Background Story is History
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International Institute of Social History Provides Handy Calculator to Figure Out Value of Guilders from Back When Compared to Today's Euro

Judith van Praag's insight:

How much did an art dealer make in 1962? If an early Mondriaan fetched a hundred and fifty guilders, how much would that be today in Euros? And how much would the same painting be worth in 2013? 

Next question: how many loaves of bread did 150 guilders buy in 1962?

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Background Story is History
the stuff that goes into stories, his, her, and mystery
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The Dutch Red Cross During WWII - NIOD RESEARCH www.niod.nl

The Dutch Red Cross During WWII - NIOD RESEARCH www.niod.nl | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Onderzoek naar de rol van het Nederlandse Rode Kruis (NRK) tijdens de bezetting.
Judith van Praag's insight:
A case of shouldn't have?
During the ArbeitsEinsatz when many (non-Jewish, non-Roma, straight) Dutch men go into hiding to escape working for the enemy, a young man volunteers as an aid in German hospitals. His father is appalled and concerned his son will be seen as a Nazi collaborator after WWII. 
The young man maintains caring for the wounded is the same no matter whom you care for; his volunteer work should be compared to working for the Red Cross. 
Who was correct, the father or the son?
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Designer Willem Sandberg championed rebellious type

Designer Willem Sandberg championed rebellious type | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Torn-paper montages, bold intricate lettering and catalogues that anticipated punk … The first major UK retrospective of Willem Sandberg’s work reveals a designer who was ahead of his time
Judith van Praag's insight:
Sandberg was a household name in my childhood home. As a toddler I lived with my parents and my mom's dog Peet in a small ground floor apartment on the Lijnbaansgracht, a canal just two bridges from the Rijks Museum in Amsterdam. We were regulars at the Stedelijk Museum, and I often played in the sandbox on the green facing the museum's cafetaria.
One time my dad left me and Peet with the receptionist in the lobby while he visited with Willem Sandberg. Peet got away and ran all the way home, passing the Van Gogh, running through passage of the Rijks museum, crossing the two bridges. When my dad and I returned home, my mom opened the door, telling us Peet had already arrived.
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Videoclip Harry Muskee - Window of my Eyes

Blueslegende Harry Muskee is maandagavond overleden, dat heeft zijn goede vriend en collega-programmamaker Albert Haar bekend gemaakt. Muskee had al enige ti...
Judith van Praag's insight:

Read accompanying post below for my personal memories in "Blues at Drents Museum..." and check out the link in the article on the museum's website for Blues events and activities during Bluesjaar 2016 - Blues Year.

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Pauline de Groot

Pauline de Groot | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

Modern Dance, Jazz dance, Latin American moves, I took my first lessons at the studio of Claudia Chapline in Santa Monica. One of the other students went to UCLA to study dance. An eye opener for me. I didn't know one could go to university to study the arts.
After returning from Los Angeles to the Netherlands via Strassbourg, I took classes from Pauline de Groot at her studio in the Koestraat.
Not long after I entered the discovery year at the Moderne Dansschool, at the time located in a building called De Liefde (Love) at the Da Costakade. 

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Gerzon House of Fashion in Pre-WWII Jewish Amsterdam

Gerzon House of Fashion in Pre-WWII Jewish Amsterdam | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

The "Gerzon girls" have a place in the memory bank of my early childhood in Amsterdam. What role exactly did Gerzon play in our family's life? Most likely my paternal grandmother and her daughters shopped at Gerzon, one of the first department stores in the Netherlands. Did my father buy the "cerise" twin-set for my mother at Gerzon? Did he have a business connection with the Jewish owners of this House of Fashion? A Gerzon business card pops up with hand written names pops up in my parents' wedding guest book, that later, after my father's death in 1969, will be used to collect condolence notes.

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What's in a (Jewish) Name?

What's in a (Jewish) Name? | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

Reading this article I was zapped back to my childhood, to the main room in an old farm house in the middle of the fields, up north in the Netherlands.
My mom, dad and I moved from Amsterdam (Mokum in Dutch Yiddish) to the country after my father turned 65 in 1963.
Since Papa was retired, he had plenty of time teaching his little girl all kinds of everything, perhaps more like other children's grandfathers might have done. Or at least that's what I assumed.
Among the wisdom he passed along, while showing me how to peel an orange producing one continuous spiral for instance, was knowledge about name giving, the sources of Jewish family names.

