

 

For 20 years I have dedicated my career to understanding and demonstrating the value of technology in the teaching and learning process. I once held a job where my title was “School of the Future Technology Architect.” I’m a believer in instruction that is, as the buzzwords go, data driven, adaptive, personalized, one-to-one, online, blended, flipped, and gamified.


I am, put simply, bought in. But we’ve lost our way. We’ve elevated the digital conversation to levels that represent reform-celebrityism.  We have forgotten to read the “under-promise and over-deliver” section of the handbook on effective reform. We’ve amplified the virtues, necessity, promise, and potential of technology so much that we are perilously close to forgetting what it was all about in the first place: helping teachers to teach and students to learn.

...

 

It's time for the Department of Education to invest in using the research available on brain science to improve the teaching and learning process. It’s time we talked about increasing the ratios of heros to students rather than tablets to students. Let’s make sure that the quality of the content we put in front of our kids is measured by research rather than by “likes.”  


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Teaching Adolescents How to Evaluate the Quality of Online Information

Teaching Adolescents How to Evaluate the Quality of Online Information | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

An essential part of online research is the ability to critically evaluate information. This includes the ability to read and evaluate its level of accuracy, reliability and bias. When we recently assessed 770 seventh graders in two states to study these areas, the results definitely got our attention. Unfortunately, over 70 percent of their responses suggested that:

- Middle school students are more concerned with content relevance than with credibility.

- They rarely attend to source features such as author, venue or publication type to evaluate reliability and author perspective.

- When they do refer to source features in their explanations, their judgments are often vague, superficial and lack reasoned justification.

 

Other studies highlight similar shortcomings of high school and college students in these areas. From my perspective, the problem is not likely to go away without intervention during regular content area instruction.

 

So, what can you do to more explicitly teach adolescents how to evaluate the quality of online information?

 

 

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A new MOOC on how to do blended learning

A new MOOC on how to do blended learning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

EDUCAUSE and the University of Central Florida are offering a free MOOC called ‘BlendKit2014 – Becoming a Blended Learning Designer‘, which will run initially from April 21 to May 27.

 

It is aimed primarily at faculty and instructional designers, will come away with best practices for developing design documents, content pages and peer review feedback tools. In particular it will offer:

 

 1. a consideration of key issues related to blended learning and

2. practical step-by-step guidance in producing materials for a blended course (e.g., developing design documents, creating content pages, and receiving peer review feedback at one’s own institution).

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Exploring the Dark Side of MOOCs Infographic | e-Learning Infographics

Exploring the Dark Side of MOOCs Infographic | e-Learning Infographics | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
The Exploring the Dark Side of MOOCs Infographic sheds light on higher-education institutions’ opinions about MOOCs, their sustainability, and more.

 

The infographic explores whether or not MOOCs live up to their hype. Administrators’ chief concerns about MOOCs are outlined. Regarding the high number of students taking the courses, critics assert that MOOCs cannot provide the same intimate experience as a traditional classroom. Students are unable to get to know their professors as well as they might have in a physical setting.

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Blended Learning Model Definitions | Christensen Institute

Blended Learning Model Definitions | Christensen Institute | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

The definition of blended learning is a formal education program in which a student learns:

(1) at least in part through online learning, with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace;

(2) at least in part in a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home;

(3) and the modalities along each student’s learning path within a course or subject are connected to provide an integrated learning experience.

 


Via Peter B. Sloep
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Peter B. Sloep's curator insight, April 12, 12:41 PM

The focus of these scoop.it pages is networked learning. As the above definition points out, online learning is part and parcel of blended learning experiences. In some cases, the online part is of a social nature, thereby qualifying it as a form of networked learning. Apart from that, next to MOOCs blended learning is another attempt at marrying the online and the offline in learning. Although the terminology used is different, although the intentions are different (for sure if it concerns xMOOCs), there are a lot of similarities worth drawing attention to. This is particularly so since the various forms of blended learning discussed in this short scoop offer useful food for thought for those interested in furthering the evolution of MOOCs. I am thinking in particular of the à-la-carte model and the enriched-virtual model. Also, the classification is unlikely to be exhaustive and therefore provides food for the imaginative thinker.

 @pbsloep

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elearnspace › Open Learning Analytics

By George Siemens

 

The future of systems such as business, government, and education will be data centric. Historically, humanity has made sense of the world through discourse, dialogue, artifacts, myth, story, and metaphor. While those sensemaking approaches won’t disappear, they will be augmented by data and analytics.

