Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage
17.5K views | +1 today
Follow
 
Rescooped by Jacques Mignon from Entomophagy: Edible Insects and the Future of Food
onto Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage
Scoop.it!

AP News : Worms: A Zimbabwe snack, from tree to dinner table

AP News : Worms: A Zimbabwe snack, from tree to dinner table | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it

At the local market, mopane worms are popular with residents who buy a cup or two of them and eat them immediately. The market is abuzz with activity, with most stalls strategically displaying the delicacy so people cannot miss them. Vendors offer free samples.


Via Ana C. Day
Jacques Mignon's insight:

Mignon, J. (2002). "A l’heure où l’on parle tant du respect de la biodiversité, il ne faut pas oublier les menaces qu’une pratique intensive de captures à des fins alimentaires (pour l’homme ou les animaux d’élevage) fait peser sur de nombreuses espèces d’insectes. Il faut que les populations en plein développement démographique prennent conscience du fragile équilibre de la nature et qu’elles développent des moyens permettant de remplacer la récolte in natura par le petit élevage. Divers projets locaux sont actuellement développés en Afrique afin non seulement de protéger certaines espèces mais surtout pour maintenir et renforcer l’apport protéinique à certaines populations."

 

http://www.tropicultura.org/text/v20n3/151.pdf

 

more...
Ana C. Day's curator insight, January 30, 2013 2:57 AM

"

HIGH PROTEIN

The mopane worm is a healthful and cheap source of nutrition.

A Zimbabwean nutritionist, Marlon Chidemo, says the worms are high in healthy nutrients and contain three times the amount of protein as beef. He says eating worms is less taxing on the environment than consuming beef because it takes far fewer leaves to produce worms than it does feed to produce the same amount of beef.

WORMY BUSINESS

Dried mopane worms have become a multimillion-dollar industry, even exported to countries like South Africa and Botswana. They can be found in African restaurants in Paris."

Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage
Informations sur les élevages non-conventionnels et le mini-élevage : la production, la valorisation et la qualité des produits
Curated by Jacques Mignon
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Microbiological Safety Evaluation of Ready to Eat Shrimps and Snails Sold Along Lagos-Shagamu Expressway, Nigeria

The microbial quality of ready to eat shrimps (Penaeus monodon) and snails (Achatina maginata) was investigated in three vending sites along Lagos – Shagamu express road. Sixty samples (30 each of shrimps and snails) were analyzed for microbial counts and for organisms of public health importance.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Covenant Journal of Physical and Life Sciences

Part abstract:
"The microbial isolates identified included species of Bacillus (31%), Staphylococcus aureus (18%), Klebsiella (13%), Escherichia coli (6%), Salmonellae (2%). Fungal species included Aspergillus, Mucor, Geotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Rhizopus and Cladosporium. The presence of coliforms which are indicator organisms of feacal contamination and Salmonellae which are enteric pathogens is a reflection of the sanitary quality of the processing of these food products. This result is informative with respect to public health hazard and calls for urgent improvement in hygiene practices by food processors and vendors. Adoption of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles in seafood preparation should be encouraged to prevent possible foodborne illnesses and outbreaks.".
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Des insectes au menu ?

Des insectes au menu ? | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it
 Des insectes à notre menu dans le futur !Simple rumeur ou prévision crédible ? Un entomologiste et un spécialiste en nutrition se sont associés pour faire le point des pratiques anciennes ou émergentes, des points de blocage ou au contraire de ce qui pourrait devenir la solution au problème alimentaire de demain…Ecrit dans un style humoristique et très accessible, cet ouvrage vous donne toutes les clés pour vous forger votre propre opinion et, qui sait, inscrire des insectes à l’un de vos prochains menus… Vous reprendrez bien une petite chenille ?
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Livre sur l'entomophagie de Albouy & Chardigny aux Editions Quae.

