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PLOS Pathogens: Arabidopsis Actin-Depolymerizing Factor-4 Links Pathogen Perception, Defense Activation and Transcription to Cytoskeletal Dynamics

PLOS Pathogens: Arabidopsis Actin-Depolymerizing Factor-4 Links Pathogen Perception, Defense Activation and Transcription to Cytoskeletal Dynamics | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

The primary role of Actin-Depolymerizing Factors (ADFs) is to sever filamentous actin, generating pointed ends, which in turn are incorporated into newly formed filaments, thus supporting stochastic actin dynamics. Arabidopsis ADF4 was recently shown to be required for the activation of resistance in Arabidopsis following infection with the phytopathogenic bacteriumPseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) expressing the effector protein AvrPphB. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of RPS5, the cognate resistance protein of AvrPphB, was dramatically reduced in the adf4 mutant, suggesting a link between actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the transcriptional regulation of R-protein activation. By examining the PTI (PAMP Triggered Immunity) response in the adf4 mutant when challenged with Pst expressing AvrPphB, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of the PTI-specific target gene FRK1 (Flg22-Induced Receptor Kinase 1). These data are in agreement with recent observations demonstrating a requirement for RPS5 in PTI-signaling in the presence of AvrPphB. Furthermore, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase)-signaling was significantly reduced in the adf4 mutant, while no such reduction was observed in the rps5-1 point mutation under similar conditions. Isoelectric focusing confirmed phosphorylation of ADF4 at serine-6, and additional in plantaanalyses of ADF4's role in immune signaling demonstrates that nuclear localization is phosphorylation independent, while localization to the actin cytoskeleton is linked to ADF4 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for ADF4 in controlling gene-for-gene resistance activation, as well as MAPK-signaling, via the coordinated regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics and R-gene transcription.


by Katie Porter, Masaki Shimono, Miaoying Tian, Brad Day

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Plant-microbe interaction
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Front. Plant Sci.: The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid (2015)

Front. Plant Sci.: The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid (2015) | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

XopJ is a Xanthomonas type III effector protein that promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible pepper plants through the inhibition of the host cell proteasome and a resultant suppression of salicylic acid (SA) – dependent defense responses. We show here that Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing XopJ display hypersensitive response (HR) –like symptoms when exogenously treated with SA. This apparent avirulence function of XopJ was further dependent on effector myristoylation as well as on an intact catalytic triad, suggesting a requirement of its enzymatic activity for HR-like symptom elicitation. The ability of XopJ to cause a HR-like symptom development upon SA treatment was lost upon silencing of SGT1 and NDR1, respectively, but was independent of EDS1 silencing, suggesting that XopJ is recognized by an R protein of the CC-NBS-LRR class. Furthermore, silencing of NPR1 abolished the elicitation of HR-like symptoms in XopJ expressing leaves after SA application. Measurement of the proteasome activity indicated that proteasome inhibition by XopJ was alleviated in the presence of SA, an effect that was not observed in NPR1 silenced plants. Our results suggest that XopJ - triggered HR-like symptoms are closely related to the virulence function of the effector and that XopJ follows a two-signal model in order to elicit a response in the non-host plant N. benthamiana.

 

Üstün S, Bartetzko V and Börnke F

 

 


Via Nicolas Denancé
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PUB22 and PUB23 U-BOX E3 ligases directly ubiquitinate RPN6, a 26S proteasome lid subunit, for subsequent degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

PUB22 and PUB23 U-BOX E3 ligases directly ubiquitinate RPN6, a 26S proteasome lid subunit, for subsequent degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Drought stress strongly affects plant growth and development, directly connected with crop yields, accordingly. However, related to the function of U-BOX E3 ligases, the underlying molecular mechanisms of desiccation stress response in plants are still largely unknown. Here we report that PUB22 and PUB23, two U-box E3 ligase homologs, tether ubiquitins to 19S proteasome regulatory particle (RP) subunit RPN6, leading to its degradation. RPN6 was identified as an interacting substrate of PUB22 by yeast two-hybrid screening, and in vitro pull-down assay confirmed that RPN6 interacts not only with PUB22, but also with PUB23. Both PUB22 and PUB23 were able to conjugate ubiquitins on RPN6 in vitro. Furthermore, RPN6 showed a shorter protein half-life in PUB22 overexpressing plants than in wild-type, besides RPN6 was significantly stabilized in pub22pub23 double knockout plants. Taken together, these results solidify a notion that PUB22 and PUB23 can alter the activity of 26S proteasome in response to drought stress.
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Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrE localizes to the host plasma membrane and down-regulates the expression of the NDR/HIN1-like 13 gene required for antibacterial immunity in Arabidopsis

Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrE localizes to the host plasma membrane and down-regulates the expression of the NDR/HIN1-like 13 gene required for antibacterial immunity in Arabidopsis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals deliver effector proteins into host cells to promote infection. Elucidation of how pathogen effector proteins function not only is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis, but also provides a useful tool in discovering the functions of host genes. In this study, we characterized the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector protein AvrE, the founding member of a widely distributed, yet functionally enigmatic, bacterial effector family. We show that AvrE is localized in the plasma membrane (PM) and PM-associated vesicle-like structures in the plant cell. AvrE contains two physically interacting domains, and the N-terminal portion contains a PM-localization signal. Genome-wide microarray analysis indicates that AvrE, as well as a functionally-redundant effector HopM1, down-regulates the expression of the NDR1/HIN1-Like 13 gene in Arabidopsis. Mutational analysis shows that NHL13 is required for plant immunity, as the nhl13 mutant plant displayed enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results defined the action site of one of the most important bacterial virulence proteins in plants and the anti-bacterial immunity function of the NHL13 gene.
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An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion

An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4 (RIN4), which promotes stomatal opening by positively regulating the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase (AHA1), which is presumed to directly regulate guard cell turgor pressure. In support of a role of AHA1 in AvrB-induced stomatal opening, AvrB enhances ATPase activity in plants. Unexpectedly, AHA1 promotes the interaction between the jasmonate (JA) receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and enhances JA signaling. JA signaling is required for optimum stomatal infection in AHA1-active plants. Similarly, AvrB also induces the COI1-JAZ9 interaction and the degradation of multiple JAZ proteins. AvrB-induced stomatal opening and virulence require the canonical JA signaling pathway, which involves the COI1 and NAC transcription factors. The findings thus point to a previously unknown pathway exploited by P. syringae that acts upstream of COI1 to regulate JA signaling and stomatal opening.
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Chloroplast Stromules Function during Innate Immunity: Developmental Cell

Chloroplast Stromules Function during Innate Immunity: Developmental Cell | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

•Chloroplast stromules are induced during plant immune responses•Pro-PCD signals such as SA and H2O2 induce stromules•Stromules form dynamic connections with nucleus during immune responses•Constitutively induced stromules enhance PCD during plant immune responses

 

Summary

Inter-organellar communication is vital for successful innate immune responses that confer defense against pathogens. However, little is known about how chloroplasts, which are a major production site of pro-defense molecules, communicate and coordinate with other organelles during defense. Here we show that chloroplasts send out dynamic tubular extensions called stromules during innate immunity or exogenous application of the pro-defense signals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid. Interestingly, numerous stromules surround nuclei during defense response, and these connections correlate with an accumulation of chloroplast-localized NRIP1 defense protein and H2O2 in the nucleus. Furthermore, silencing and knockout ofchloroplast unusual positioning 1 (CHUP1) that encodes a chloroplast outer envelope protein constitutively induces stromules in the absence of pathogen infection and enhances programmed cell death. These results support a model in which stromules aid in the amplification and/or transport of pro-defense signals into the nucleus and other subcellular compartments during immunity.


