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Self directed learning in trial future learn courses

Presentation on FutureLearn trial courses given at emoocs2015 in Mons, Belgium

Via Vladimir Kukharenko, Luciana Viter, Peter Mellow
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Improve Learner Engagement by Using Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions

What do you remember more vividly? The steps of installing a piece of new software on your computer or the episodes from your favorite TV drama?

Human beings are more swayed by emotions than by a bunch of hard facts and cold statistics. Our favorite stories keep us hooked because they tug at our heart strings. We remember scenes from our favorite movies because as a rule, human beings remember emotionally-charged events better than the ones that just aim to appeal to our sense of logic.

Understanding the science of emotions is the key to influencing learners' thoughts and actions. As an instructional designer, you need to wrap your wits around this science to create courses that resonate with your audience and stir their emotions.

Robert Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions holds the clues.
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Is Praise Undermining Student Motivation?

Is Praise Undermining Student Motivation? | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
The failure of praise
Research has found that praise can actually undermine performance and self-esteem in many contexts. One study found that praise for intelligence leads to the belief by the recipient that their intelligence is fixed, and thus not something that they can influence through action or effort (Dweck, 2007). This is critical because intelligence is in fact malleable, and improved by taking risks. Students grow when they try something difficult that might lead to failure. Because failure is one of the most important tools for learning, growth requires a mindset that embraces challenge and the potential for failure.

But students who are praised for intelligence do not seek challenges. When given the option of trying a difficult task that could lead to failure and growth, or an easy one that will not risk failure but produce no growth, those offered praise for their intelligence tend to choose the latter, thus undermining their growth. Worst yet, when forced to do a difficult problem they will quickly give up if failure appears on the horizon (Dweck, 2007).

In essence, these students are becoming dependent on praise because it is wrapped up with their self-esteem. They start thinking that the goal of school is praise, or grades, rather than learning. They become risk-adverse in an effort to prevent blows to their self-esteem. They will even lie about their achievements in order to avoid the appearance of failure. Dependency on praise stunts growth, creates a fragile psyche, and even a sense of helplessness that undermines achievement (Kamins and Dweck, 1999).

Praising one’s intelligence and achievements also can undercut performance by muddling the real message needed for growth (Hylanda, 2001). One of the most common mistakes instructors make is to use the “feedback sandwich” with students. Their feedback starts with the good, then stating the real issues with the work, and ending with something good again. Here again, the model is used under the belief that it keeps up the student’s spirits, but in reality it only confuses the message. The student reads only the positive at either end and ignores the real message in the middle that they need to hear in order to improve, or they recognize the dissonance between the conflicting messages and wonder how they really did. “Gee,” they say to themselves, “the beginning and the end tell me this is great, while the middle says that there are all sorts of problems, so which is it?” The feedback sandwich can even reduce respect for the instructor since students will soon learn that no matter what they hand in, the instructor will praise it along a predictable formula, making the feedback meaningless and something to be ignored.
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Five Elements of Motivation for Games in E-Learning

Five Elements of Motivation for Games in E-Learning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
eLearning courses is the new trend. But, why do we use games? Games in eLearning are used for two main reasons – communication and motivation.

Communication: Games can be used to make complex and difficult content easy to learn. Games can be used as a strategy to help learners remember facts and apply guidelines to their job. Retention of knowledge is increased as games facilitate effective engagement of the learner, especially when the games are based on the learner’s work environment.

Motivation: Games motivate learners to stay focused on the content, throughout the course, without any distractions. Motivation is the most important factor in eLearning, as it challenges the learner to win and complete the course.

In this post, we will look at the top five elements that add value to games and motivate learners.

 

1. Visually rich backgrounds

2. Real images/ Characters

3. Score/ Points

4. Feedback

5, Sound clips

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Show The Learner Visible Signs of Their Learning « Karl Kapp

Show The Learner Visible Signs of Their Learning « Karl Kapp | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

by Karl Kapp

 

"One of the strengths of gamification is that it provides visible milestones of the student’s mastery of content in real time (when it is well designed). Too often in an instructional setting, the learner doesn’t know whether or not he or she really understands or can apply the knowledge they are learning. There is often no visible sign of mastery of the content or application of the content.

