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Nanothermometer takes the temperature of living cells and can map millikelvin fluctuations

Nanothermometer takes the temperature of living cells and can map millikelvin fluctuations | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

A tool originally developed for quantum computers can now map temperature changes within a living cell. The technique exploits quantum effects in tiny diamond crystals, or 'nanodiamonds', to detect changes down to a few thousandths of a degree. The researchers were also able to heat selected parts of the cell using a laser. “We now have a tool to control temperature on a cellular level, and we can study how biological systems react to temperature change,” says Peter Maurer, a physicist at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and a member of the team publishing the result recently in Nature.

 

The researchers used a nanowire to inject diamond crystals into a human embryonic cell. They then shone green laser light on the cell, causing the nitrogen impurities to fluoresce with red light.

 

Variations in local temperatures inside the cell affect the intensity of red light emitted by the nitrogen–vacancy centres. The researchers were able to measure that intensity and use it to calculate the temperature of the corresponding nanodiamond. As diamond conducts heat well, the nanocrystal is likely to be the same temperature as its immediate cellular environment.

 

The researchers also injected the cell with gold nanoparticles, then trained a laser on them to heat up different parts of the cell. Thanks to their tiny diamond thermometers, they were able to precisely control where the temperature was rising and by how much.

 

A diamond-based thermometer could be a useful tool in basic biology, Maurer says, noting that a number of biological processes, ranging from gene expression to cellular metabolism, are strongly affected by temperature. For example, biologists could study the development of simple organisms, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, by controlling temperature locally. “You could heat individual cells and study whether surrounding cells slow down or speed up” their rate of reproduction, Maurer says.

 

Other teams have used fluorescent molecules to map temperature in human cells, but the Harvard thermometer is at least 10 times more sensitive than those techniques, Maurer says, detecting fluctuations of as little as 0.05 Kelvin. The authors say that there is room for improvement, however, because outside of living cells their tiny device has already achieved sensitivities of 0.0018 Kelvin.

 

The nanodiamond thermometers also have potential uses in chemistry to monitor how heat flows affect chemical reactions, especially at the interface between two substances, says David Awschalom, a physicist at the University of California in Santa Barbara, who led one of the earlier studies demonstrating diamond-based thermometry.


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This looks as if it could open up some interesting new areas for research

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2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunolog

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunolog | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

June 26th – 30th, 2016

Holiday Inn By the Bay

Portland, Maine, USA

 

"We are excited to announce the next International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology will be held in beautiful Portland, Maine.  ICFSI 2016 will be the 2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology and the first time it will be hosted in the United States.

The sea has provided food and a way of life to Maine people for centuries. Today, Maine fish and shellfish seafood is a half-billion dollar industry that supports fishing families, working waterfronts, local economies, and our heritage. Portland is one of New England’s oldest cities settled in 1633.  It is the largest city in Maine and boasts an active social scene with renowned seafood restaurants and many independent microbreweries.  For many it is a foodies dream, and Portland, Maine was voted “Foodiest Small City” in the US by Bon Appetit magazine.

The Holiday Inn by the Bay offers quality accommodation at reasonable rates, and outstanding conference facilities, with the ease and convenience of being close to the center of Portland, and Portland harbor.

And there will be lots of outstanding science too!"

John Bostock's insight:

If you are an aquatic immunologist this is probably already in your diary!

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BioWES

BioWES | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

BioWES is a software suite for managing and analysing experimental data. It is being developed in the Czech Republic with particular reference to aquaculture and fish studies. It helps in the process of creating experimental protocols and then recording and analysing results through an increasing variety of specialist add-ins. It has both local and web-based elements allowing groups from different locations to collaborate, and for protocols to be re-used in different experiments. It also includes the standard descriptors developed in the AQUAEXCEL project.  

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This should be of interest to any research groups conducting experimental work on fish and other aquatic animals

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Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology

Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
New paper from Stian Mørch Aaen, Kari Olli Helgesen, Marit Jørgensen Bakke, Kiranpreet Kaur and Tor Einar Horsberg; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, School of Veterinary Science, Sea Lice Research Centre, Oslo, Norway Drug-resistant sea lice are emerging in several salmonid-producing countries.Of the five compound groups available, resistance has been reported towards three.Efforts are being put into investigating genetic markers, physiology and biochemistry.The sensitivity status of sea lice populations could thus be monitored more easily.

 

Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids.