Via Jennifer Mach
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Identification of novel Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector proteins by a machine-learning approach - Teper - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Identification of novel Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector proteins by a machine-learning approach - Teper - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. Xcv pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system that delivers effector proteins into host cells to suppress plant immunity and promote disease. The pool of known Xcv effectors includes approximately 30 proteins, most of them identified in the 85-10 strain by various experimental and computational techniques. To identify additional Xcv 85-10 effectors, we applied a genome-wide machine learning approach, in which all ORFs were scored according to their propensity to encode effectors. Scoring was based on a large set of features including genomic organization, taxonomical dispersion, hrp-dependent expression, 5’ regulatory sequences, amino acid composition bias, and GC content. Thirty-six predicted effectors were tested for translocation into plant cells by using the HR-inducing domain of AvrBs2 as a reporter. Seven proteins (XopAU, XopAV, XopAW, XopAP, XopAX, XopAK, and XopAD) harbored a functional translocation signal and their translocation relied on the HrpF translocon, indicating that they are bona fide T3S effectors. Remarkably, four of them belong to novel effector families. Inactivation of the xopAP gene reduced the severity of disease symptoms in infected plants. A decrease in cell death and chlorophyll content was observed in pepper leaves inoculated with the xopAP mutant as compared to the wild-type strain. However, populations of the xopAP mutant in infected leaves were similar in size to those of the wild-type bacteria, suggesting that the reduction in virulence was not due to an impaired bacterial growth.
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Frontiers | Auto-acetylation on K289 is not essential for HopZ1a-mediated plant defense suppression | Plant Biotic Interactions

The Pseudomonas syringae type III-secreted effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ / YopJ superfamily of effectors that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. We have previously shown that HopZ1a suppresses both local (effector-triggered immunity, ETI) and systemic immunity (systemic acquired resistance, SAR) triggered by the heterologous effector AvrRpt2. HopZ1a has been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity, and this activity is essential to trigger immunity in Arabidopsis. HopZ1a acetyltransferase activity has been reported to require the auto-acetylation of the effector on a specific lysine (K289) residue. In this paper we analyze the relevance of autoacetylation of lysine residue 289 in HopZ1a ability to suppress plant defenses, and on the light of the results obtained, we also revise its relevance for HopZ1a avirulence activity. Our results indicate that, while the HopZ1aK289R mutant is impaired to some degree in its virulence and avirulence activities, is by no means phenotypically equivalent to the catalytically inactive HopZ1aC216A, since it is still able to trigger a defense response that induces detectable macroscopic HR and effectively protects Arabidopsis from infection, reducing growth of P. syringae within the plant. We also present evidence that the HopZ1aK289R mutant still displays virulence activities, partially suppressing both ETI and SAR.
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Receptor-mediated selective autophagy degrades the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Receptor-mediated selective autophagy degrades the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) degrades various intracellular constituents to regulate a wide range of cellular functions, and is also closely linked to several human diseases. In selective autophagy, receptor proteins recognize degradation targets and direct their sequestration by double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which transport them into lysosomes or vacuoles. Although recent studies have shown that selective autophagy is involved in quality/quantity control of some organelles, including mitochondria and peroxisomes, it remains unclear how extensively it contributes to cellular organelle homeostasis. Here we describe selective autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nucleus in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify two novel proteins, Atg39 and Atg40, as receptors specific to these pathways. Atg39 localizes to the perinuclear ER (or the nuclear envelope) and induces autophagic sequestration of part of the nucleus. Atg40 is enriched in the cortical and cytoplasmic ER, and loads these ER subdomains into autophagosomes. Atg39-dependent autophagy of the perinuclear ER/nucleus is required for cell survival under nitrogen-deprivation conditions. Atg40 is probably the functional counterpart of FAM134B, an autophagy receptor for the ER in mammals that has been implicated in sensory neuropathy. Our results provide fundamental insight into the pathophysiological roles and mechanisms of /`ER-phagy/' and /`nucleophagy/' in other organisms.
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Autophagic Degradation of the 26S Proteasome Is Mediated by the Dual ATG8/Ubiquitin Receptor RPN10 in Arabidopsis

Autophagic Degradation of the 26S Proteasome Is Mediated by the Dual ATG8/Ubiquitin Receptor RPN10 in Arabidopsis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Highlights•

The Arabidopsis 26S proteasome is degraded by ATG8-mediated autophagy

This degradation is induced by nitrogen starvation and proteasome inhibition

Proteasome inhibition stimulates extensive ubiquitylation of the complex

RPN10 acts as a proteaphagy receptor by binding ubiquitylated proteasomes and ATG8