De quoi vous faire une idée du contenu du livre avant de l'acheter pour la modeste somme de 16 euros.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Potential of earthworm meal as a replacement of fish meal for Indian major carps

Fish meal is considered as the best protein source in fish and shrimp feed. However, due to its increasing cost and high demand in animal husbandry and aquaculture industry, there is a need for replacement of fish meal with ideal alternative protein source. Recent research shows the potential of earthworm meal as a replacement of fish meal. In the present study, the potential of earthworm meal (Eisenia fetida) as a replacement of fish meal for culture of three Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla, Hamilton), rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton,) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala, Hamilton) with stocking ratio 1:1:1 was evaluated in 12 cement concrete tanks with size of 2.5 m ×1.5 m ×1.5 m for a culture period of 90 days.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded that 50% replacement of fish meal with earthworm meal in the diet may be used as an ideal alternate protein source for better growth performance of Indian major carps."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Impact of temperature and humidity on the prevalence of diseases in captive Thryonomys swinderianus (Grasscutter) colony in the University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of diseases in a captive breeding colony of grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) of various age groups and in different seasons from February, 2012 to June, 2014.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "There were no deaths in September. However, there was steady increase from October to December. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the deaths of Grasscutter with the ambient temperature and less efficient thermoregulatory mechanisms in the Grasscutter that that triggers deaths and injury in these animals. "
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Characterising the diversity of smallholder farming systems and their constraints and opportunities for innovation: A case study from the Northern Region, Ghana

Highlights
• A farm typology of the Northern Region of Ghana was constructed using multivariate statistics.
• Six farm types were identified according to their resource endowment and farming activities.
• A gradient of endowment was reflected in increasing ownership of land and large livestock.
• With increasing endowment the dependency of the livelihood on farming declined.
• Type-specific opportunities and constraints for agricultural innovation were reviewed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This study clearly demonstrates that using the established typology as a practical framework allows identification of type-specific farm household opportunities and constraints for the targeting of agricultural interventions and innovations, which will be further analysed in the research-for-development project. We conclude that a more flexible approach to typology construction, for example through the incorporation of farmer perspectives, might provide further context and insight into the causes, consequences and negotiation of farm diversity."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Levels of Some Heavy Metals in African Giant Land Snail ( Archachatina marginata ) in Major Markets in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria

Levels of Some Heavy Metals in African Giant Land Snail ( Archachatina marginata ) in Major Markets in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it
Introduction

The feeding habit of the snail in the wild, part of which includes feeding on litter and dead animals predisposes it to the potential of accumulation of pollutants like heavy metals in their tissues, thus it may provide important links in the transfer of chemicals from vegetation or litter to carnivores. Such transfer along food chains is one of the important aspects of ecotoxicology (Monu et al, 2008).
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The levels of contamination of the snail samples were lower than the recommended FAO/WHO levels. However, there is need for regular periodic checking of heavy metals level of edible snails available in open market to safe guard the health of the general public."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

PROFITABILITY OF SNAIL FARMING IN NDOKWA WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

The study is aimed at examining the profitability of snail farming in Ndokwa West Local Government Area, Delta State. Relevant data collected includes; socio-economic characteristics of snail farmers, management practices/ breeds of snail, costs and returns of snailery (quantities and prices of both input and output) and constraints of snailery production.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
DENNIS ADAIGHO and R. NWADIOLU

Part abstract:
"The result also indicates that snail farmers were mostly male, literate, self-financed and took snail farming as part time. Lack of fund, lack of good breeding stock, pest infestation among others were some of the problems encountered by the respondents. Based on the findings, the study recommends that snail farmers and prospective farmers should ensure high level sanitary measures and medication to reduce pest attack, credit accessibility from formal and informal sources and setting up demonstration centers that will serve as source of improved foundation stocks."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil

"The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis."
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Assessment of Economic Viability of Mini-livestock Production in Delta State, Nigeria: Implication for Extension Delivery Services

Key words mini-livestock; cane rat; guinea pig; viability; snail; heliciculture
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The study examined the popularity, role and economic viability of mini-livestock keeping in Delta State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of mini-livestock farmers, identify the types of animals reared as mini-livestock in the area, ascertain the reasons for keeping mini-livestock by farmers, determine the benefit level of mini-livestock farmers, and identify the problems facing mini-livestock farmers in the study area. Using snowball sampling technique, 674 respondents were sampled with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Analysis of Reproduction and Fattening Performances of Pigs under Small Scale Intensive Farming in East Shewa, Ethiopia