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Further useful insights into the problems of drug resistance when combating parasites

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Second Announcement: EAFP - 17th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

Second Announcement: EAFP - 17th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

On behalf of the Council of the European Association of Fish Pathologists and the Local Organising Committee we cordially invite you to participate in the seventeenth International Conference of the Association. The conference will be held at the Auditorium Alfredo Kraus, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain from 7th to 11th September 2015. The Auditorium of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria bears the name of Alfredo Kraus, the internationally renowned opera singer in recognition of his contribution to the world of music. The building that houses the Alfredo Kraus Auditorium, the work of architect Oscar Tusquets, is one of the most outstanding and representative constructions of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Situated at the end of Las Canteras Beach, this isolated and independent fortress was designed as a lighthouse to identify and protect the city. Ever since it was opened, the image of the Alfredo Kraus Auditorium as a sentry watching over Las Canteras Beach, has become one of the most emblematic views of the city. .

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Second announcement for the 2015 EAFP Conference

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Employing phages to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture : Projects Issue 36

Employing phages to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture : Projects Issue 36 | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The viability of aquaculture is threatened by diseases that can cause illness and mortality. Worryingly, due to the consequent need for antibiotic treatments in these environments, some bacteria may eventually become resistant, a problem already threatening treatment of human infections, As an alternative solution, scientists are examining the viability of deploying viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria, (phages).

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Not a new idea, but hopefully useful progress towards future solutions.

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Urgent appeal to control spread of the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei EHP - NACA

Urgent appeal to control spread of the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei EHP - NACA | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a microsporidian parasite that was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009 (Tourtip et al. 2009. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 102: 21-29). It was discovered in slow growing shrimp but was not statistically associated with slow growth at that time. EHP is confined to the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and morphologically resembles an unnamed microsporidian previously reported in the HP of Penaeus japonicas from Australia in 2001. Together, these studies suggest that EHP is not an exotic pathogen but that it is endemic to Australasia. Later, it was found that EHP could also infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia and that it could be transmitted directly from shrimp to shrimp by the oral route (Tangprasittipap et al. 2013. BMC Vet Res. 9:139). This differed from the most common microsporidian previously reported from cotton shrimp, where transmission required an intermediate fish host, allowing disruption of transmission by exclusion of fish from the production system.

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An article by Kallaya Sritunyalucksana and colleagues highlighting the potential threat by this parasite and providing advice on control.

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Biosecurity in fish farms - YouTube

A short video on biosecurity in recirculated aquaculture units featuring Alicia Estévez, IRTA researcher for ITACA project.

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A good basic video on an important topic

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Institute of Aquaculture: The 4th PhD Research Conference - 18 Feb 2015

Institute of Aquaculture: The 4th PhD Research Conference - 18 Feb 2015 | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Invitation from the University of Stirling, Institute of Aquaculture:

 

"This is the fourth postgraduate conference in what has proved a popular and interesting opportunity for our Ph.D. researchers to showcase their work, its quality and impact, and to provide a meeting place where students, staff, stakeholders, and sponsors across the aquaculture and wider sectors can liaise. What is more, it is completely free to attend! We hope you will join us for this day-long conference where you will have the opportunity to listen to a series of oral presentations on a wide range of subjects, and browse poster presentations by PhDs and young researchers from around the globe.

Conference delegates (both visitors to the university and university staff and students) are required to pre-register for the conference. Online registration will only take you a couple of minutes to complete. An early response would be appreciated to help us to plan facilities and catering for the day".

John Bostock's insight:

Check the date now and join us if you can for this lively and stimulating event which must be one of the best value in the International Aquaculture Calendar!

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John Bostock's curator insight, November 18, 2014 9:15 AM

Check the date now and join us if you can for this lively and stimulating event which must be one of the best value in the International Aquaculture Calendar! 

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Feed Additives Needed to Combat Multiple Mycotoxin Presence: Takeaway from 8th World Mycotoxin Forum

Feed Additives Needed to Combat Multiple Mycotoxin Presence: Takeaway from 8th World Mycotoxin Forum | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
The rationale for using feed additives to combat the multi-mycotoxin occurrence in animal feedstock emerged during the eighth World Mycotoxin Forum that ran 10-12 November.
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Improvements are Needed in Reporting of Accuracy Studies for Diagnostic Tests Used for Detection of Finfish Pathogens

Improvements are Needed in Reporting of Accuracy Studies for Diagnostic Tests Used for Detection of Finfish Pathogens | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Gardner, I.A., Burnley, T & Caraguel, C. (2014). Improvements are Needed in Reporting of Accuracy Studies for Diagnostic Tests Used for Detection of Finfish Pathogens. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health: Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 203-209. doi: 10.1080/08997659.2014.938867

 

