Australian Contact History
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At least 1,000 Aboriginal founders first arrived from Asia some 50,000 years ago

At least 1,000 Aboriginal founders first arrived from Asia some 50,000 years ago | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

Indirect estimates based on carbon dating point to intentional settlement by a large population. At least 1,000 Aboriginal founders first arrived in Australia some 50,000 years ago, a reconstruction indicates — numbers that could be evidence of an intentional migration rather than the accidental stranding of a few individuals at a time. The study also finds that the population was devastated during the latest Ice Age, but later rebounded.

 

The prehistoric settlement of Australia has long been considered a simple story: a founding group of 150 people or fewer made it to the Australian mainland 50 millennia ago and grew to no more than 1.2 million by the time European settlers arrived in 1788. Debate focused on whether the founding population grew immediately after colonization or boomed later, in the past 5,000 years.

 

To tease out a demographic signal from the past, Alan Williams, an archaeologist at the Australian National University in Canberra, amassed the most comprehensive radiocarbon data set ever put together for the continent, from both published and unpublished sources. He analysed the dates of 4,575 artefacts from 1,750 archaeological sites.

 

Applying methods that others had developed to analyse a similar dataset from North American artifacts, Williams graphed the number of data points for each 200-year period, and made the assumption that for each given area, changes in the number of data points from one period to the next were a good indication of changes in population size — while correcting for the fact that some types of archaeological site can be lost over time owing to processes such as erosion. Assuming that the population would be between 750,000 and 1.2 million by the eighteenth century, he fit a smooth population curve to the data.

 

According to Williams' curve, 1,000–2,000 founders would be necessary to reach the population that was in place when the Europeans arrived. After the founders arrived, the population would have stabilized at low levels, but crashed during the most recent Ice Age, around 20,000 years ago. “To quantify the impacts of the last glacial maximum — and see a 60% reduction in population — is quite horrendous,” says Williams. After the Ice Age, population growth rates began to increase in pulses, starting 12,000 years ago.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, James Miles, Zack Aislabie, Lachlan Wilks
Taine Barker's insight:

This will be really good for history studies I would suggest you to read over.

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Zack Aislabie's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:29 PM

Interesting enough.....

Its about how people origionally migrated into Australia

Lachlan Wilks's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:36 PM

Helps with some research. Should read if doing the First Fleet or Contact history.

 

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:09 PM

The origin of the Aboriginal people in Australia.

Australian Contact History
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Captain Cook’s ivy a worthy sailor

Captain Cook’s ivy a worthy sailor | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
“Ambition leads me not only farther than any other man has been before me, but as far as I think it possible for man to go.” A quote by Captain James Cook in reference to him digging for potatoes in … Continue reading →...

Via sam osullivan, Manoli, Lachlan Wilks
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This is the reasoning for Captain Cooks voyage to Australia.

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Manoli's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:51 PM

This is well linked to contact history as it tell you that the reason captain cook travelled to Australia is cause of his ambutions of explorations

Lachlan Wilks's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:54 PM

This  is why Captain Cook came to Australia!

gemima pearson's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:03 PM

Captain james cook the great explorer

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Who Were the First Australians, and How Many Were There? - ScienceNOW

Who Were the First Australians, and How Many Were There? - ScienceNOW | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

Some 40,000 to 50,000 years ago, a band of intrepid Southeast Asians became the first humans to reach Australia, and without a single glance at a GPS unit. Now new research suggests that perhaps 3000 people—many more than previously thought—made that foray into the unknown to become the continent's founding population and the ancestors of Australia's aboriginal people.

 

 

 


Via Laran, gemima pearson
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Not completely on the topic but still talks about the aboriginal ancestors

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Zack Aislabie's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:56 PM

An explaination of the native Australian people

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:06 PM

The first Australians derived from Southeast Asia, and traveled to Australia.

angie gil's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:08 PM

everything about the first australians, how many there were and many more facts.

