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Nanothermometer takes the temperature of living cells and can map millikelvin fluctuations

Nanothermometer takes the temperature of living cells and can map millikelvin fluctuations | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

A tool originally developed for quantum computers can now map temperature changes within a living cell. The technique exploits quantum effects in tiny diamond crystals, or 'nanodiamonds', to detect changes down to a few thousandths of a degree. The researchers were also able to heat selected parts of the cell using a laser. “We now have a tool to control temperature on a cellular level, and we can study how biological systems react to temperature change,” says Peter Maurer, a physicist at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and a member of the team publishing the result recently in Nature.

 

The researchers used a nanowire to inject diamond crystals into a human embryonic cell. They then shone green laser light on the cell, causing the nitrogen impurities to fluoresce with red light.

 

Variations in local temperatures inside the cell affect the intensity of red light emitted by the nitrogen–vacancy centres. The researchers were able to measure that intensity and use it to calculate the temperature of the corresponding nanodiamond. As diamond conducts heat well, the nanocrystal is likely to be the same temperature as its immediate cellular environment.

 

The researchers also injected the cell with gold nanoparticles, then trained a laser on them to heat up different parts of the cell. Thanks to their tiny diamond thermometers, they were able to precisely control where the temperature was rising and by how much.

 

A diamond-based thermometer could be a useful tool in basic biology, Maurer says, noting that a number of biological processes, ranging from gene expression to cellular metabolism, are strongly affected by temperature. For example, biologists could study the development of simple organisms, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, by controlling temperature locally. “You could heat individual cells and study whether surrounding cells slow down or speed up” their rate of reproduction, Maurer says.

 

Other teams have used fluorescent molecules to map temperature in human cells, but the Harvard thermometer is at least 10 times more sensitive than those techniques, Maurer says, detecting fluctuations of as little as 0.05 Kelvin. The authors say that there is room for improvement, however, because outside of living cells their tiny device has already achieved sensitivities of 0.0018 Kelvin.

 

The nanodiamond thermometers also have potential uses in chemistry to monitor how heat flows affect chemical reactions, especially at the interface between two substances, says David Awschalom, a physicist at the University of California in Santa Barbara, who led one of the earlier studies demonstrating diamond-based thermometry.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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This looks as if it could open up some interesting new areas for research

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Find A PhD Project: Welfare of farmed salmonids: risk factors and underlying causes of fin biting behaviour at University of Stirling

Find A PhD Project: Welfare of farmed salmonids: risk factors and underlying causes of fin biting behaviour at University of Stirling | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
Apply for a PhD: Welfare of farmed salmonids: risk factors and underlying causes of fin biting behaviour at Institute of Aquaculture; University of Stirling
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Application deadline 14th August 2015

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Naturally concurrent infections of bacterial and viral pathogens in disease outbreaks in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms

Naturally concurrent infections of bacterial and viral pathogens in disease outbreaks in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Ha Thanh Dong et al. Aquacuture - doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.06.027 

 

The reality of dead-loss in cultured fish farms due to multiple pathogen infections probably outweighs single infection. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the potential pathogens concurrently infected in natural disease outbreaks of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their pathogenicity in the red tilapia fingerling model. Co-infection of bacteria and Iridovirus was found in two affected farms. Based on conventional phenotypic tests and sequence analysis of 16S rDNA fragment, most predominant bacteria were identified as Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas veronii, and remainders were Streptococcus agalactiae, Plesiomonas shigeloides andVibrio cholerae. Experimental infection with selected single bacterial isolates demonstrated that both alpha- and beta-hemolytic A. veronii isolates were highly pathogenic to tilapia fingerling, whereas F. columnare and S. agalactiae were less virulent and P. shigeloides was avirulent. The fish exposed to A. veronii or F. columnaremimicked major internal and external clinical signs of naturally infected fish respectively. This suggests that A. veronii and F. columnare are two main pathogens co-responsible for the dead-loss of cultured tilapia farms in the present study, whereas remaining pathogens might serve as opportunistic pathogens in the disease outbreaks.

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2015 5th International Conference of Aquaculture Indonesia

2015 5th International Conference of Aquaculture Indonesia | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

October 29-31th, 2015 in Jakarta–Indonesia.


ICAI 2015 returns to be one of the favorite aquaculture meetings in Indonesia. This is the 5th event of ICAI which starting this year becomes the annual international forum for the aquaculture community - academics, researchers, students,  market and industry analysts, government officials, policy makers and industry representatives organized and hosted by Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI). This conference is designed to encourage the exchange of ideas, information and knowledge between scientists and industry personnels on important issues in aquaculture and how finding solutions and supporting to the industry. This conference will be a meeting forum and current information sharing between scientists and business actors in aquaculture coming from all over places in Asian Pacific and other countries.