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" The study indicated that there were remarkable variations among the study sites in terms of reproduction and fattening performances of pigs. It could be concluded that an improvement of small scale intensive pig production system to increase animal protein sources should consider the divergent reproduction and fattening performances of the three towns"
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass analysis and organoleptic assessment of snailets of African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata) fed diets containing graded levels of dried lettuce

There is paucity of information on quality and cheap feedstuffs for snail production in the Tropics. The performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass analysis and organoleptic qualities of snailets of Archachatina marginata fed diets containing graded levels of dried lettuce (DL) were assessed in a 20 week trial.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
• Snailets were fed diets containing graded levels of dried lettuce to replace maize.
• Diets with 50% dried lettuce gave the best performance and economy of production.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Indigenous knowledge and biodiversity for sustainable food security in South-Africa

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

SENSORY EVALUATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF SELECTED COOKING METHODS ON SNAIL MEAT

Snail meat of two varieties (Archatina archatina and Archachatina marginata) were processed through lime and alum washing prior to frying and roasting as two selected cooking methods.

Jacques Mignon's insight:

Ilorin Journal of Education

 

Part abstract:

"It was concluded that roasting method of cooking snail meat is better because the methods retained their nutritive value. In addition, Archatina archatina is recommended ahead of Archachatina marginata. Furthermore, either lime or alum washing is recommended for processing snail meat."

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF GIANT LAND SNAIL (ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA) FROM A SHELLFISH PRODUCING AREA IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

Proximate and mineral composition of “the giant land snail” (Archachatina marginata) were determined for nutritional assessment using its muscular tissue. The Proximate content of the snail indicated the following mean percentage values: Moisture (69.70 %), Ash (9.39 %), Fibre (6.11 %), Protein (60.56 %), Lipid (5.675 %), Carbohydrate (18.25%) and Calorie (366.31 kcal).
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The mean concentration of amino acids were: Lysine 9.123 g/100g, Histidine 1.910 g/100g, Arginine 9.274 g/100g, Aspartic 4.758 g/100g, Threonine 4.328 g/100g, Serin 1.289 g/100g, Glutamic 9.483 g/100g, Proline 0.611g/100g, Glycine 1.753g/100g, Alanine 3.464g/100g, Cysteine 0.431g/100g, Valine 5.576 g/100g, Methionine 1.980 g/100g, Isoleucine 5.889 g/100g, Leucine 7.630 g/100g, Tyrosine 0.643 g/100g, Phenylalamine 4.428 g/100g, while Ammonia and Norleucine were not detected. The mean concentration of minerals were: Potassium 55.567 mg/100g, Calcium 48.750 mg/100g, Manganese 0.575 mg/100g, Iron 9.446 mg/100g, Magnesium 48.583 mg/100g, Copper 0.414 mg/100g, Nickel 0.039 mg/100g, Lead 0.013 mg/100g, Zinc 0.334 mg/100g, while Cobalt and Cadmium were below detectable limit. The fatty acid comprises mainly palmitic, myristic, oleic, vaccinic, linoleic, erucic, behenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. From the results of the analyses, the land snail showed good proximate and nutrient composition and would therefore serve as a good dietary source of the protein and mineral to the human body."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Nutritional evaluation of giant African land snail (Archachatina marginata var. saturalis) fed diet containing full fat rubber as a replacement for soybean

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of toasted full fat rubber seed meal on nutrient composition of meat obtained from snails fed diets with different levels of the test ingredient. One hundred and fifty - six (156) mature giant African land snails with initi al weight range of 134.91 to 135.55g and three major dietary groups consisting of thirteen diets were used in this study.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"It was evident from this study that the presence of rubber seed (up to 100%) in the three dietary groups did not reduce the nutritive value of snail meat and was also safe for human consumption."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Evaluation of african giant snails (Achatina and Archachatina) obtained from markets (wild) and breeding farms