 

Take in Paul Damen's article, even of interest if you don't speak Dutch, for you may be able to get the drift of the Diaspora. Even if there's no mention of Van Praag hailing from Prague in the 18th Century.

 

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Interview with Marco Niemeijer about his documentary Little Angels - Visual Radio

Interview with Marco Niemeijer about his documentary Little Angels - Visual Radio | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Filmmaker Marco Niemeijer maakte de documentaire 'Little Angels', over zijn Joodse familiegeschiedenis. Aan de hand van bewaard familiearchief onderzoekt de documentaire de weerslag die de oorlog heeft gehad op zijn stiefoma en zijn stieftante waarin pijnlijk duidelijk wordt hoe het oorlogstrauma doorwerkt in de levens van de mensen. 'Little Angels' gaat op 24 september in première in Utrecht en is genomineerd voor de Europese filmprijs Prix Europa. Die zal in oktober worden uitgereikt.
Judith van Praag's insight:

In the second half of this radio interview we learn that Marco Niemeijer's mother survived WWII as hidden child, while his father's family was involved with the NSB (Dutch Nazi collaborators).
As a teenager he didn't want to have anything to do with his family's history. He was a world burger, a person without ties to his heritage.

At some point Niemeijer's  96-year-old step grandmother Enny, who lives in New York, shows him old films about her pre-WWII family. Niemeijer decided to make a film about this footage. In the end the film became an important documentary about the Holocaust, and intergenerational  transference of war trauma.

Hopefully we'll be able to see "Little Angels" in the U.S., I'm thinking of the Seattle Jewish Film Festival.

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Documentaire “Marte Röling & Partners” in Groninger Forum

Documentaire “Marte Röling & Partners” in Groninger Forum | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
De in noord-Groningen woonachtige kunstenares Marte Röling is afgelopen zaterdag geëerd in het Groninger Forum. Althans: daar werd in aanwezigheid van een tachtigtal genodigden een bijzondere documentaire, “Marte Röling & Partners”, vertoond.
Judith van Praag's insight:

Remembering a 1977 trip to a North sea beach with Wanda Werner and her boyfriend. To be continued.

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Bastiaans

Bastiaans | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Bastiaans en de LSD-therapie. Controverse rond een psychiatrisch experiment in Nederland
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Controversial treatment of WWII Resistance workers and Holocaust Survivors with LSD by Dutch psychiatrist Jan Bastiaans (1917-1997).

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Doubt Is Raised Over Value of Surgery for Breast Lesion at Earliest Stage

Doubt Is Raised Over Value of Surgery for Breast Lesion at Earliest Stage | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Almost all women given a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ, considered a possible precursor to breast cancer, have a lumpectomy or mastectomy, but data show they may not benefit.
Judith van Praag's insight:

Eight years ago a then 71-year-old woman asked me to research Online what D.C.I.S. (ductal carcinoma in situ) entailed. No suspicious lesions had shown up in her mammography, but a friend had done another kind of test that might show different results. And indeed, the outcome of the test was positive.

 

She ignored her doctor's recommendation to have a lumpectomy, possibly combined with radiation and/ or chemo, and instead chose for a mastectomy. This doctor was not willing to perform the mastectomy, and only the fourth doctor she approached consented. 

 

The woman's choice was in part influenced by the not uncommon fear of cancer in general, by a large number of friends whose diagnosis had dictated mastectomies, and by the notion she in her professional capacity, would be better able to counsel women with breast cancer in the future.

 

At the time I passed on the information I gleaned in the most objective manner, while my personal opinion was similar to the ones  expressed in the articles content, and covered by the title.

 

Given her age, researchers' projection of the development over time of the discovered cells, and her familiar life expectancy,  the least invasive procedure seemed the best; in my mind she underestimated the effect of the surgery on her body.

 

The outcome of the data analysis is of great importance, but whether it'll make a difference remains to be seen. After all, we'd rather be safe than sorry. And the odds, well, nobody wants to be a statistic.