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This conference includes sessions on aquatic animal health and environment as well as on feeds, genetics and other topics.

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WGS-AQUA | Pathogen Genomics in Aquaculture

WGS-AQUA | Pathogen Genomics in Aquaculture | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
Welcome to the home of the WGS-Aqua project. This is a BBSRC/NERC funded project to establish a repository for whole genome sequence data for a number of key pathogens that affect the aquaculture industry, including Vibrio anguilarum, Flavobacterium psychrophilum and Koi Herpes Virus. We are building a broad network of academics and stakeholders in aquaculture disease management, molecular epidemiology, ecological modelling and bioinformatics, both within the UK and abroad, to identify a common set of tools and standards to optimally exploit whole genome sequence (WGS) data of aquaculture pathogens for disease management.
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New network project to facilitate collaboration on whole genome sequencing of aquaculture pathogens.

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Aquatic Vet Student/New Graduate Scholarships | World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association

Aquatic Vet Student/New Graduate Scholarships | World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
Information on the WAVMA/AVMA/AVMF Educational Scholarship & Grants Program

 

WAVMA is pleased to offer financial support to a limited number of veterinary students or recent graduates of recognized veterinary schools, to allow recipients to explore a career in aquatic veterinary medicine through a variety of aquatic veterinary educational activities.  Activities supported include attending aquatic veterinary workshops, giving presentations at meetings, participating in externships, internships, or engaging in small-scale research projects.

Awards will be made on a competitive basis based on information submitted by each applicant.

 
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Deadline for applications is 15th May 2015.

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Job Opportunity: Aquatic Veterinarian, West Coast of Scotland (FHSV01)

Job Opportunity: Aquatic Veterinarian, West Coast of Scotland (FHSV01) | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Europharma Scotland Ltd, part of the Nordly Holding Group of Companies with leading positions in complete health solutions for aquaculture in Norway, Chile and a dynamic growth course in UK and Canada, is expanding its diagnostic and advisory activities in Scotland. Europharma Scotland Ltd., is currently looking to identify a suitably qualified and highly motivated individual to undertake the role of Aquatic Veterinarian on the West Coast of Scotland. The successful candidate will join the Fishguard team providing veterinary advisory and diagnostic services to the Scottish Aquaculture industry.

 

Closing date 30.05.2015.

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BBC News: Singapore sees mass fish deaths

BBC News: Singapore sees mass fish deaths | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
The sudden mass death of tonnes of fish off the coast of Singapore has upset farmers and nature lovers.
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I hope this leads to more funding for hazardous algal bloom research, monitoring and mitigation....

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2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunolog

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunolog | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

June 26th – 30th, 2016

Holiday Inn By the Bay

Portland, Maine, USA

 

"We are excited to announce the next International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology will be held in beautiful Portland, Maine.  ICFSI 2016 will be the 2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology and the first time it will be hosted in the United States.

The sea has provided food and a way of life to Maine people for centuries. Today, Maine fish and shellfish seafood is a half-billion dollar industry that supports fishing families, working waterfronts, local economies, and our heritage. Portland is one of New England’s oldest cities settled in 1633.  It is the largest city in Maine and boasts an active social scene with renowned seafood restaurants and many independent microbreweries.  For many it is a foodies dream, and Portland, Maine was voted “Foodiest Small City” in the US by Bon Appetit magazine.

The Holiday Inn by the Bay offers quality accommodation at reasonable rates, and outstanding conference facilities, with the ease and convenience of being close to the center of Portland, and Portland harbor.

And there will be lots of outstanding science too!"

John Bostock's insight:

If you are an aquatic immunologist this is probably already in your diary!

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Rema Acuicultura's curator insight, March 12, 10:58 AM

2da Conferencia Internacional de Inmunologia de Peces y Mariscos. #REMAhaciaelfuturo.

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BioWES

BioWES | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

BioWES is a software suite for managing and analysing experimental data. It is being developed in the Czech Republic with particular reference to aquaculture and fish studies. It helps in the process of creating experimental protocols and then recording and analysing results through an increasing variety of specialist add-ins. It has both local and web-based elements allowing groups from different locations to collaborate, and for protocols to be re-used in different experiments. It also includes the standard descriptors developed in the AQUAEXCEL project.  