"If the designer of the instruction provides continual feedback to the student concerning progress toward terminal learning objective, then the learner themselves can gain an understanding of their own mastery of content.

"Therefore, an important element of gamification (or any learning design) is demonstrating to the learner that he or she is making progress within the content or toward a skill to be learned. The act of moving through content on the way to a clear end point such as mastery of a particular terminal objective is one of the elements of gamification."

 

Jim Lerman's insight: Excellent article for anyone who designs sequenced learning experiences.


Via Jim Lerman
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Dennis Swender's curator insight, November 11, 2014 4:01 PM

In strong defense of gaming advantages

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Educational Leadership: Motivation Matters

Educational Leadership: Motivation Matters | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, September 4, 2014 9:42 PM

The September issue of Education Leadership focuses on motivation. The image above contains quotes from seven quotes from authors in this issue and all address motivation. There are many articles in this issue that are free to read. A few are listed below.

* Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

* Motivating Young Adolescents by Rick Wormeli

* One to Grow On/Releasing the Will to Learn by Carol Ann Tomlinson

I suspect we many of us would like to see more of our students motivated in our classes. These articles may provide some insights. Please be aware that the top link a is to the current issue. Once this has been updated a new link to the issue will posted here.

Nancy Jones's curator insight, September 6, 2014 1:04 PM

In this edition of ASCD, I paid particular attention to Rick Wormeils article on "Motivating Young Adolescence as I begin my next 3 year relationship with 6th grade advisees. The first year in middle school is the toughest.

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8 Universal Secrets of Motivated Learners

8 Universal Secrets of Motivated Learners | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Kathleen Cushman writes a guest post for Personalize Learning on what is critical to motivate learners.

Via Kathleen McClaskey
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Kathleen McClaskey's curator insight, November 14, 2013 5:27 PM

Kathleen Cushman, author of the engaging iBook, "The Motivation Equation", describes the 8 universal secrets of personalizing learning to create the motivated learner:

 

1. We feel OK.

2. It matters.

3. It's active.

4. It stretches us.

5. We have a coach.

6. We have to use it.

7. We think back on it.

8. I plan my next steps

 

Do not miss Kathleen in the Personalize Learning Webinar Series on January 21st, 5pm ET when she will go into depth on motivation. Go to www.personalizelearning.com and click on the Webinar Series or Events tab to link to this webinar.

8 universal secrets of powerful, personalized learning. - See more at: http://www.personalizelearning.com/2013/11/8-universal-secrets-of-motivated.html#sthash.SqpwvSqk.dpuf
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5 Things Students Expect From Their Teachers

5 Things Students Expect From Their Teachers | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Is there "a difference between a 'student' and a 'learner,' between a 'teacher' and an 'educator.'


Teachers want their students to be responsible and curious. They expect their students to follow class rules and do their homework. But what about the reverse? What do students want from their teachers?"

 

If we gave students a choice about which classes to attend each day, would they choose our subject? Would they view our pedagogical approach as worthwhile and interesting? A teacher’s job is not to be an entertainer, obviously. Gail Godwin’s quote, that “Teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourths theater,” holds true only on a certain level. But the role of the teacher is undoubtedly to engage each child and inspire interest.

 

The partnership between student and teacher relies on expectations. When these needs are met, they create decades of learning and admiration. When unmet, however, they foment years of delay and resentment.

 


Via Beth Dichter, Sue Alexander
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Sue Alexander's curator insight, August 17, 2013 10:51 AM

Some wonderful questions that I look forward to answering.

Allan Shaw's curator insight, August 19, 2013 1:36 AM

I consider points two and three absolutely necessary! Points one, four and five are more difficult to maintain for six hours per day each day of the school year for all students.