 

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De Jufferen Lunsingh - Directions

De Jufferen Lunsingh - Directions | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

De Jufferen Lunsingh, Never been here, but hope to visit in the future. This IS an area in the Netherlands that I'm most familiar with. Connect the dots from Drachten to Groningen, Roden, Norg, Assen, Oosterwolde, and via Bakkeveen (not on the small map) back to Drachten and you've got the territory I spent part of my childhood from age seven to sixteen. 

Taking in images of this so familiar landscape makes my throat tighten with emotion. The natural environment appears to be so soothing, and yet this pastoral setting, where the provinces Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe meet,  represents the landscape of my youth and brings forth a memory of words by artist/poet/writer Armando, "the guilty country".

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These Couture Polo Shirts Took Up To 200 Hours to Make

These Couture Polo Shirts Took Up To 200 Hours to Make | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Photography by Alasdair McLellan You will never look at the Lacoste polo shirt in the same way again.  In the embodiment of couture cool, the French brand has collaborated with haute couture embroiderer Maison Lesage whose fairy-fingered “petites main” (tiny hands) typically work their magic on gazillion-dollar couture gowns. The resulting eight faux-oversized polo shirts and mini polo dresses are spectacular, with some calling for more than 200 hours of handiwork. “I like to do what I call my
Judith van Praag's insight:

The first (and best paid) story I wrote for publication was about Studio Francois Lesage for Pure Style, a Dutch magazine a fashion and lifestyle magazine. In the Fall of '88 I pitched the idea, and Editor in Chief Jan H. Weduwer sent me to Paris to interview the master of embroidery. 

 

Upon my return I turned in eight pages of text. "You're supposed to write an article, not a love letter," Jan said. He send me on to an editor who told me I had to cut words. 

 

At the time I was working as a set and costume designer. I knew how to cut material, textiles that is. How to cut words was a totally different matter. As far as I was concerned everything I'd written mattered. I tried my best and brought took out fifty percent. Not enough. Eventually the exasperated editor took my piece in her own hands and brought it down to a succinct piece that, together with an illustration still filled half a page. Over time I learned to cut, but not mince words. Tip: Look up embroidery in the dictionary.

 

Not long after my Paris adventure, I visited Tarun Tahiliani's House of Couture in what was then still Bombay. He told me the "atelier" in Paris only produced a small percentage of Lesage's output. The nimble fingers were Indian, he could take me to the workshop where women produced the Lesage signature embroidery for French Haute Couture.

 

I learned then that you've got to be naive to think that Haute Couture is produced solely by the fifteen in house workers necessary to be accepted by the French Haute Couture syndicate.

 

Much of today's couture is produced overseas, whether in India, Thailand or China, this cuts the production costs tremendously.

 

Buyers of Haute Couture may still fork out thousands, the fifteen lucky and the official workers in the Paris atelier get paid well, while overseas the ones with nimble fingers get perhaps one or two bucks per hour. Such is life, 99 versus the 1 percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hope Filled Jars: Quest for Love of Self - Getting Rid of Toxic Shame

Hope Filled Jars: Quest for Love of Self - Getting Rid of Toxic Shame | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

Some might say I had a difficult childhood older parents; one with double PTSD (WWI + WWII) the other suffering from chronic psychosis, both suffering from losses.

Yet, I count myself fortunate...

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House Hunters International (2016 05 12) – At the Foot of the Martini Tower in Groningen

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Judith van Praag's insight:
Check out this video. We love watching House Hunters International, it's a treat to discover places we haven't been to, as well as revisit those we know well. The folks in this episode are relocating as expats, the man has a job lined up at the university of Groningen, one of the three northern provinces, Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe in NL. 

When I was seven my parents and I moved from Amsterdam to a farmhouse at the end of a dirt path, where borders of these three provinces meet. I lived in the city Groningen from age sixteen, when I moved in with my nine-year-older boyfriend. 

The realtor first shows the couple a single family home in Haren, in the row where a school friend lived. In those days Haren was a small town, or village, now apparently considered a suburb of Groningen. The husband wants to live there, you can see how disappointed he is that his wife is adement (good for her, I'm cheering her on), she wants to be a city girl now that she has a chance. 