John Bostock's insight:

This should be of interest to any research groups conducting experimental work on fish and other aquatic animals

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Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology

Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
New paper from Stian Mørch Aaen, Kari Olli Helgesen, Marit Jørgensen Bakke, Kiranpreet Kaur and Tor Einar Horsberg; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, School of Veterinary Science, Sea Lice Research Centre, Oslo, Norway Drug-resistant sea lice are emerging in several salmonid-producing countries.Of the five compound groups available, resistance has been reported towards three.Efforts are being put into investigating genetic markers, physiology and biochemistry.The sensitivity status of sea lice populations could thus be monitored more easily.

 

Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids.

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Further useful insights into the problems of drug resistance when combating parasites

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Second Announcement: EAFP - 17th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

Second Announcement: EAFP - 17th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

On behalf of the Council of the European Association of Fish Pathologists and the Local Organising Committee we cordially invite you to participate in the seventeenth International Conference of the Association. The conference will be held at the Auditorium Alfredo Kraus, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain from 7th to 11th September 2015. The Auditorium of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria bears the name of Alfredo Kraus, the internationally renowned opera singer in recognition of his contribution to the world of music. The building that houses the Alfredo Kraus Auditorium, the work of architect Oscar Tusquets, is one of the most outstanding and representative constructions of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Situated at the end of Las Canteras Beach, this isolated and independent fortress was designed as a lighthouse to identify and protect the city. Ever since it was opened, the image of the Alfredo Kraus Auditorium as a sentry watching over Las Canteras Beach, has become one of the most emblematic views of the city. .

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Second announcement for the 2015 EAFP Conference

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Employing phages to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture : Projects Issue 36

Employing phages to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture : Projects Issue 36 | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The viability of aquaculture is threatened by diseases that can cause illness and mortality. Worryingly, due to the consequent need for antibiotic treatments in these environments, some bacteria may eventually become resistant, a problem already threatening treatment of human infections, As an alternative solution, scientists are examining the viability of deploying viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria, (phages).

John Bostock's insight:

Not a new idea, but hopefully useful progress towards future solutions.

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Urgent appeal to control spread of the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei EHP - NACA

Urgent appeal to control spread of the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei EHP - NACA | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a microsporidian parasite that was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009 (Tourtip et al. 2009. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 102: 21-29). It was discovered in slow growing shrimp but was not statistically associated with slow growth at that time. EHP is confined to the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and morphologically resembles an unnamed microsporidian previously reported in the HP of Penaeus japonicas from Australia in 2001. Together, these studies suggest that EHP is not an exotic pathogen but that it is endemic to Australasia. Later, it was found that EHP could also infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia and that it could be transmitted directly from shrimp to shrimp by the oral route (Tangprasittipap et al. 2013. BMC Vet Res. 9:139). This differed from the most common microsporidian previously reported from cotton shrimp, where transmission required an intermediate fish host, allowing disruption of transmission by exclusion of fish from the production system.

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An article by Kallaya Sritunyalucksana and colleagues highlighting the potential threat by this parasite and providing advice on control.

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Aquaculture Magazine - Current status of shrimp diseases in Asia

Aquaculture Magazine - Current status of shrimp diseases in Asia | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
Excerpt from Thirteenth Meeting of the Asia Regional Advisory Group on Aquatic Animal Health NETWORK OF AQUACULTURE CENTRES IN ASIA-PACIFIC 28 February 2015
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Nice overview by leading expert Tim Flegel 

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SMART SHRIMP AQUACULTURE WORKSHOP for the ASIA PACIFIC REGION

SMART SHRIMP AQUACULTURE WORKSHOP for the ASIA PACIFIC REGION | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
25 September 2015 - Venue : Asian Institute of Technology, (AIT)

Bangkok, Thailand.

 

The workshop will bring together world’s leading experts who will present many proven solutions to stem the EMS tide and set the goal for a more prosperous shrimp farming using the latest technological advancements on the topic. It is hoped that the event will be greatly beneficial for participants to generate a wealth of information from and apply these techniques for improving shrimp production in their aquaculture enterprises.
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Good opportunity to catch up on the latest research and knowledge on EMS

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Workshop on Biofloc Technology and Shrimp Disease December 2013 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Workshop on Biofloc Technology and Shrimp Disease December 2013 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Disease continues to be one of the biggest challenges facing the global marine shrimp farming industry. Over the past thirty years improving shrimp farming technologies have enabled increasing intensification, improved growth rates and more sustainable farming practices. Nevertheless, catastrophic disease outbreaks have plagued growers in major producing countries worldwide culminating in the current epidemic of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease.