Indices of test accuracy, such as diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, are important considerations in test selection for a defined purpose (e.g., screening or confirmation) and affect the interpretation of test results. Many biomedical journals recommend that authors clearly and transparently report test accuracy studies following the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines (www.stard-statement.org). This allows readers to evaluate overall study validity and assess potential bias in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reporting quality of studies evaluating test accuracy for finfish diseases using the 25 items in the STARD checklist. Based on a database search, 11 studies that included estimates of diagnostic accuracy were identified for independent evaluation by three reviewers. For each study, STARD checklist items were scored as “yes,” “no,” or “not applicable.” Only 10 of the 25 items were consistently reported in most (≥80%) papers, and reporting of the other items was highly variable (mostly between 30% and 60%). Three items (“number, training, and expertise of readers and testers”; “time interval between index tests and reference standard”; and “handling of indeterminate results, missing data, and outliers of the index tests”) were reported in less than 10% of papers. Two items (“time interval between index tests and reference standard” and “adverse effects from testing”) were considered minimally relevant to fish health because test samples usually are collected postmortem. Modification of STARD to fit finfish studies should increase use by authors and thereby improve the overall reporting quality regardless of how the study was designed. Furthermore, the use of STARD may lead to the improved design of future studies

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Essential reading for aquatic animal pathologist researchers...

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Introduction to mathematical modelling for the environmental and biological sciences

Introduction to mathematical modelling for the environmental and biological sciences | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Are you a researcher in the biological sciences?

Would you like to know more about mathematical modelling?

This course will equip you with the concepts and basic skills of mathematical and statistical modelling.

You will be guided through the key steps of researching the question, formulating model frameworks, parameterisation and integrating data, and performing model criticism.

Our course tutors have a mixture of physical and life science backgrounds.

 
John Bostock's insight:

This course involves tutors working in aquatic animal disease epidemiology and other areas relating to aquatic animal health

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The Fish Site - Health Challenges in Tilapia Culture in Brazil

The Fish Site - Health Challenges in Tilapia Culture in Brazil | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
In line with the level of investment, changes in concepts with regards to sanitary and health management can ensure stable and efficiency in production. Risk reduction from diseases requires continuous diagnosis of pathogens, adoption of biosecurity measures and immunoprophylaxis by vaccination by a specialised veterinary service delivery in aquatic health, write Santiago Benites de Pádua, co-founder at Aquivet Saúde Aquática, Brazil and Claudinei da Cruz.
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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms » Detection and surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus using real-time RT-PCR. I. Initial comparison of four protocol

Diseases of Aquatic Organisms » Detection and surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus using real-time RT-PCR. I. Initial comparison of four protocol | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Eight laboratories worked collectively to evaluate 4 real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) protocols targeting viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) being considered for deployment to a USA laboratory testing network. The protocols utilized previously published primers and probe sets developed for detection and surveillance of VHSV. All participating laboratories received and followed a standard operating protocol for extraction and for each of the rRT-PCR assays. Performance measures specifically evaluated included limit of detection (defined as the smallest amount of analyte in which 95% of the samples are classified as positive), analytical specificity, assay efficiency across genotype representatives, within- and between-plate variation within a laboratory, and variation between laboratories using the same platform, between platforms, and between software versions. This evaluation clearly demonstrated that the TaqMan®-based assay developed by Jonstrup et al. (2013; J Fish Dis 36:9-23) produced the most consistent analytical performance characteristics for detecting all genotypes of VHSV across the 8 participating laboratories.

 
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AQUAEXCEL TNA Project: New Herbal Anaesthetics for Fish

AQUAEXCEL TNA Project: New Herbal Anaesthetics for Fish | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Türker Bodur from Akdeniz Üniversitesi in Turkey recently visited the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria under the EU AQUAEXCEL Programme to use the Spanish infrastructure for research on herbal anaesthetics.

 

Three different herbal extracts used in order to anaesthetize European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and meagre (Argyrosomusregius) juveniles in this project. The project had two experiments. First we checked the suitable dosage of new anaesthetics for fish species. In second experiment, we checked the stress effect of new anaesthetics on species. Hence, we sampled blood from the fish at 4 timing points (0h, 2h, 6h and 24h) after the fish anaesthetized. Also stress genes expression will be analysed from anterior kidney, liver and gill tissues.

John Bostock's insight:

This is one of the 97 collaborative research projects supported under the AQUAEXCEL Transnational Access to Research Infrastructures programme.

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MaCuMBA: Summer School 2015

MaCuMBA: Summer School 2015 | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

MACUMBA SUMMER SCHOOL 2015: "SAMPLING, ISOLATION & CULTIVATION OF MARINE MICROORGANISMS"

12 – 24 July 2015, Texel, The Netherlands

The MaCuMBA consortium is pleased to announce that the project will host a summer school on sampling, isolation and cultivation of marine microorganisms in July 2015. During this two-week course, participants will have the opportunity to interact with experts in the field and obtain first-hand experience of isolation and cultivation design along with various other techniques.