The realtor shows them a flat in what might be the Prefectenhof, at the foot of the Martini tower, smack downtown, located opposite the Archives, and a row of what now are historical monuments but in my time dilapidated buildings occupied by squatters such as my then boyfriend and long time ex-husband. 

I get all excited seeing the green the realtor stands on, I count the years I lived at Martinikerkhof among the happiest of my adolescence. Did or did she not tell her clients the name of the green and its surrounding cobblestone loop translates to cemetery? Would that have given the husband ammunition to shoot them back to the homely suburban spot?
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The Surprising Benefit Of Going Through Hard Times

The Surprising Benefit Of Going Through Hard Times | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Psychologists studying post-traumatic growth find that many people come to thrive in the aftermath of adversity.
Judith van Praag's insight:
One of the surprising benefits of having gone through hard times is: 
A. That it's difficult to admit to yourself or to others that you are struggling when it's happening again —you keep on truckin'. 
B. Somehow the knowledge that you have survived before, is present, somewhere, and that makes you stronger. And if A doesn't work, than you'll come up with something else.
Survival breeds survival. 
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Blues at Drents Museum Assen: Window of my eyes – 75 jaar Harry ‘Cuby’ Muskee

Blues at Drents Museum Assen: Window of my eyes – 75 jaar Harry ‘Cuby’ Muskee | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

Oh, my, I only have to see Cuby's name and his portrait picture and tears come to my eyes. He rocks nostalgia for sure. Memories of my introduction to the Blues up north in the Netherlands. The sound of Harry Muskee's band Cuby and the Blizzards is linked to my teenage years, the death of my father, my mother's psychosis, my own loneliness.

Up north far away from Amsterdam (in reality only a two hour drive from my old home town Mokum (Yiddish for Amsterdam)) this Bluesman and his band hit exactly the right chords to touch and soothe my aching heart and soul.

One summer, I was fifteen, an older girlfriend embarked on a day trip, taking several busses from our hamlet in the province of Drente to a place in the more northern province of Groningen to attend a concert of Cuby and the Blizzards.

Swaying on the Blues, we missed the last bus back to the city of Groningen, missing the last bus to our hamlet. What to do? A gal offered us a ride in her boyfriend's car, the guy had driven up from Amsterdam with a pal to attend the concert. She said we could stay at her place for the night. I slept on an upholstered bench in the living room, my friend spent the night in one of the two bedrooms.

Only a few weeks later I climbed up the Martini Tower, downtown Groningen, to discover I suffered from high anxiety. After descending the stairs I made my way on unsteady legs to cafe De Vlaamsche Reus. The waitress con bar maid recognized I had low blood sugar and quickly made me something to eat. While nursing a cup of tea and taking a bite out of a whole wheat bun with young Dutch cheese a man entered whom I had noticed before because of his chiseled features and perhaps more interesting what he wore, a blue and silver damask Medieval style jacket. He looked mod. After he ordered his drink, this older guy sat beside me and we started talking about my summer vacation.
I'd been to Cuby and the Blizzards and stayed with a girl called Gineke? That's my sister's name, and she went to that same concert, how about that, he said. Why don't we go have a tea at her place some time, that'll be a nice surprise.
And so we did.
You could say that Harry Muskee indirectly was responsible for my leaving for Los Angeles in 1974.

The last time I saw him was in Rolde. My husband and I were in Drente to attend to my mom who was living in a senior facility in Assen. We were having lunch when the legendary Cuby walked in, he wore a Aussie style coat with long tales, good to wear on horse back and a leather hat. That must have been before the end of 2002 when my mom died and we no longer had a reason to hang out in Rolde. Ten years later he was dead as well, just 70, one year younger than my father when he died. Harry Muskee lives on in his music and our memories.
RIP Harry, we're still listening.

Harry Muskee is remembered during the official Blues Year 2016 with exhibits, check out the link for the show at the Drents Museum in Assen. If you don't read Dutch click on the hyperlink in the text on the website for info on Blues in Drente and other Blues related events and activities.