An expanding number of anecdotal observations from production systems along with limited controlled research results, suggest that biofloc systems help to reduce incidence of shrimp and fish disease outbreaks. It has been suggested that this may be related to more stable and broad based microbial communities in these systems. Though intriguing, the reliability and scope of the data is limited and contrary examples have been reported.

The objective reporting, responsible and balanced consideration of the information available by members of the professional aquaculture community can provide a foundation for the establishment of research priorities and practical applications which may be applied towards holistic solutions for the grave disease problems currently facing the industry.

The goal of this workshop was to gather a group of interested and experienced people to discuss the issue, to summarize what we know and to define the major information gaps. In light of these presentations and discussions workshop outputs may serve to highlight recommended research priorities and potential practical means to reduce disease outbreaks.

John Bostock's insight:

Rather late finding and posting this, but the report from this workshop is a great resource on shrimp health and recent research in shrimp system management

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Job advert – Professor of Aquatic Veterinary Pathology at the University of Stirling

Job advert – Professor of Aquatic Veterinary Pathology at the University of Stirling | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
The post, at professorial level, is an exciting opportunity to contribute to the ongoing success of the Stirling Institute of Aquaculture in one of our core areas of scientific endeavour.

The successful candidate will have an established international profile in aquatic pathology and a significant track record of external grant funding for projects. Experience in successfully transferring research-based knowledge to commercial, policy and regulatory organisations through sponsored research, consultancy, continuing professional development and commercial services is expected. The successful candidate will have access to existing histopathology laboratory facilities and other imaging infrastructure (e.g. confocal scanning-laser microscope, laser dissection microscope, slides scanner, Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope).

Strong professorial leadership and the capacity to make a direct contribution to research, teaching and leadership within the programmes of the School is expected together with support, development and guidance of colleagues. They will be able to demonstrate familiarity with, and understanding of, the challenges and opportunities that face higher education in Scotland, the UK and internationally.
John Bostock's insight:

If you are a fish vet with research experience - give this your serious consideration!

 

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Nitrate Levels in Aquaculture May Be More Dangerous Than You Think

Nitrate Levels in Aquaculture May Be More Dangerous Than You Think | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Modest levels of nitrate nitrogen – in the 75 to 100 mg/L range – may be more harmful to aquaculture-raised rainbow trout than producers realize. A team of scientists at the Conservation Fund’s Freshwater Institute led by John Davidson documented deformities and significant behavioral changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with nitrate nitrogen concentrations at levels less than one-tenth the recommended maximum nitrate nitrogen level of 1,000 mg/L. They believe the changes were spurred by chronic exposure to nitrate nitrogen. 


Via YSI
John Bostock's insight:

I hope there is more research on this!

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Pierre Garsi's curator insight, May 7, 12:30 AM

Les NO3- : probablement  plus dangereux que l'on ne le pense....!

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The Aquaculturists: 27/04/2015: Immunostimulation in aquatic animals

The Aquaculturists: 27/04/2015: Immunostimulation in aquatic animals | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Article discussing the use of Safmannan® which is extracted from a selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and contains beta glucans and mannan oligosaccharides that are activators of the immune system.


Via Perendale Publishers (Tuti Tan)
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A two tube, nested PCR detection method for AHPND bacteria - News

A two tube, nested PCR detection method for AHPND bacteria - News | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

A new method for the detection of AHPND bacteria AP4 has been published. The advantage of the AP4 method over the previously published AP3 method is that the it has 100 times higher sensitivity. Because of its higher sensitivity, the bacterial culture enrichment step needed when using the AP3 with low levels of AHPND bacteria may be omitted. However, the AP4 method should not be considered as a replacement for the AP3 method but simply as an alternative choice for the users to choose should they need a more sensitive detection method.


The AP4 PCR method was developed entirely by Thai scientists working in Thailand at Centex Shrimp,the Shrimp-virus interaction laboratory, BIOTEC and Aquatic Animal Health Research Center and Charoen Pokphand Co. Ltd. It was also supported entirely by research funding from Thailand. 

John Bostock's insight:

Sorry - a little late spotting and publishing this.

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AQUAEXCEL TNA Project: New Herbal Anaesthetics for Fish

AQUAEXCEL TNA Project: New Herbal Anaesthetics for Fish | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Türker Bodur from Akdeniz Üniversitesi in Turkey recently visited the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria under the EU AQUAEXCEL Programme to use the Spanish infrastructure for research on herbal anaesthetics.