 

Educators often find analytics frustrating. After all, how can you analyze the softer aspects of learning? Or can analytics actually measure what matters instead of what is readily accessible in terms of data? These are obviously important questions. Regardless of how they are answered, however, ours is a data-rich world and will only continue to become more so. All educators need to be familiar with data and analytics approaches, including machine and deep learning models. Why does it matter? Well, to use a Ted Nelson quote that Jim Groom used during his excellent talk at Sloan-C this week, it matters “because we live in media as fish live in water”. Power and control decisions are being made at the data and analytics level of educational institutions. If academics, designers, and teachers are not able to participate in those conversations, they essentially abdicate their voice.

 

Today we are pleased to announce two new initiatives that we feel will raise the quality of learning analytics, increase transparency around data and algorithms, and create an ecosystem where results can be shared, tested, and validated:

 

1. Open Learning Analytics. This initiative is based on a paper that we published (.pdf) several years ago. After significant behind-the-scenes work, we are now ready to announce the next steps of the project formally. See here for press release and project scope.


2. Learning Analytics Masters Program (LAMP). The number of masters programs that are offering learning analytics courses, streams or certificates is increasing. Several institutions are in the process of developing a masters in learning analytics. To help provided quality curriculum and learning resources, we have launched LAMP: an open access, openly licensed learning analytics masters program. Institutions will be able to use/remix/do whatever with the content in developing their masters programs. Our inaugural meeting is being held at Carnegie Mellon University in a few weeks to kick off this project and start developing the course content.

 

If data is the future of education and educational decision making, and in many ways it is, I believe openness is the best premise on which to advance. The projects presented here are our contribution in making that happen.

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MOOCs: a perspective from the learning sciences.pdf


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Reading is different online than off, experts say

Reading is different online than off, experts say | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"Our brains, neuroscientists warn, are developing new circuits with a big impact on non-digital reading."

 

 Bi-literate brains?

Wolf’s next book will look at what the digital world is doing to the brain, including looking at brain-scan data as people read both online and in print. She is particularly interested in comprehension results in screen vs. print reading.

Already, there is some intriguing research that looks at that question. A 2012 Israeli study of engineering students — who grew up in the world of screens — looked at their comprehension while reading the same text on screen and in print when under time pressure to complete the task.

The students believed they did better on screen. They were wrong. Their comprehension and learning was better on paper.

Researchers say that the differences between text and screen reading should be studied more thoroughly and that the differences should be dealt with in education, particularly with school-aged children. There are advantages to both ways of reading. There is potential for a bi-literate brain.

“We can’t turn back,” Wolf said. “We should be simultaneously reading to children from books, giving them print, helping them learn this slower mode, and at the same time steadily increasing their immersion into the technological, digital age. It’s both. We have to ask the question: What do we want to preserve?”

Wolf is training her own brain to be bi-literate. She went back to the Hesse novel the next night, giving herself distance, both in time and space, from her screens.

“I put everything aside. I said to myself, ‘I have to do this,’ ” she said. “It was really hard the second night. It was really hard the third night. It took me two weeks, but by the end of the second week I had pretty much recovered myself so I could enjoy and finish the book.”

Then she read it again.

“I wanted to enjoy this form of reading again,” Wolf said. “When I found myself, it was like I recovered. I found my ability again to slow down, savor and think.”

 


Via Howard Rheingold
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Helena Andrade Mendonça's curator insight, April 9, 3:28 AM

Reflexão sobre leitura no impresso e no digital . Ainda não tinha ouvido 'Bi-literacy' 

Yolande Villemaire's curator insight, April 9, 2:55 PM

Slow reading versus online skimming. Training oneself to be bi-literate: digital reading and reading books. 

Julie Ekner Koch's curator insight, April 10, 12:45 AM

Are we becoming Twitter brains? We are losing the ability to read long texts if we don't preserve the analogue reading and writing. Our brain adapts to the digital way of skimming through texts, thereby losing the 'deep' comprehension created by offline reading

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The Psychology of How Learners Explore and Find Information Online

The Psychology of How Learners Explore and Find Information Online | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Psychologists and eLearning professionals ahave always been interested in how we consume information online.Here' re some relevant points.

 

Psychologists, eLearning professionals and other experts have always been interested in how we consume information online. Receiving and transmitting information are not new to us. But our entirely novel information environments are clearly shaping the way we search for and consume information. Today, "providing people with access to more information is not the problem. Rather, the problem is one of maximizing the allocation of human attention to information that will be useful.” 

 

There are too many concepts and theories to mention but the most notable among them is the “Information Foraging Theory.” The term was first suggested by Pamela Sanstrom in 1994 and was later expanded by Pirolli and Stuart Card. The theory is based on the assumption that we humans use our built-in foraging mechanisms when searching for information. We inherited these mechanisms from our ancestors who forage or hunt for food. So it shouldn't surprise us that, today, we voraciously hunt for information instead of hunting for food.

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