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Nostalgia: Lunchroom Heck - Popularis

Nostalgia: Lunchroom Heck - Popularis | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Ontdek de geschiedenis van Amsterdam | Lees Ons Amsterdam; Ons Amsterdam is hét tijdschrift voor iedereen die van Amsterdam houdt. U ontdekt ieder nummer meer over de fascinerende geschiedenis van Amsterdam. Profiteer nu van de speciale introductieaanbieding!
Judith van Praag's insight:

After a Disney movie at Cineac my mom and I would meet my dad either at the Italian ice cream parlor next to the cinema, or at Popularis, the smaller Heck, with cafetaria style buffet and only tall tables, on the corner of Rembrandtsplein and Reguliersbreestraat.

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Hereditary Memory: Can a Child Remember What the Parent Has Forgotten?

Hereditary Memory: Can a Child Remember What the Parent Has Forgotten? | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
~ I carry someone else’s memory. Ilya Ehrenburg, Novyi mir cycle, January 1945 // Offspring of trauma survivors often feel that they carry the memory of their parents. They were not alive at the time. They were not supposed to know. Often, they...
Judith van Praag's insight:
Epigenetics. I'll be back later to comment on this.
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Alberts in Race for Herman Wijffels Innovation Prize with Bioplastic

Alberts in Race for Herman Wijffels Innovation Prize with Bioplastic | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
De Groningse saxofonist/chemicus Appie Alberts maakt kans op de Herman Wijffels Innovatieprijs. Met Gadi Rothenberg van de Universiteit van Amsterdam maakte hij plastic uit biomassa.
Judith van Praag's insight:

Two days before an old friend in the Netherlands sent me the link to this Daily News of the North article, a memory of my 1990 interview with  Albert H. Alberts PhD popped up in my mind.

At the time I worked in the theater as a designer and actors' coach, but I was flirting with the idea to become a journalist.

 

That year Alberts, to many "up north" known as Appie, saxophone player and frontman of AA & the Doctors, and my ex-husband, had returned to his Alma Mater in Groningen.

His former professor, Dr. Hans Weinberg z"l allowed the kid from the province —who left a good job in the Industrial arena for Rock'n'Roll— a spot at "the bench"; without pay, giving the "rocker" the opportunity to prove theories he came up with on and off a totally different stage.

That alone seemed to be a great story.

But, back in 1990 I didn't know what to do with the interview that started at the laboratory and ended after dinner with his (then) wife and step daughter in their home near the University. The outcome of the scientist's endeavors was still unclear, so I filed my notes for future reference. 

 

Four years later I ran into him in Amsterdam, he introduced me to his new wife, and told me over coffee at Cafe Hoppe about his new job, a research position with Philips at Eindhoven. 

 

From "Appie Alberts Doctor in de Rock-'n-Roll", the 2013 biography by Herman Sandman, I learned he never said goodbye to performing on different stages; how he wound up in the gutter and made his way back up the chemistry pipe line, landing a position at the University of Amsterdam with Dr. Gabi Rothenberg.

 

And now Dr. Albert H. Alberts may win the Herman Wijffels Innovation Prize for his invention of bioplastic. 

 

Not a bad run for a kid from the province who left the Industry for Rock'n'Roll and returned to his other passion when most would have thought such a thing impossible. 

 

The mind works in mysterious ways, creative thinkers and producers know that our brain continues working on projects even while we're doing something totally different. Alberts' example shows us that R&R is good for creativity, and that Rock'n'Roll may be good for Science.


Back in 1990 I didn't know what to do with the interview that started at the laboratory and ended after dinner with his (then) wife and step daughter in their home near the University. The outcome of Alberts' endeavors was still unclear, so I filed my notes for future reference. 

 

To have memories of that interview, of my note-taking pop up before the news reached me proves how mysterious the mind works, but also something we knew back then, in the 1970's that people world wide are connected by something even stronger than social media. 

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Historical Present Tense Gives Importance to a Moment in the Past.