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Lost indigenous language revived in Australia

Lost indigenous language revived in Australia | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
The BBC's Phil Mercer reports on how an indigenous language, once thought of as dead in Australia, is now coming back to life.

Via Charles Tiayon, Shannon Pulver
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Shannon Pulver's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:41 PM

The power of the First Fleet, or the  'Colonisation' of Australia caused many indigenous launguages and cultures to be lost. This article explains how the lost 'Kaurna' language is being revived.

gemima pearson's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:54 PM

The aborignal lanuage started to die out around the 1860s. It seems to be coming back to life now

Cassidy Graham's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:05 PM

the aboriginal language began to die out at around the 1860's. This language is now coming back to life.

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Compassion the key

Compassion the key | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
Elections are not won or lost on the issue of compassion, but perhaps they should be.

 

Philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer was born in 1788, the year the First Fleet with its human cargo put down anchor. When he grew up, Schopenhauer wrote that compassion was the basis of morality. Of many and varied things he also said: ''If an action has as its motive an egoistic aim, it cannot have any moral worth.''

Have we, as a nation, grown up? Have our motives and therefore actions in relation to the treatment of asylum seekers been without ego? We are, of course, not one but many; however, the question goes to that intangible, elusive essence: the national psyche.
 

Warwick McFadyen


Via Edwin Rutsch, Shannon Pulver
Taine Barker's insight:

This is some really goosd information, I would suggest to read over a few times, it explains alot.

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Cherylynn's comment, September 9, 2013 7:33 AM
No the Nation has not grown up. We are still in let's play war games mode. It can not be the answer to everything. I understand they want the money for being mercenary but come on. Egypt survived for longer without making the people suffer. Give peace a chance.
Shannon Pulver's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:35 PM

This article explains that Australia's multiculturalism wasnt always as wide as it is now. Societies actions from the First Fleet resulted in the original founders of Australia driven away from their own country, because of the ethics of society.

gemima pearson's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:00 PM

The philospher Arthur Schopenhauer was born in 1788 the year the firts fleet arrived in australia. He wrote about elections and country lines

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Convicts and the British colonies in Australia - australia.gov.au

Convicts and the British colonies in Australia - australia.gov.au | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

On 18 January 1788 the First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay, which Joseph Banks had declared suitable for a penal colony after he returned from a journey there in 1770.


Via Kel Hathaway, Patrick L., Lachlan Wilks
Taine Barker's insight:

Giving us some information on the first fleet.

 

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angie gil's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:50 PM

a detailed summary with many facts about colanising in Australia.

megan hooper's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:01 PM

On 18 January, the fist fleet arrived in Botany Bay. The convicts were employed according to their skills. Last shipment of convicts disembarked in Western Australia in 1868, the total number of transported convicts stood at around 162,000 men and women. They were transported here on 806 ships.

teigan cotterill's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:05 PM

this website has a lot of information and i learnt a lot of new things about the convicts

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First Fleeters Deaths 1788 Sydney and Norfolk Island

First Fleeters Deaths 1788 Sydney and Norfolk Island | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
Most burials are at Sydney, please check notes for Norfolk Island, Botany Bay and La Perouse. Dates refer to burial date, unless noted.

Via lucas hodge
Taine Barker's insight:

This gives us a good insight about the convicts through this information

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lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:39 PM

This informs us with information about the convicts through out this time of history.

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A Convict Story: interactive teaching resource - Historic Houses Trust of NSW

A Convict Story: interactive teaching resource - Historic Houses Trust of NSW | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
The Historic Houses Trust is a leader in the conservation and management of historic places in Australia. As well as opening our museums to the public, we produce exhibitions, events, publications and education programs.

Via LizKelly, James Miles
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lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:47 PM

This shows how they open Mueseums to help all the people who need to find out information about the History of Convicts.

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:00 PM

There is a museum about the management of historic places in Australia.