In the Greater Accra Region there is high demand in consumption of molluscs, which indicates the need for studies on the possibility of disease transmission. Snail meat is usually susceptible to microbial contamination. Shelling is difficult with possibilities of cross contamination. Slime on the meat becomes a hurdle during commercial processing. The objective of the study was to establish the differences in the microbial load of African land snails (Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata) from two sources (market and breeding farm) and to enumerate some consumer concerns about the snail meat.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The results found that the total viable count (log10 CFU/g) ranged from 6.61±1.25 to 8.29±1.02. The total of coliform count (log10 CFU/g) ranged from 8.50±0.57 to 5.61±1.51. Salmonella count (log10 CFU/g) ranged from 2.91±3.19 to 7.39±0.45. Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas counts (log10 CFU/g) ranged from 7.68±1.40 to 2.66±2.99; 4.90±1.07 to 1.53±1.68 and 5.66±0.14 to 3.97±0.74, respectively. Most microorganisms identified were from the Enterobateriaceae family. Shelling, slime removal, contamination, price, packaging were problems associated with snail meat."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

From production to market: food habits and food safety of the quilombola community of baixo Acaraqui, Abaetetuba, Pará

From production to market: food habits and food safety of the quilombola community of baixo Acaraqui, Abaetetuba, Pará | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it
This research presents the analysis of different strategies of Food and Nutritional Security (SAN) developed by the families of the Quilombola Community of baixo Acaraqui, Abaetetuba, Pará. The community is facing changes in their eating habits due the reduction of natural resources (hunting animals, fish and shrimps), decrease of the area for agricultural production and increase of the commercial value of production.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This reality has significantly influenced the production practices and eating habits of the local families, interfering with production decisions and food acquisition, making families dependent on trade and income generation in order to ensure the SAN of the quilombola families."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Viabilidade econômica da criação de pacas (Cuniculus paca L.) em Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bahia

Entre as espécies silvestres nativas de florestas tropicais, a paca (Cuniculus paca L.) apresenta grande potencial para exploração comercial; no entanto, no Brasil, a sua produção continua sendo considerada como nicho de mercado. O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a viabilidade econômica de um criadouro comercial de paca sob três cenários distintos: Cenário 1 (animais nascidos em cativeiro, consumindo alimentos adquiridos em comércio e ração comercial), Cenário 2 (início com animais legalmente capturados alimentando-se com resíduos de frutas, ração e coprodutos da mandioca) e Cenário 3 (mesmas premissas do Cenário 2, mas com autorização de manejo ocorrendo com dois anos de antecedência).
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Mattos
Revista iPecege
Economic feasibility of paca ( Cuniculus paca L . ) farming in President e Tancredo Neves, Bahia

Abstract :
"Considering the native rainforests wildlife, paca (Cuniculus paca L .) has a great potential for commercial exploitation , however its production is a market niche in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze the financial feasibility of paca farming in three distinct scenarios: Scenario 1 (captive animals, fed with purchased fruits and commercial ration) ; Scenario 2 (animals legally caught, fed with commercial ration, fruits and cassava co - products) and ; Scenario 3 (same assumptions of Scenario 2 , but with authorization for animal management occurring two years before Scenarios 1 and 2). The scenarios were studied for Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bahia, Brazil . To compare the economic feasibility of each scenario , a cash flow was build and the following economic indicators were calculated : Net Present Value [ NPV ], Internal Rate of Return [ IRR ] and simple and discounted Payback. Feeding costs affected variable costs of Scenarios 2 and 3, resulting in a reduction of approximately 76 % the feed costs compared with Scenario 1. The scenario 1 was not feasible in the conditions studied , while Scenarios 2 and 3 were feasible, but with low profitability and low liquidity . The NPV of Scenario 2 was 20 % higher than the NPV of Scenario 3 , which was more affected by the increase in the number of animals , when compared to bureaucratic procedures, in the economic indicators studied."