Historical Present Tense Gives Importance to a Moment in the Past. | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Ik koos voor de ‘presens historicum’ - historische tegenwoordige tijd - om de lezers in het verhaal te trekken en het gevoel te geven dat ze erbij waren.
Judith van Praag's insight:

"Jake is born in Antwerp in 1898." From today's P.O.V. a moment in history presented in in present tense. Simple. In Dutch it's a little bit more complicated. Be grateful there's no "ott" unfinished present tense in English. Or is there?


'Jaap wordt geboren in Antwerpen in 1898,' vanuit hedendaags perspectief iets wat in het verleden plaats vond in ott beschrijven, dat heet Presens Historicum. Mooi, mijn moerstaal!

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Substantive Comments Against Electromagnetic War Games Navy

Substantive Comments Against Electromagnetic War Games Navy | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
What is considered a substantive comment? Who decides what is and what is not substantive? How many...
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Activist Artist Terra Holcomb puts up a fight agains plans to change magical, mystical Washington State Peninsula area to site for electromagnetic war games. 

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Bastiaans, Jan (1917-1997)

Bastiaans, Jan (1917-1997) | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Resources Huygens ING zijn bronnen die zijn uitgegeven door het Huygens Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis.
Judith van Praag's insight:

Hoping to help WWII Resistance workers who suffered from PTSD receive a special income, or pension from the Dutch government, psychiatrist Jan Bastiaans researched the effect of war trauma on these specific patients.
He insisted talk therapy was not sufficient, and pioneered in treating WWII survivors and former Resistance workers with medication, and experimented with LSD. The hallucinant would open his patients' memory banks in therapeutic sessions, thus helping them to re-experience trauma, with the idea that this could make their day-to-day life more bearable.
Bastiaans coined KZ syndrome, an often heard term heard in my childhood household.

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‘Mijn vader was door de oorlog verknipt geraakt’

‘Mijn vader was door de oorlog verknipt geraakt’ | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Familieverhalen waren op donderdag 26 maart het centrale thema van de tweede bijeenkomst van Helden en schurken, voor de zesde keer georganiseerd door het Verzetsmuseum Amsterdam, NIOD, NTR/VPRO en Historisch Nieuwsblad. Luuc Kooijmans, Rosita Steenbeek...
Judith van Praag's insight:

In the conversation that took place March 2015, members of the second or third generation, children and grandchildren of collaborators, share stories about families torn apart by choices made during WWII.

Interesting how in the synopsis the grandmother of Rosita Steenbeek is merely said to have been Jewish, the grandfather German, while many German Jews considered themselves first German and then Jewish. 

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Message from Holocaust found on attic door

Message from Holocaust found on attic door | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Jewish Scene: Man renovating his home in Dutch town of Bilthoven discovers text written on wooden panel by Jewish couple who hid in house in 1942; Yad Vashem records reveal couple was likely murdered in Auschwitz.
Judith van Praag's insight:

70 Years after the liberation the message Levie Sajet and Ester Zilberstein left in their hiding place is discovered. I'm saying their names out loud now, they haven't been forgotten. To fulfill their wish and locate relatives is an other matter.  

According to the article their names do show up on Yad Vashem's list of Pages of Testimony. Levie Sajet and Ester Zilberstein were murdered in Auschwitz.


This would be a good time to enter their names on the site of the Virtueel Joods Monument, the Virtual Jewish Monument.


On a more personal note, a fellow art student's last name was Sajet. He took me ice-skating one afternoon many winters ago. Memories.


Pronouncing a name out loud can bring forth related or even unrelated moments in time. A small memorial.

 

 

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Veriditas Botanicals | Helichrysum

Veriditas Botanicals | Helichrysum | Background Story is History | Scoop.it
Judith van Praag's insight:

Before, and even during WWII (until he was forbidden to do so) my father created snake oil and the likes for Vlisco, a small scale pharmaceutical company he named after his second wife.

 

He mixed essential oils, herbs, and who knows what, to ward off the flu (that killed his father in the epidemic of 1918), to cleanse beer glasses, and lighten muscle aches.

 

Long after he died my mother still had an oversized bottle of Vlisco kampher spirit lotion. Whenever I visited she would shake the bottle asking me to give her a back rub with the strong smelling concoction. She swore the combination of my healing hands and my father's recipe took care of any muscle pain.

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