Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review
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Noninvasive retinal imaging device detects Alzheimer’s up to 20 years in advance

Noninvasive retinal imaging device detects Alzheimer’s up to 20 years in advance | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it

Cedars-SinaI Medical Center researchers have developed a noninvasive retinal imaging device that can provide early detection of changes indicating Alzheimer’s disease 15 to 20 years before clinical diagnosis.

 

“In preliminary results in 40 patients, the test could differentiate between Alzheimer’s disease and non-Alzheimer’s disease with 100 percent sensitivity and 80.6 percent specificity, meaning that all people with the disease tested positive and most of the people without the disease tested negative,” said Shaun Frost, a biomedical scientist and the study manager at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia’s national science agency.

 

Keith Black, MD, professor and chair of Cedars-Sinai’s Department of Neurosurgery and director of the Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute and the Ruth and Lawrence Harvey Chair in Neuroscience, said the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaque in the brain is a hallmark sign of Alzheimer’s, but current tests detect changes only after the disease has advanced to late stages.

 

Researchers believe that as treatment options improve, early detection will be critical, but existing diagnostic methods are inconvenient, costly and impractical for routine screening.

 

“PET scans require the use of radioactive tracers, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis requires that patients undergo invasive and often painful lumbar punctures, but neither approach is quite feasible, especially for patients in the earlier stages of disease,” he said. Positron emission tomography, or PET, is the current diagnostic standard.

 

“The retina, unlike other structures of the eye, is part of the central nervous system, sharing many characteristics of the brain. A few years ago, we discovered at Cedars-Sinai that the plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease occur not only in the brain but also in the retina.

 

Reference:Shaun Frost et al., Retinal amyloid fluorescence imaging predicts cerebral amyloid burden and Alzheimer's disease, presentation at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2014, CopenhagenStudy of noninvasive retinal imaging device presented at Alzheimer's conference
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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The test has to be validated in a large number of AD patients at various stages of AD with an elderly control group with normal cognition function.

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Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review
A review of the Solanezumab (Lilly), Gantenerumab (Roche) the 2  beta amyloid monoclonal antibodies  in Phase III trials and other potential targets is provided. The failure of Bapineuzumab in Phase III trials in 2012 puta question mark on the validity of beta amyloid hypothesis. Bapineuzumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody which targets beta amyloid protein involved in Alzheimer's Disease. There are 26 million patients in the world, half in Asia and the rest in N America/Europe with AD.
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Created public version #237 of the knol: "Bapineuzumab (Pfizer, J&J, Elan) Review"

Created public version #237 of the knol: "Bapineuzumab (Pfizer, J&J, Elan) Review" | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Krishan Maggon published version 237 of a knol titled: "Bapineuzumab (Pfizer, J&J, Elan) Review"...
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Stem cells in the brain’s hypothalamus help mice stay young

Stem cells in the brain’s hypothalamus help mice stay young | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
A cluster of brain stem cells fight ageing in mice. They may do this by releasing molecules of micro-RNA – a process that anti-ageing drugs may be able to mimic
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Stem cell brain implants could 'slow ageing and extend life', study shows

Stem cell brain implants could 'slow ageing and extend life', study shows | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Researchers hope to launch human trials as breakthrough shows hypothalamus controls ageing, with treated mice remaining fitter and living 10-15% longer
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Neurosurgery: FDA-Approved MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Essential Tremor | INSIGHTEC

Neurosurgery: FDA-Approved MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Essential Tremor | INSIGHTEC | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Exablate Neuro uses MR guided Focused Ultrasound to perform a “non-invasive” thalamotomy to relieve medication refractory tremor in patients with Essential Tremor. The effect of MRgFUS is based on tissue destruction within the Vim nucleus of the thalamus which enables a highly accurate and...
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Brain Autoimmunity and Intestinal Microbiota: 100 Trillion Game Changers

Brain Autoimmunity and Intestinal Microbiota: 100 Trillion Game Changers | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
T cells play a critical role in autoimmune diseases in the brain, particularly in
multiple sclerosis (MS). Since T cells are normally prevented from crossing the blood–brain
barrier (BBB), autoimmunity requires prior activation of naturally occurring autoreactive
T cells in peripheral tissue. Recently, a critical role for the microbiota in this
activation process has emerged. Here, we review the role of gut-associated lymphoid
tissues (GALT) as a major site for the phenotypic changes that allow the migration
of autoreactive T cells to the brain.
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Fujifilm's Alzheimer's Candidate Fails Phase II Trial | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN

Fujifilm's Alzheimer's Candidate Fails Phase II Trial | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
T-817MA missed its primary endpoints of cognition or global clinical function in the trial, conducted in the U.S. in patients with mild to moderate forms of the disease
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T-817MA is an orally available neurotrophic agent being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. T-817MA's molecular target has not been disclosed, but the compound has been reported in various cell-based and preclinical models to protect neurons against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and memory deficits (e.g. Hirata et al., 2005; Nguyen et al., 2007; Kimura et al., 2009). T-817MA appears to act by promoting neurite outgrowth and preserving synaptic plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus (Takamura et al., 2014).
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Biomarkers for Alzheimer disease: Classical and Novel candidates Review