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The First Fleet Narrative: A Captain's Log. | Grade 5W

Day 1: Departure We left Portsmouth today, well-stocked with plenty of rations. We should be quite safe with Sirius around, those convicts could cause.

Via LizKelly, James Miles
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Good Information

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James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:53 PM

The first day in a diary entry, by the Captain of a ship in the First Fleet.

Coonamblehighlibrary's curator insight, September 2, 2014 2:12 AM

Students have created a Captain's log of the first fleet

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Colonial Australia

Colonial Australia | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
Early European settlement of Australia

Via Kel Hathaway, James Miles, chloe bear
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Australian Settlement

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Zack Aislabie's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:55 PM

The settlement of Australia by convicts and the English

Manoli's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:01 PM

this is linked to contact history becaise it tells you about the early settlement Australia

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:07 PM

What life was like for the convicts in Australia.

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At least 1,000 Aboriginal founders first arrived from Asia some 50,000 years ago

At least 1,000 Aboriginal founders first arrived from Asia some 50,000 years ago | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

Indirect estimates based on carbon dating point to intentional settlement by a large population. At least 1,000 Aboriginal founders first arrived in Australia some 50,000 years ago, a reconstruction indicates — numbers that could be evidence of an intentional migration rather than the accidental stranding of a few individuals at a time. The study also finds that the population was devastated during the latest Ice Age, but later rebounded.

 

The prehistoric settlement of Australia has long been considered a simple story: a founding group of 150 people or fewer made it to the Australian mainland 50 millennia ago and grew to no more than 1.2 million by the time European settlers arrived in 1788. Debate focused on whether the founding population grew immediately after colonization or boomed later, in the past 5,000 years.

 

To tease out a demographic signal from the past, Alan Williams, an archaeologist at the Australian National University in Canberra, amassed the most comprehensive radiocarbon data set ever put together for the continent, from both published and unpublished sources. He analysed the dates of 4,575 artefacts from 1,750 archaeological sites.

 

Applying methods that others had developed to analyse a similar dataset from North American artifacts, Williams graphed the number of data points for each 200-year period, and made the assumption that for each given area, changes in the number of data points from one period to the next were a good indication of changes in population size — while correcting for the fact that some types of archaeological site can be lost over time owing to processes such as erosion. Assuming that the population would be between 750,000 and 1.2 million by the eighteenth century, he fit a smooth population curve to the data.

 

According to Williams' curve, 1,000–2,000 founders would be necessary to reach the population that was in place when the Europeans arrived. After the founders arrived, the population would have stabilized at low levels, but crashed during the most recent Ice Age, around 20,000 years ago. “To quantify the impacts of the last glacial maximum — and see a 60% reduction in population — is quite horrendous,” says Williams. After the Ice Age, population growth rates began to increase in pulses, starting 12,000 years ago.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, James Miles, Zack Aislabie, Lachlan Wilks
Taine Barker's insight:

This will be really good for history studies I would suggest you to read over.

more...
Zack Aislabie's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:29 PM

Interesting enough.....

Its about how people origionally migrated into Australia

Lachlan Wilks's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:36 PM

Helps with some research. Should read if doing the First Fleet or Contact history.

 

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:09 PM

The origin of the Aboriginal people in Australia.

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The Dreaming, Australia before 1788, Aboriginal colonisation and contact, History Year 8, NSW | Online Education Home Schooling Skwirk Australia

The Dreaming, Australia before 1788, Aboriginal colonisation and contact, History Year 8, NSW | Online Education Home Schooling Skwirk Australia | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
The Dreaming, Australia before 1788, Aboriginal colonisation and contact, History, Year 8, NSW Australian human history did not just start when the first white settlers arrived in 1788.

Via Lisa Thomas
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angie gil's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:03 PM

this tells us about the aboriginal colony being the first people on australia and all about their culture.

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:04 PM

The history of Australia started before the first white settlers.

Erin Behn's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:06 PM

Australia before British colonisation and invasion.