Summary

Autophagic turnover of intracellular constituents is critical for cellular housekeeping, nutrient recycling, and various aspects of growth and development in eukaryotes. Here we show that autophagy impacts the other major degradative route involving the ubiquitin-proteasome system by eliminating 26S proteasomes, a process we termed proteaphagy. Using Arabidopsis proteasomes tagged with GFP, we observed their deposition into vacuoles via a route requiring components of the autophagy machinery. This transport can be initiated separately by nitrogen starvation and chemical or genetic inhibition of the proteasome, implying distinct induction mechanisms. Proteasome inhibition stimulates comprehensive ubiquitylation of the complex, with the ensuing proteaphagy requiring the proteasome subunit RPN10, which can simultaneously bind both ATG8 and ubiquitin. Collectively, we propose that Arabidopsis RPN10 acts as a selective autophagy receptor that targets inactive 26S proteasomes by concurrent interactions with ubiquitylated proteasome subunits/targets and lipidated ATG8 lining the enveloping autophagic membranes.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors: Cell

A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors: Cell | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Summary:

Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain and forms a receptor complex with RPS4, another NB-LRR protein. This complex detects the bacterial effectors AvrRps4 or PopP2 and then activates defense. Both bacterial proteins interact with the RRS1 WRKY domain, and PopP2 acetylates lysines to block DNA binding. PopP2 and AvrRps4 interact with other WRKY domain-containing proteins, suggesting these effectors interfere with WRKY transcription factor-dependent defense, and RPS4/RRS1 has integrated a “decoy” domain that enables detection of effectors that target WRKY proteins. We propose that NB-LRR receptor pairs, one member of which carries an additional protein domain, enable perception of pathogen effectors whose function is to target that domain.


Via Freddy Monteiro
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Freddy Monteiro's curator insight, May 21, 12:50 PM

See also the back-to-back paper:

A Receptor Pair with an Integrated Decoy Converts Pathogen Disabling of Transcription Factors to Immunity http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674%2815%2900442-0

 

See also the preview:

Treasure Your Exceptions: Unusual Domains in Immune Receptors Reveal Host Virulence Targets http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674%2815%2900566-8

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Associations with rhizosphere bacteria can confer an adaptive advantage to plants

Associations with rhizosphere bacteria can confer an adaptive advantage to plants | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Host-associated microbiomes influence host health. However, it is unclear whether genotypic variations in host organisms influence the microbiome in ways that have adaptive consequences for the host. Here, we show that wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana differ in their ability to associate with the root-associated bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, with consequences for plant fitness. In a screen of 196 naturally occurring Arabidopsis accessions we identified lines that actively suppress Pseudomonas growth under gnotobiotic conditions. We planted accessions that support disparate levels of fluorescent Pseudomonads in natural soils; 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing revealed that accession-specific differences in the microbial communities were largely limited to a subset of Pseudomonadaceae species. These accession-specific differences in Pseudomonas growth resulted in enhanced or impaired fitness that depended on the host’s ability to support Pseudomonas growth, the specific Pseudomonas strains present in the soil and the nature of the stress. We suggest that small host-mediated changes in a microbiome can have large effects on host health.
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Frontiers | Proteasome targeting of proteins in Arabidopsis leaf mesophyll, epidermal and vascular tissues | Plant Systems and Synthetic Biology

Protein and transcript levels are partly decoupled as a function of translation efficiency and protein degradation. Selective protein degradation via the Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS) ensures protein homeostasis and facilitates adjustment of protein abundance during changing environmental conditions. Since individual leaf tissues have specialized functions, their protein composition is different and hence also protein level regulation is expected to differ. To understand UPS function in a tissue-specific context we developed a method termed Meselect to effectively and rapidly separate Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Epidermal and vascular tissue cells are separated mechanically, while mesophyll cells are obtained after rapid protoplasting. The high yield of proteins was sufficient for tissue-specific proteome analyses after inhibition of the proteasome with the specific inhibitor Syringolin A (SylA) and affinity enrichment of ubiquitylated proteins. SylA treatment of leaves resulted in the accumulation of 225 proteins and identification of 519 ubiquitylated proteins. Proteins that were exclusively identified in the three different tissue types are consistent with specific cellular functions. Mesophyll cell proteins were enriched for plastid membrane translocation complexes as targets of the UPS. Epidermis enzymes of the TCA cycle and cell wall biosynthesis specifically accumulated after proteasome inhibition, and in the vascular tissue several enzymes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were found to be ubiquitylated. Our results demonstrate that protein level changes and UPS protein targets are characteristic of the individual leaf tissues and that the proteasome is relevant for tissue-specific functions.