 

Three different herbal extracts used in order to anaesthetize European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and meagre (Argyrosomusregius) juveniles in this project. The project had two experiments. First we checked the suitable dosage of new anaesthetics for fish species. In second experiment, we checked the stress effect of new anaesthetics on species. Hence, we sampled blood from the fish at 4 timing points (0h, 2h, 6h and 24h) after the fish anaesthetized. Also stress genes expression will be analysed from anterior kidney, liver and gill tissues.

John Bostock's insight:

This is one of the 97 collaborative research projects supported under the AQUAEXCEL Transnational Access to Research Infrastructures programme.

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MaCuMBA: Summer School 2015

MaCuMBA: Summer School 2015 | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

MACUMBA SUMMER SCHOOL 2015: "SAMPLING, ISOLATION & CULTIVATION OF MARINE MICROORGANISMS"

12 – 24 July 2015, Texel, The Netherlands

The MaCuMBA consortium is pleased to announce that the project will host a summer school on sampling, isolation and cultivation of marine microorganisms in July 2015. During this two-week course, participants will have the opportunity to interact with experts in the field and obtain first-hand experience of isolation and cultivation design along with various other techniques.

 

Course description

Morning lectures will be given by leading microbiologists who will present their ideas about the design of culture media, single cell isolation techniques, identification, and screening for bioactive compounds and their application by the biotechnology industry.

Demonstrations and hands-on practical work related to these topics will be carried out in the afternoons. In small groups, the participants will discuss and practice different isolation techniques for microbes including open seawater, marine sediments and substrates (e.g. seaweeds). A matrix of different marine systems, isolation techniques and culturing methods will be offered to the participants. Participants will design appropriate cultivation media and growth circumstances for photoautotrophic and chemoauto- and heterotrophic microorganisms. Enrichment cultures, dilution to extinction, batch and continuous cultivation, plate and cellto-cell communication will be part of the training. Aerobic and anaerobic cultivation will be possible under different environmental conditions. State-of-the-art identification techniques will be available for processing the samples.

 

Target audience

Technicians, PhD students and Postdoctoral scientists with background knowledge in microbiology (required) are invited to apply. The course is open to both MaCuMBA project partners and external applicants.

 

Registration deadline is 16th March 2015.

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John Bostock's curator insight, January 31, 12:30 PM

This should be of particular interest to any new entrants into the area of marine biotechnology. 

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MSD Animal Health Develops New Fish Vaccine Against Most Prevalent Disease Affecting Tilapia

MSD Animal Health Develops New Fish Vaccine Against Most Prevalent Disease Affecting Tilapia | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
GLOBAL - MSD Animal Health (known as Merck Animal Health in the USA and Canada) has introduced a new fish vaccine as a promising measure to help protect tilapia and other fish against the biotype 1 strain of Streptococcus agalactiae, which is the biotype specific to Thailand and other key tilapia-producing regions in Asia, including Malaysia.
John Bostock's insight:

Good to see all the research efforts now translated to a marketed product that should make a real difference for the industry.

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Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila

Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Guojun Yin, L. Ardo, K.D. Thompson, A. Adams, Z Jeney & G. Jeney - Fish & Shellfish Immunology Vol 28, Issue 1:

 

The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment and fed the same diets as described above. Control fish (negative control) and fish vaccinated only (positive control) were fed basal diets without supplements of herbs. The respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity and circulatory antibody titres in plasma were monitored. Following 5 weeks after feeding, fish were infected with A. hydrophila and mortalities were recorded.

The results of this study showed that feeding non-vaccinated and vaccinated carp with combination of Astragalus and Ganoderma stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme and circulatory antibody titres in plasma in vaccinated carp. Fish challenged with A. hydrophila had variable survival. The best survival (60%) was in vaccinated group fed with both herbs, while almost 90% of control fish (negative control) and 60% of fish vaccinated only (positive control) died.

 
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Withdrawal time for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim following treatment of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus)

Withdrawal time for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim following treatment of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus) | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Tran Minh Phu et al, Aquaculture - In Press 2014

 

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) have been widely used to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture. Little is known about the elimination of SMX and TMP in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus). The aim of this study was therefore to validate a LC-MS/MS method and use it for establishing the withdrawal period for SMX and TMP following treatment of striped catfish and red tilapia.

 

The work demonstrated that a validated LC-MS/MS combined with Agilent Bond Elut QuEChERS extraction performed well for the analysis of SMX and TMP and is recommended for routine analysis in striped catfish muscle. A withdrawal time of 15 days for striped catfish and three days for red tilapia treated with TMP and SMX is sufficient to meet the EU MRLs for fish intended for human consumption.

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