Beatriz Montesinos's curator insight, August 20, 2013 12:42 PM

¿Hay diferencia entre "alumno" y "aprendiz" y entre "profesor" y "educador"?

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6 Tips To Engage Passive Learners In eLearning

6 Tips To Engage Passive Learners In eLearning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

When it comes right down to it, there are two distinct types of learners. On the one hand, there are those learners who seize every opportunity to soak up knowledge and use this knowledge to improve their lives in some way. They actively attend every eLearning event, online presentation and assessment, because they are well aware of the fact that, by this way, they can expand their professional or personal skills.

 

On the other hand, there are passive learners. Although these individuals acquire the information, they don’t eager to apply it in the world outside the virtual classroom. They might pass every assessment with flying colors and complete every eLearning activity, but they aren’t planning on changing behaviors or using their newly found knowledge to improve any aspect of their lives.

 

So, is it possible to design eLearning deliverables that engage passive learners in eLearning and help them to achieve all of the benefits that the eLearning experience can offer? Of course it is. Here are some tips to follow.

 

 


Via Yashy Tohsaku
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Gamification Harnesses the Power of Games to Motivate

Gamification Harnesses the Power of Games to Motivate | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Gamification works because our responses to games are deeply hard-wired into our psychology. Game design techniques can activate our innate desires to recognize patterns, solve puzzles, master challenges, collaborate with others, and be in the driver’s seat when experiencing the world around us. They can also create a safe space for experimentation and learning. After all, why not try something new when you know that even if you fail, you’ll get another life?

The surface dimension of gamification is motivation through rewards: Earn some points, top the leaderboard, get a badge, win a prize, and repeat. Behaviorists such as the legendary B. F. Skinner called this operant conditioning, and it does work … to a point. If there’s really no point to the points, users lose interest. That’s apparently what happened to marketing-driven Samsung Nation, one of the most prominent early gamification examples. Today it’s nowhere to be found on the Samsung website.

Shallow gamification can even be harmful, if it’s used to manipulate people toward results that aren’t truly in their interest, or if it suggests that rewards are the only reason to do otherwise intrinsically engaging activities.

The systems that avoid these pitfalls take games seriously. In a good game, the points and the leaderboards aren’t what really matter; the true reward is the journey. Gamification systems that emphasize progression, provide well designed informational feedback, and look for ways to surprise and delight their players can remain engaging for the long haul.

It’s still early in the development of gamification as a business practice. In the next stage, expect gamification features to be incorporated more consistently into software and content platforms, the way social media capabilities are today. And look for systems to take advantage of the wealth of behavioral data from user interactions to refine their effectiveness, as online games have done for years. When you see people glued to their phones or their computer screens they just might be learning or doing their jobs.
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The puzzle of motivation

The puzzle of motivation | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don't: Traditional rewards aren't always as effective as we think. Listen for illuminating stories -- and maybe, a way forward.

Via Ana Cristina Pratas
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Motivation and eLearning

Motivation and eLearning | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

Motivation has been and continues to be a widely studied area across many of life’s domains. Motivation is the energising force that initiates and sustains behaviour and ultimately produces results. Many motivation theories focus on the amount of motivation, with a larger quantity said to result in improved outcomes. However, as educators we shouldn’t focus on generating more motivation from people but instead focus on creating conditions that facilitate the internalisation of motivation from within people.

Self-determination theory (SDT), an empirical theory of motivation by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the degree in which behaviour is self-motivated and self-determined. It’s one that’s struck a chord with me because of its usefulness, applicability and it’s backed by extensive research.

SDT proposes that all humans require the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs, namely:

* Autonomy (a sense of being in control and having freedom),
* Competence (a sense of being able to do something i.e. being competent), and
* Relatedness (a sense of being associated or connected to others).