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Beyond Glycolysis: GAPDHs Are Multi-functional Enzymes Involved in Regulation of ROS, Autophagy, and Plant Immune Responses

Beyond Glycolysis: GAPDHs Are Multi-functional Enzymes Involved in Regulation of ROS, Autophagy, and Plant Immune Responses | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme in energy metabolism with diverse cellular regulatory roles in vertebrates, but few reports have investigated the importance of plant GAPDH isoforms outside of their role in glycolysis. While animals possess one GAPDH isoform, plants possess multiple isoforms. In this study, cell biological and genetic approaches were used to investigate the role of GAPDHs during plant immune responses. Individual Arabidopsis GAPDH knockouts (KO lines) exhibited enhanced disease resistance phenotypes upon inoculation with the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. KO lines exhibited accelerated programmed cell death and increased electrolyte leakage in response to effector triggered immunity. Furthermore, KO lines displayed increased basal ROS accumulation as visualized using the fluorescent probe H2DCFDA. The gapa1-2 and gapc1 KOs exhibited constitutive autophagy phenotypes in the absence of nutrient starvation. Due to the high sequence conservation between vertebrate and plant cytosolic GAPDH, our experiments focused on cytosolic GAPC1 cellular dynamics using a complemented GAPC1-GFP line. Confocal imaging coupled with an endocytic membrane marker (FM4-64) and endosomal trafficking inhibitors (BFA, Wortmannin) demonstrated cytosolic GAPC1 is localized to the plasma membrane and the endomembrane system, in addition to the cytosol and nucleus. After perception of bacterial flagellin, GAPC1 dynamically responded with a significant increase in size of fluorescent puncta and enhanced nuclear accumulation. Taken together, these results indicate that plant GAPDHs can affect multiple aspects of plant immunity in diverse sub-cellular compartments.
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Plant Journal: Rice Exo70 interacts with a fungal effector, AVR-Pii and is required for AVR-Pii-triggered immunity (2015)

Plant Journal: Rice Exo70 interacts with a fungal effector, AVR-Pii and is required for AVR-Pii-triggered immunity (2015) | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Vesicle trafficking including exocytosis pathway is intimately associated with host immunity against pathogens. However, we have still insufficiently known about how they contribute to immunity, and how pathogen factors affect them. In this study, we explored host interactors of Magnaporthe oryzae effector AVR-Pii. Gel filtration chromatography and co-immunoprecipitation assays identified a 150 kDa complex of proteins in the soluble fraction comprising AVR-Pii and OsExo70-F2 and OsExo70–F3, the two rice Exo70 proteins presumably involved in exocytosis. Simultaneous knockdown of OsExo70-F2/F3 totally abrogated Pii immune receptor-dependent resistance, but had no effect on Pia-and Pik-dependent resistance. Knockdown levels of OsExo70-F3 but not OsExo70-F2 correlated with reduction of Pii function suggesting that OsExo70-F3 is specifically involved in Pii-dependent resistance. In our current experimental conditions, overexpression of AVR-Pii or knockdown of OsExo70-F2 and -F3 genes in rice did not affect the virulence of compatible isolates of M. oryzae. AVR-Pii interaction with OsExo70-F3 seems to play a crucial role in effector triggered immunity by Pii, suggesting the role of OsExo70 as decoy or helper in Pii/AVR-Pii interactions.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Arabidopsis AZI1 family proteins mediate signal mobilization for systemic defence priming : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Arabidopsis AZI1 family proteins mediate signal mobilization for systemic defence priming : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Priming is a major mechanism behind the immunological ‘memory’ observed during two key plant systemic defences: systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR). Lipid-derived azelaic acid (AZA) is a mobile priming signal. Here, we show that the lipid transfer protein (LTP)-like AZI1 and its closest paralog EARLI1 are necessary for SAR, ISR and the systemic movement and uptake of AZA in Arabidopsis. Imaging and fractionation studies indicate that AZI1 and EARLI1 localize to expected places for lipid exchange/movement to occur. These are the ER/plasmodesmata, chloroplast outer envelopes and membrane contact sites between them. Furthermore, these LTP-like proteins form complexes and act at the site of SAR establishment. The plastid targeting of AZI1 and AZI1 paralogs occurs through a mechanism that may enable/facilitate their roles in signal mobilization.