Biomarkers for Alzheimer disease: Classical and Novel candidates Review | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Highlights • This review summarizes the contribution of classical and novel biomarkers to AD diagnosis. • CSF classical biomarkers and imaging can provide an increased diagnostic accuracy. • Novel candidates recently showed a significant involvement in AD.
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Chemically-defined camelid antibody bioconjugate for the magnetic resonance imaging of Alzheimer's disease

Chemically-defined camelid antibody bioconjugate for the magnetic resonance imaging of Alzheimer's disease | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Chemically-defined camelid antibody bioconjugate for the magnetic resonance imaging of Alzheimer's disease. mAbs. Accepted 12 June 2017. doi: 10.1080/19420862.2017.1342914
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Key Advance in Neurofibromatosis Research Might Result in New Therapies | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN

Key Advance in Neurofibromatosis Research Might Result in New Therapies | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
UK scientists reveal role of normal, cellular form of prion protein in the development of neurofibromatosis 2-related tumors.
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Contrast-enhanced MR microscopy of amyloid plaques in five mouse models of amyloidosis and in human Alzheimer’s disease brains

Contrast-enhanced MR microscopy of amyloid plaques in five mouse models of amyloidosis and in human Alzheimer’s disease brains | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it

Gadolinium (Gd)-stained MRI is based on Gd contrast agent (CA) administration into the brain parenchyma. The strong signal increase induced by Gd CA can be converted into resolution enhancement to record microscopic MR images. Moreover, inhomogeneous distribution of the Gd CA in the brain improves the contrast between different tissues and provides new contrasts in MR images. Gd-stained MRI detects amyloid plaques, one of the microscopic lesions of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in APPSL/PS1M146L mice or in primates. Numerous transgenic mice with various plaque typologies have been developed to mimic cerebral amyloidosis and comparison of plaque detection between animal models and humans with new imaging methods is a recurrent concern. Here, we investigated detection of amyloid plaques by Gd-stained MRI in five mouse models of amyloidosis (APPSL/PS1M146L, APP/PS1dE9, APP23, APPSwDI, and 3xTg) presenting with compact, diffuse and intracellular plaques as well as in post mortem human-AD brains. The brains were then evaluated by histology to investigate the impact of size, compactness, and iron load of amyloid plaques on their detection by MRI. We show that Gd-stained MRI allows detection of compact amyloid plaques as small as 25 µm, independently of their iron load, in mice as well as in human-AD brains. Introduction

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Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 4955 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05285-1
Published online: 10 July 2017
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Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer’s disease

Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer’s disease | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
The protein tau forms abnormal filamentous aggregates called tangles in the brains of people with neurodegeneration. Structures of two such filaments offer pathways to a deeper understanding of Alzheimer's disease.

High-resolution structures of tau filaments shed light on the ultrastructure of neurofibrillary lesions in Alzheimer’s disease.
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Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer’s disease 

Anthony W. P. Fitzpatrick, Benjamin Falcon, Shaoda He, Alexey G. Murzin, Garib Murshudov, Holly J. Garringer, R. Anthony Crowther, Bernardino Ghetti, Michel Goedert & Sjors H. W. Scheres

Nature (2017) doi:10.1038/nature23002  
Published online 05 July 2017
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Microglial Cells Shown to Play an Active Part in Alzheimer’s Development | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN

Microglial Cells Shown to Play an Active Part in Alzheimer’s Development | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Team shows that microglia cells can actively induce neurodegeneration in diseases like Alzheimer's
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Immune Regulation of Antibody Access to Neuronal Tissues

Immune Regulation of Antibody Access to Neuronal Tissues | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
This review highlights recent advances in how the innate and adaptive immune systems
control the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the blood–nerve barrier (BNB). Interferons
and TAM receptors play key roles in innate immune control of the BBB. Cells of the
adaptive immune system, particularly CD4+ T cells, take distinct routes to enter neural
tissues and mediate immune surveillance. Furthermore, T cell-mediated opening of the
BBB and the BNB is crucial to allow antibody access and thereby block the replication
of neurotropic viruses.
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Scientists create 3D-printed brain-like tissue from stem cells

Scientists create 3D-printed brain-like tissue from stem cells | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Australian scientists have used a 3D printer to create nerve cells found in the brain using a special bio-ink made from stem cells. Key points: - Stem cells from adult cells used to make "bio-ink" - Bio-ink printed into 3D scaffold and then stem cells turned into nerve cells found in the brain - Process could be used in the future to make replacement brain tissue from patient's own skin cells The research takes us a step closer to making replacement brain tissue derived from a patient's own skin or blood cells to help treat conditions such as brain injury, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy an
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Decreased Rhes mRNA levels in the brain of patients with Parkinson’s disease and MPTP-treated macaques

