"After Germany surrendered in May of 1945, Allied attention focused on Japan. The island-hopping strategy adopted by the U.S. Navy successfully brought long range B-29 bombers within range of Japan's Home Islands, and massive bombing attacks took place involving high explosives, incendiary bombs, and finally the two most powerful weapons ever used in war, the newly-invented atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After more than 80 days of fighting, Allied forces had captured the Japanese island of Okinawa by June, but at a horrible cost, with more than 150,000 casualties on both sides, and tens of thousands of civilians dead as well (many by their own hand). Okinawa was seen as a painful preview of a planned full invasion of Japan, and Allied generals predicted massive casualties if it took place. At the same time as the atomic bombings, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, invading occupied Manchuria with a force of more than one million soldiers, quickly defeating Japan's Kwantung Army. Six days after the bombing of Nagasaki, and after much internal struggle, Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945. World War II was over. Next week, in the final entry in this series, we'll take a look at what came next in a new post-war era. (This entry is Part 19 of a weekly 20-part retrospective of World War II)"