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Meat from the Wild: Extractive Uses of Wildlife and Alternatives for Sustainability

Meat from the Wild: Extractive Uses of Wildlife and Alternatives for Sustainability | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "As agrarian societies evolved, techniques for planting and harvesting became technologically more advanced and more efficient (Richerson et al. 1996). Innovations thus allowed the human population to grow and to colonize nearly every terrestrial ecosystem type on Earth."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Under what circumstances can wildlife farming benefit species conservation?

Under what circumstances can wildlife farming benefit species conservation? | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it

Highlights

• Farmed wildlife products should be consider equal in quality, taste, and status.
• The demand for wildlife products cannot increase due to the legalized market.
• Wildlife farming should be more cost-efficient than poaching.
• Wildlife farms should not depend on wild populations for restocking.
• Laundering of illegal wildlife products into the commercial trade should be absent.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Laura Tensen : Part abstract
"Wild animals and their derivatives are traded worldwide. Consequent poaching has been a main threat to species conservation. As current interventions and law enforcement cannot circumvent the resulting extinction of species, an alternative approach must be considered. It has been suggested that commercial breeding can keep the pressure off wild populations, referred to as wildlife farming. During this review, it is argued that wildlife farming can benefit species conservation only if the following criteria are met ..."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Rodent meat – a sustainable way to feed the world?

The idea of rodents as game or livestock is not just a question of cultural or culinary traditions, …
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"Rats are a regular staple in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, parts of the Philippines and Indonesia, Thailand, Ghana, China and Vietnam. In South and Central America, several rodent species are highly appreciated as culinary items and some are even farmed much like pigs and cows. In some Asian countries, rodent meat is so popular, it is even sold in supermarkets."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Protein requirements of finishing paca (Cuniculus paca)

Protein requirements of finishing paca (Cuniculus paca) | Elevage non-conventionnel et mini-élevage | Scoop.it
Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho et al. 2016

Keywords : Balance trials - Comparative nutrition - Endogenous urinary nitrogen - Metabolic fecal nitrogen - Tepezcuintle - Wildlife farming
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Therefore, a minimum of 55 g crude protein per kilogram dry matter and 13 MJ/kg of digestible energy are required by finishing paca on unrestricted diets. Such values are similar to those of other wild frugivores and below those of growing rabbits. The data confirm that farmers overfeed protein, and similar growth can be more economically achieved on lower protein diets."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Growth Performance of Grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) in Captivity Fed on Pelleted Forage and Cassava Tubers with the Peel in Ghana

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Grasscutter farmers in Ghana are encouraged to feed their grasscutters with pelleted combination of Elephant grass, gliricidia leaves and cassava with the peel with either urea or soy meal with other commercial ingredient as complete diets for sustainable grasscutter production in Ghana and countries south of the sub-Saharan region."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Landscape Ethnoecology of Forest Food Harvesting in the Talamanca Bribri Indigenous Territory, Costa Rica

Olivia Sylvester and Alí García Segura (2016) Landscape Ethnoecology of Forest Food Harvesting in the Talamanca Bribri Indigenous Territory, Costa Rica. Journal of Ethnobiology: Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 215-233. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-36.1.215
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"We also illustrate how harvesting and cultivating food in the forest is important to keep the land alive. Our study further revealed how farm and forest land patches are linked through Bribri harvesting. People plant cultivated species in forests and transplant wild species into farms. These practices are important to access food, to encourage animals in spaces near dwellings, and to keep the land alive. Lastly, we illustrate spatial and temporal links among the following activities: 1) polyculture and wild harvesting (of both plants and animals), 2) shifting agriculture and harvesting wild edible greens, and 3) hunting and harvesting wild greens. Our results are relevant to forest management because we provide information about Bribri harvesting practices that forest managers have committed to supporting but have reported lacking the information to do so."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jacques Mignon
Scoop.it!

Ecology of the bushmeat trade in West and Central Africa

"The bushmeat trade in West and Central Africa embraces a broad range of ecological, economic, and conservation issues."

Jacques Mignon's insight:

Tropical Ecology 57(3): 545-557
"We suggest that the observed trends may suggest an imminent reduction of large-bodied herbivores and, as a cascade effect, also of super-predators in African moist forests."

more...
No comment yet.