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Phosphorylation of the Plant Immune Regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 Enhances Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity and Inhibits Flagellin-Triggered Immune Responses in Arabidopsis

Phosphorylation of the Plant Immune Regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 Enhances Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity and Inhibits Flagellin-Triggered Immune Responses in Arabidopsis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB targets multiple host proteins during infection, including the plant immune regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) and RPM1-INDUCED PROTEIN KINASE (RIPK). In the presence of AvrB, RIPK phosphorylates RIN4 at Thr-21, Ser-160, and Thr-166, leading to activation of the immune receptor RPM1. Here, we investigated the role of RIN4 phosphorylation in susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that RIN4 is a disordered protein and phosphorylation affects protein flexibility. RIN4 T21D/S160D/T166D phosphomimetic mutants exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility upon surface inoculation with P. syringae, wider stomatal apertures, and enhanced plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1 is highly expressed in guard cells, and its activation can induce stomatal opening. The ripk knockout also exhibited a strong defect in pathogen-induced stomatal opening. The basal level of RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation decreased in response to immune perception of bacterial flagellin. RIN4 Thr166D lines exhibited reduced flagellin-triggered immune responses. Flagellin perception did not lower RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation in the presence of strong ectopic expression of AvrB. Taken together, these results indicate that the AvrB effector targets RIN4 in order to enhance pathogen entry on the leaf surface as well as dampen responses to conserved microbial features.
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Spatial and temporal regulation of biosynthesis of the plant immune signal salicylic acid

Spatial and temporal regulation of biosynthesis of the plant immune signal salicylic acid | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is essential for local defense and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). When plants, such as Arabidopsis, are challenged by different pathogens, an increase in SA biosynthesis generally occurs through transcriptional induction of the key synthetic enzyme isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1). However, the regulatory mechanism for this induction is poorly understood. Using a yeast one-hybrid screen, we identified two transcription factors (TFs), NTM1-LIKE 9 (NTL9) and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), as activators of ICS1 during specific immune responses. NTL9 is essential for inducing ICS1 and two other SA synthesis-related genes, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), in guard cells that form stomata. Stomata can quickly close upon challenge to block pathogen entry. This stomatal immunity requires ICS1 and the SA signaling pathway. In the ntl9 mutant, this response is defective and can be rescued by exogenous application of SA, indicating that NTL9-mediated SA synthesis is essential for stomatal immunity. CHE, the second identified TF, is a central circadian clock oscillator and is required not only for the daily oscillation in SA levels but also for the pathogen-induced SA synthesis in systemic tissues during SAR. CHE may also regulate ICS1 through the known transcription activators CALMODULIN BINDING PROTEIN 60g (CBP60g) and SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE DEFICIENT 1 (SARD1) because induction of these TF genes is compromised in the che-2 mutant. Our study shows that SA biosynthesis is regulated by multiple TFs in a spatial and temporal manner and therefore fills a gap in the signal transduction pathway between pathogen recognition and SA production.
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Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism’s metabolic activities1, 2, 3. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated4, 5, 6, 7. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant’s redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.
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Two serine residues in Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ1a are required for acetyltransferase activity and association with the host co-factor - Ma - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Two serine residues in Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ1a are required for acetyltransferase activity and association with the host co-factor - Ma - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Summary
Gram-negative bacteria inject type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) into host cells to manipulate the immune response. The YopJ family effector HopZ1a produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae possesses acetyltransferase activity and acetylates plant proteins to facilitate infection.
Using mass spectrometry, we identified a threonine residue, T346, as the main autoacetylation site of HopZ1a. Two neighboring serine residues, S349 and S351, are required for the acetyltransferase activity of HopZ1a in vitro and are indispensable for the virulence function of HopZ1a in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we observed a conformational change of HopZ1a in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), which acts as a eukaryotic co-factor and significantly enhances the acetyltransferase activity of several YopJ family effectors. S349 and S351 are required for IP6-binding-mediated conformational change of HopZ1a.
S349 and S351 are located in a conserved region in the C-terminal domain of YopJ family effectors. Mutations of the corresponding serine(s) in two other effectors, HopZ3 of P. syringae and PopP2 of Ralstonia solanacerum, also abolished their acetyltransferase activity. These results suggest that, in addition to the highly conserved catalytic residues, YopJ family effectors also require conserved serine(s) in the C-terminal domain for their enzymatic activity.
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Cell Host Microb.: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Type III Secretion Effector Polymutants Reveal an Interplay between HopAD1 and AvrPtoB (2015)