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Year 4 First Fleet & Convicts in Australia

Year 4 First Fleet & Convicts in Australia | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
For the first few decades of life in Australia, most of the inhabitants were either convicts, or the troops who had brought them here.

Via Maree Whiteley
Taine Barker's insight:

This looks and sounds right, from what happened in 1788

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lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:59 PM

This is all about the convicts that inhabited Australia and did hard larbour for example build farms, houses and roads etc

Cassidy Graham's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:02 PM

convicts arrived in australia in 1788, on the first fleet,this article tells you about the first fleet and what happened to onvicts.

Erin Behn's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:04 PM

Some key points about the First Fleet.

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Paintings inspired by Captain Cook's epic voyage to stay in country - The Northern Echo

Paintings inspired by Captain Cook's epic voyage to stay in country - The Northern Echo | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
The Northern Echo Paintings inspired by Captain Cook's epic voyage to stay in country The Northern Echo THE paintings inspired by Captain James Cook's first voyage of discovery to the Pacific which gave the British public their first glimpse of a...

Via gemima pearson
Taine Barker's insight:

Some really understandable stuff here.

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gemima pearson's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:27 PM

Painting of captain cook. The man who captained the first fleet.

lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:03 PM

These are photos which show images of The First Fleet

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Australian uranium discovery threatens ancient indigenous cave art - The Guardian

Australian uranium discovery threatens ancient indigenous cave art - The Guardian | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
Australian uranium discovery threatens ancient indigenous cave art The Guardian One of the world's biggest uranium producers has found a significant deposit in a remote tropical Australian mountain range near sandstone galleries holding some of the...

Via David Connolly, Shannon Pulver
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Lachlan Wilks's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:01 PM

They should leave the cave art alone! Why does this need to be ruined all because of Uranium?!?!

leo hamilton's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:03 PM

They should leave the cave art alone! Why does this need to be ruined all because of Uranium?!?!

lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:06 PM

This scoop tells informs us about the threats to the very old and sacred cave art works that the original custodians of the land created.

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DNA confirms Aboriginal culture one of Earth's oldest

DNA confirms Aboriginal culture one of Earth's oldest | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
The first Aboriginal genome sequence confirms Australia's native people left Africa 75,000 years ago.

Via Dawn Hawthorn-Jackson, Shannon Pulver
Taine Barker's insight:

This is our first blood that we know of, that6 brought aboriginal culture alive.

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gemima pearson's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:33 PM

Aborignal Australians are one of the longest lasting culture on earth!

Lachlan Wilks's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:57 PM

I never knew that Australia had one one of the Earth's oldest cultures. Very, very interesting as they left Africa over 75,000 years ago!

cy.osaki's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:02 PM

it tells how aboriginals culture is one of the oldest

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European discovery and the colonisation of Australia | australia.gov.au

European discovery and the colonisation of Australia | australia.gov.au | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

Via Chloe Kostas, Shannon Pulver
Taine Barker's insight:

Click on the link australia.gov.au

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chloe bear's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:47 PM

this has information on the first fleet, the european discovery and colonisation.

sam osullivan's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:59 PM

this is linked to contact history as the first records of European mariners sailing into 'Australian' waters occurs around 1606, and includes their observations of the land known as Terra Australias incognita (unknown southern land).

daisy fomm-kelso's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:07 PM

outline of the first fleet.

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Fleet that took first footsteps into new land - Whitby Gazette

Fleet that took first footsteps into new land - Whitby Gazette | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
Just 18 years after Captain Cook charted the country's east coast, 11 vessels made the perilous journey to establish Australia's first colony.

Via lucas hodge
Taine Barker's insight:

This is a massive moment in history as these were the first Ships to land on the Australian borders (from what we know).

 

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lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:43 PM

This is information that is about when Captain Cook andhis ships first placed their feet on Australian earth

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The First Fleet

The first eleven of these ships are today known as the First Fleet and contained the convicts and marines that are now acknowledged as the Founders of Australia. This is their story.