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A 4-Step Recipe for Maximum eLearner Engagement

A 4-Step Recipe for Maximum eLearner Engagement | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it
Discover the secret recipe for creating engaging eLearning courses. Only 4 ingredients required!

Via EDTC@UTB, Kim Flintoff
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Will Lenssen, Prin's curator insight, October 3, 2014 6:25 PM

Ontario's Min of Ed Document Growing Success, 2010 sure helps advise the many ways in which to engage students. 

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One type of motivation may be key to success

Novel study reveals why some people are better at achieving their goals than others

 

There are two types of motivation. Internal motivation drives people to achieve a goal for its own sake, whereas external motivation is not directly related to the goal itself. For example, if you are learning how to play the violin, you may be internally motivated by your love of the instrument, but also externally motivated by your parents’ pride or your hope that the skill will help you get into a better college.

 

According to one school of thought, internal motivations and external motivations are both effective. But some psychologists argue that only the internal motivations work for long-term goals, such as career achievement or learning new skills. The problem is that laboratory studies of motivation have focused only on short-term goals.

 

So a team of psychologists has turned to a natural experiment that has been playing out for more than 200 years. Every year, about 1300 young men and women enter the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York. Only about 1000 of them graduate. Of those graduates, a smaller portion pursue military careers beyond the mandatory 5 years of service. And fewer still are selected for early promotion, a mark for those on their way to the top ranks. What motivations do these students have when they enter West Point? It turns out that the academy has recorded just that through its annual survey of the incoming cadets, as well as by tracking their career outcomes.

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The study "reveals that intrinsic motivation is powerful, but it is also fragile," says Adam Grant, a psychologist at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. "Even when West Point cadets found their work interesting and meaningful, if they were also strongly motivated by extrinsic rewards," such as a good salary or the respect of their peers, "they were less likely to complete their studies, continue their service, and get promoted early." This creates a paradox for ambitious people. If achieving a goal strikes you as having many benefits beyond the goal itself, but you care too much about those added benefits, you are more likely to fail.

 

P

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25 Ways to Cultivate Intrinsic Motivation - InformED

25 Ways to Cultivate Intrinsic Motivation - InformED | Learning & Mind & Brain | Scoop.it

"In the context of learning, intrinsic motivation is motivation that stems not from external factors like grades and status, but rather from genuine interest and ambition. Like altruism, it assumes no reward. But – like altruism – it is difficult to corroborate. Even if Sally, your best student, completes the Extra Credit assignment out of pure enjoyment, it doesn’t mean she isn’t expecting external rewards like approval and attention.

 

Some psychologists go so far as to claim that intrinsic motivation doesn’t exist. Professor Steven Reiss at Ohio State University believes that human motivations can’t be forced into one category or the other and labeled as good or bad.

 

“We are taking many diverse human needs and motivations, putting them into just two categories, and then saying one type of motivation is better than another,” he says. “But there is no real evidence that intrinsic motivation even exists.”

 

The argument is that people should do something because they enjoy it, and that rewards only sabotage natural desire.

Reiss disagrees.

 

“There is no reason that money can’t be an effective motivator, or that grades can’t motivate students in school,” he says. “It’s all a matter of individual differences. Different people are motivated in different ways.”

 
Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, September 4, 2013 9:54 PM

Does intrinsic motivation exist? This post explores this idea, clearly landing in the field of intrinsic motivation. After exploring the concept and discussing how education has changed there is a list of 25 ways we may help students cultivate this trait. A few are listed below but many more are in the post, as is a TEDtalk by Dan Pink.

* Rethink reward

* Make mastery cool

* Make students feel like education is a choice, not a requirement

* Make every student feel confident

Each of the items has additional information in the post. As you work in your classroom this year you may find yourself using some of the ideas listed in this post with your students.

Drora Arussy's comment, September 8, 2013 4:57 PM
Student ownership and buy-in has always been key, thank you for sharing.
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Dan Pink: The puzzle of motivation | Video on TED.com

Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don't: Traditional rewards aren't always as effective as we think.
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