Cell Host Microb.: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Type III Secretion Effector Polymutants Reveal an Interplay between HopAD1 and AvrPtoB (2015) | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered plant innate immune system by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Beyond redundancy and interplay, individual T3Es may interact with multiple immunity-associated proteins, rendering their analysis challenging. We constructed a Pst DC3000 polymutant lacking all 36 T3Es and restored individual T3Es or their mutants to explore the interplay among T3Es. The weakly expressed T3E HopAD1 was sufficient to elicit immunity-associated cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. HopAD1-induced cell death was suppressed partially by native AvrPtoB and completely by AvrPtoBM3, which has mutations disrupting its E3 ubiquitin ligase domain and two known domains for interacting with immunity-associated kinases. AvrPtoBM3 also gained the ability to interact with the immunity-kinase MKK2, which is required for HopAD1-dependent cell death. Thus, AvrPtoB has alternative, competing mechanisms for suppressing effector-triggered plant immunity. This approach allows the deconvolution of individual T3E activities.

 

Hai-Lei Wei, Suma Chakravarthy, Johannes Mathieu, Tyler C. Helmann, Paul Stodghill, Bryan Swingle, Gregory B. Martin, Alan Collmer


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Capping protein integrates multiple MAMP signalling pathways to modulate actin dynamics during plant innate immunity : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Capping protein integrates multiple MAMP signalling pathways to modulate actin dynamics during plant innate immunity : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Plants and animals perceive diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors and activate innate immune signalling. The actin cytoskeleton has been suggested as a target for innate immune signalling and a key transducer of cellular responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying actin remodelling and the precise functions of these rearrangements during innate immunity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate rapid actin remodelling in response to several distinct MAMP signalling pathways in plant epidermal cells. The regulation of actin dynamics is a convergence point for basal defence machinery, such as cell wall fortification and transcriptional reprogramming. Our quantitative analyses of actin dynamics and genetic studies reveal that MAMP-stimulated actin remodelling is due to the inhibition of capping protein (CP) by the signalling lipid, phosphatidic acid. In addition, CP promotes resistance against bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. These findings demonstrate that CP is a central target for the plant innate immune response.
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Cell: A Receptor Pair with an Integrated Decoy Converts Pathogen Disabling of Transcription Factors to Immunity (2015)

Cell: A Receptor Pair with an Integrated Decoy Converts Pathogen Disabling of Transcription Factors to Immunity (2015) | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Microbial pathogens infect host cells by delivering virulence factors (effectors) that interfere with defenses. In plants, intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) detect specific effector interference and trigger immunity by an unknown mechanism. The Arabidopsis-interacting NLR pair, RRS1-R with RPS4, confers resistance to different pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum bacteria expressing the acetyltransferase effector PopP2. We show that PopP2 directly acetylates a key lysine within an additional C-terminal WRKY transcription factor domain of RRS1-R that binds DNA. This disrupts RRS1-R DNA association and activates RPS4-dependent immunity. PopP2 uses the same lysine acetylation strategy to target multiple defense-promoting WRKY transcription factors, causing loss of WRKY-DNA binding and transactivating functions needed for defense gene expression and disease resistance. Thus, RRS1-R integrates an effector target with an NLR complex at the DNA to switch a potent bacterial virulence activity into defense gene activation.