Via James Miles
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lucas hodge's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:51 PM

The First Fleet

ZOE MILLER's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:55 PM

this is a good website for starter information on the first fleet and contact history

chloe bear's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:58 PM

this is a good resource because it tells you of the first fleet and the convicts who were in the first fleet. It also has information on colonisation and the european discovery

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LINC Tasmania Online - Convicts in Tasmania

LINC Tasmania Online - Convicts in Tasmania | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
RT @InsideHistory: Convict records at the LINC Tasmania :: http://t.co/n1ywmdIBRa | Search for a Tasmanian convict :: http://t.co/h7nNwdICah #ozhst

Via LizKelly, James Miles
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Lachlan Wilks's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:43 PM

Convict records!

James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:04 PM

Click on a link to learn more.

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The First Fleet's 225th anniversary - Herald Sun

The First Fleet's 225th anniversary - Herald Sun | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
The First Fleet's 225th anniversary Herald Sun They arrived in Botany Bay on January 18 but despite praise from Sir Joseph Banks (who was on Captain James Cook's first great voyage of discovery, on the Endeavour 1768-1771) it was deemed unsuitable...

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James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:03 PM

The First Fleet  arrived at Botany Bay on the 18 of January, Sir Joseph Banks was apart of the First Fleet and Captain James Cook's first great voyage the Endeavour.

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Tracing the lives of British and Australian convicts

Tracing the lives of British and Australian convicts | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

The University of Liverpool will lead a £1.7million AHRC award to make it possible for people to trace the records of Londoners sentenced to either imprisonment or transportation from 1787 up to the 1920s when the last convict died.

The project, `The Digital Panopticon: The Global Impact of London Punishments, 1780-1925’ funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), will use digital technologies to bring together existing and new genealogical, biometric and criminal justice datasets held by different organisations in the UK and Australia to produce a searchable website.


Via David Connolly, Zack Aislabie
Taine Barker's insight:

Not the best for Contact history, but still about the convicts and the people

 

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James Miles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:47 PM

The "wonderful" lives of the convicts, explored by the university of Liverpool, trying to make it possible to trace the records of the Londoners.

 

layne peebles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:56 PM

the convicts lifes of the convicts was hard and harsh. they had to work all day in the blistering sun.

Erin Behn's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:05 PM

Tracing the lives of British and Australian convicts.

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The First Fleet – Australia 1787 – View from England

The First Fleet – Australia 1787 – View from England | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it
I thought as a born and bred Portsmouth chap I thought I would list the first fleet to Australia that left Portsmouth, England in 1787. Portsmouth is famous for its many famous events and people.

Via paul cuthbertson, daisy fomm-kelso, Lachlan Wilks
Taine Barker's insight:

Hmmmmmmmmmm makes me wonder.

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Erin Behn's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:03 PM

Information about where and when the First Fleet settled.

gemima pearson's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:04 PM

The english view on the first fleet

layne peebles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:07 PM

what would the convicts be thinking when thry get sent to see for 9 months to this different country where the climet is different. what would the free setterlers be think , what is this place going to be like and are there any natives and will they be hostal or friendly.

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Journals of the First Fleet | State Library of New South Wales

Journals of the First Fleet | State Library of New South Wales | Australian Contact History | Scoop.it

Explore our incredible stories online through a unique selection of digitised items from the Library's vast collections, including books, journals, letters, pictures, photos, plans, maps and ephemera


Via Maree Whiteley
Taine Barker's insight:

Cool.

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layne peebles's curator insight, November 10, 2013 5:55 PM

there were many different methods that they used to get here. some of them include maps photos and books.

cy.osaki's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:00 PM

this sight is useful because it has the journals of the first fleet

Erin Behn's curator insight, November 10, 2013 6:06 PM

Diarys' and Pictures made by convicts. in 1788 and beyond.