Decreased Rhes mRNA levels in the brain of patients with Parkinson’s disease and MPTP-treated macaques | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
In rodent and human brains, the small GTP-binding protein Rhes is highly expressed in virtually all dopaminoceptive striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons, as well as in large aspiny cholinergic interneurons, where it is thought to modulate dopamine-dependent signaling. Consistent with this knowledge, and considering that dopaminergic neurotransmission is altered in neurological and psychiatric disorders, here we sought to investigate whether Rhes mRNA expression is altered in brain regions of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), Schizophrenia (SCZ), and Bipolar Disorder (BD), when compared to healthy controls (about 200 post-mortem samples). Moreover, we performed the same analysis in the putamen of non-human primate Macaca Mulatta, lesioned with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Overall, our data indicated comparable Rhes mRNA levels in the brain of patients with SCZ and BD, and their respective healthy controls. In sharp contrast, the putamen of patients suffering from PD showed a significant 35% reduction of this transcript, compared to healthy subjects. Interestingly, in line with observations obtained in humans, we found 27% decrease in Rhes mRNA levels in the putamen of MPTP-treated primates. Based on the established inhibitory influence of Rhes on dopamine-related responses, we hypothesize that its striatal downregulation in PD patients and animal models of PD might represent an adaptive event of the dopaminergic system to functionally counteract the reduced nigrostriatal innervation.
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How Can Stem Cells Repair the Damaged Nervous System? | SciTech Connect

How Can Stem Cells Repair the Damaged Nervous System? | SciTech Connect | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
While T.V. shows like Orphan Black depict stem cells as miracle cures for everything from cancer to aging, harnessing their potential is easier said then done.
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Synaptic Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Dysregulated Symphony

Synaptic Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Dysregulated Symphony | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and devastating
neurodegeneration, not only as a result of the extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid
peptide (Aβ) and intracellular accumulation of tau, but also as a consequence of the
dysfunction and loss of synapses. Although significant advances have been made in
our understanding of the relationship of the pathological role of Aβ and tau in synapse
dysfunction, several questions remain as to how Aβ and tau interdependently cause
impairments in synaptic function in AD.
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Dementia prevention, intervention, and care

Dementia prevention, intervention, and care | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Acting now on dementia prevention, intervention, and care will vastly improve living and dying for individuals with dementia and their families, and in doing so, will transform the future for society.
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Cerebrospinal fluid signals control the behavior of stem cells in the brain

Cerebrospinal fluid signals control the behavior of stem cells in the brain | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Prof. Fiona Doetsch's research team at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has discovered that the choroid plexus, a largely ignored structure in the brain that produces the cerebrospinal fluid, is an important regulato
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Alzheimer’s Stem Cell Research: Ask the Expert – Larry Goldstein UCSD

Alzheimer’s Stem Cell Research: Ask the Expert – Larry Goldstein UCSD | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Questions on how to find stem cell treatments for Alzheimer's disease. CIRM's Facebook readers, Twitter, and research blog sent questions in the past few weeks. Dr. Goldstein is a CIRM grantee and program director
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Stop Alzheimer’s before it starts

Stop Alzheimer’s before it starts | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
The hunt for treatments to halt Alzheimer’s disease has been frustrating; it is time to trial preventive drugs, urge Eric McDade and Randall J. Bateman.
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Stop Alzheimer’s before it starts 
Eric McDade& Randall J. Bateman
Nature 547, 153–155 (13 July 2017) doi:10.1038/547153a
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Neural Stem Cells Steered by Electric Fields in Rat Brain

Neural Stem Cells Steered by Electric Fields in Rat Brain | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
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Strongest Evidence Ever To Show How Autoimmunity Is the Cause Behind Parkinson’s Disease

Strongest Evidence Ever To Show How Autoimmunity Is the Cause Behind Parkinson’s Disease | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
EVIDENCE that Parkinson’s disease may be an autoimmune disorder could lead to new ways to trea
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Stem cell models of Alzheimer’s disease: progress and challenges

Stem cell models of Alzheimer’s disease: progress and challenges | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
A major challenge to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been the lack of physiologically relevant in vitro models which capture the precise patient genome, in the cell type of interest, with physiologica
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Antisense Oligonucleotides: Translation from Mouse Models to Human Neurodegenerative Diseases

Antisense Oligonucleotides: Translation from Mouse Models to Human Neurodegenerative Diseases | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
In this review, Schoch and Miller describe the preclinical research that is developing
and has advanced the application of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to human clinical
trials for neurodegenerative diseases. Recent clinical successes are highlighted and
support the use of ASOs as a viable therapeutic strategy.
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Novel Method for Neuron Studies May Lead to New Alzheimer’s Therapies | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN

Novel Method for Neuron Studies May Lead to New Alzheimer’s Therapies | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN | Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review | Scoop.it
Team develops tool to label neurons when they become active to provide snapshot of their activity at a given time
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