 

Clémentine Le Roux, Gaëlle Huet, Alain Jauneau, Laurent Camborde, Dominique Trémousaygue, Alexandra Kraut, Binbin Zhou, Marie Levaillant, Hiroaki Adachi, Hirofumi Yoshioka, Sylvain Raffaele, Richard Berthomé, Yohann Couté, Jane E. Parker, Laurent Deslandes


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Front. Microbiol.: Phylogenomics of Xanthomonas field strains infecting pepper and tomato reveals diversity in effector repertoires and identifies determinants of host specificity (2015)

Front. Microbiol.: Phylogenomics of Xanthomonas field strains infecting pepper and tomato reveals diversity in effector repertoires and identifies determinants of host specificity (2015) | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato is caused by four distinct Xanthomonas species and is a severely limiting factor on fruit yield in these crops. The genetic diversity and the type III effector repertoires of a large sampling of field strains for this disease have yet to be explored on a genomic scale, limiting our understanding of pathogen evolution in an agricultural setting. Genomes of sixty-seven Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), Xanthomonas perforans (Xp), and Xanthomonas gardneri (Xg) strains isolated from diseased pepper and tomato fields in the southeastern and midwestern United States were sequenced in order to determine the genetic diversity in field strains. Type III effector repertoires were computationally predicted for each strain, and multiple methods of constructing phylogenies were employed to understand better the genetic relationship of strains in the collection. A division in the Xp population was detected based on core genome phylogeny, supporting a model whereby the host-range expansion of Xp field strains on pepper is due, in part, to a loss of the effector AvrBsT. Xp-host compatibility was further studied with the observation that a double deletion mutant of AvrBsT and XopQ in Xp experiences a host gain for Nicotiana benthamiana. Extensive sampling of field strains and an improved understanding of effector content will aid in efforts to design disease resistance strategies targeted against highly conserved core effectors.

 

Schwartz AR, Potnis N, Timilsina S, Wilson M, Patane J, Martins J, Minsavage GV, Dahlbeck D, Akhunova A, Almeida N, Vallad GE, Barak JD, White FF, Miller SA, Ritchie D, Goss E, Bart RS, Setubal JC, Jones JB and Staskawicz BJ

 

 


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Frontiers | Enhanced Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity by overexpression of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases | Plant-Microbe Interaction

Frontiers | Enhanced Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity by overexpression of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as the bacterial flagellin (or the derived peptide flg22) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), plants activate the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) response. The L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2) is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) possess two copies of the C-X8-C-X2-C (DUF26) motif in their extracellular domains and are thought to be involved in plant stress resistance, but data about CRK functions are scarce. Here we show that Arabidopsis overexpressing the LecRK-VI.2-responsive CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 demonstrated an enhanced PTI response and were resistant to virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Notably, the flg22-triggered oxidative burst was primed in CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 transgenics and up-regulation of the PTI-responsive gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE 1 (FRK1) was potentiated upon flg22 treatment in CRK4 and CRK6 overexpression lines or constitutively increased by CRK36 overexpression. PTI-mediated callose deposition was not affected by overexpression of CRK4 and CRK6, while CRK36 overexpression lines demonstrated constitutive accumulation of callose. In addition, Pst DC3000-mediated stomatal reopening was blocked in CRK4 and CRK36 overexpression lines, while overexpression of CRK6 induced constitutive stomatal closure suggesting a strengthening of stomatal immunity. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested that the plasma membrane localized CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 associate with the PRR FLS2. Association with FLS2 and the observation that overexpression of CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 boosts specific PTI outputs and resistance to bacteria suggest a role for these CRKs in Arabidopsis innate immunity.
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PLOS Genetics: PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses

PLOS Genetics: PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation.

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, May 11, 12:35 PM

Citation: Song J, Keppler BD, Wise RR, Bent AF (2015) PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses. PLoS Genet 11(5): e1005200. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005200


Fig 4. Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis PARP1/2 and PARG1/2.