 

Course description

Morning lectures will be given by leading microbiologists who will present their ideas about the design of culture media, single cell isolation techniques, identification, and screening for bioactive compounds and their application by the biotechnology industry.

Demonstrations and hands-on practical work related to these topics will be carried out in the afternoons. In small groups, the participants will discuss and practice different isolation techniques for microbes including open seawater, marine sediments and substrates (e.g. seaweeds). A matrix of different marine systems, isolation techniques and culturing methods will be offered to the participants. Participants will design appropriate cultivation media and growth circumstances for photoautotrophic and chemoauto- and heterotrophic microorganisms. Enrichment cultures, dilution to extinction, batch and continuous cultivation, plate and cellto-cell communication will be part of the training. Aerobic and anaerobic cultivation will be possible under different environmental conditions. State-of-the-art identification techniques will be available for processing the samples.

 

Target audience

Technicians, PhD students and Postdoctoral scientists with background knowledge in microbiology (required) are invited to apply. The course is open to both MaCuMBA project partners and external applicants.

 

Registration deadline is 16th March 2015.

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John Bostock's curator insight, January 31, 12:30 PM

This should be of particular interest to any new entrants into the area of marine biotechnology. 

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MSD Animal Health Develops New Fish Vaccine Against Most Prevalent Disease Affecting Tilapia

MSD Animal Health Develops New Fish Vaccine Against Most Prevalent Disease Affecting Tilapia | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
GLOBAL - MSD Animal Health (known as Merck Animal Health in the USA and Canada) has introduced a new fish vaccine as a promising measure to help protect tilapia and other fish against the biotype 1 strain of Streptococcus agalactiae, which is the biotype specific to Thailand and other key tilapia-producing regions in Asia, including Malaysia.
John Bostock's insight:

Good to see all the research efforts now translated to a marketed product that should make a real difference for the industry.

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Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila

Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Guojun Yin, L. Ardo, K.D. Thompson, A. Adams, Z Jeney & G. Jeney - Fish & Shellfish Immunology Vol 28, Issue 1:

 

The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment and fed the same diets as described above. Control fish (negative control) and fish vaccinated only (positive control) were fed basal diets without supplements of herbs. The respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity and circulatory antibody titres in plasma were monitored. Following 5 weeks after feeding, fish were infected with A. hydrophila and mortalities were recorded.

The results of this study showed that feeding non-vaccinated and vaccinated carp with combination of Astragalus and Ganoderma stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme and circulatory antibody titres in plasma in vaccinated carp. Fish challenged with A. hydrophila had variable survival. The best survival (60%) was in vaccinated group fed with both herbs, while almost 90% of control fish (negative control) and 60% of fish vaccinated only (positive control) died.

 
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Withdrawal time for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim following treatment of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus)

Withdrawal time for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim following treatment of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus) | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Tran Minh Phu et al, Aquaculture - In Press 2014

 

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) have been widely used to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture. Little is known about the elimination of SMX and TMP in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus). The aim of this study was therefore to validate a LC-MS/MS method and use it for establishing the withdrawal period for SMX and TMP following treatment of striped catfish and red tilapia.

 

The work demonstrated that a validated LC-MS/MS combined with Agilent Bond Elut QuEChERS extraction performed well for the analysis of SMX and TMP and is recommended for routine analysis in striped catfish muscle. A withdrawal time of 15 days for striped catfish and three days for red tilapia treated with TMP and SMX is sufficient to meet the EU MRLs for fish intended for human consumption.

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Cambridge Journals Online - Parasitology - Abstract - Economic costs of protistan and metazoan parasites to global mariculture

Cambridge Journals Online - Parasitology - Abstract - Economic costs of protistan and metazoan parasites to global mariculture | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Parasites have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, having significant effects on farm production, sustainability and economic viability. Parasite infections and impacts can, according to pathogen and context, be considered to be either unpredictable/sporadic or predictable/regular. Although both types of infection may result in the loss of stock and incur costs associated with the control and management of infection, predictable infections can also lead to costs associated with prophylaxis and related activities. The estimation of the economic cost of a parasite event is frequently complicated by the complex interplay of numerous factors associated with a specific incident, which may range from direct production losses to downstream socio-economic impacts on livelihoods and satellite industries associated with the primary producer. In this study, we examine the world's major marine and brackish water aquaculture production industries and provide estimates of the potential economic costs attributable to a range of key parasite pathogens using 498 specific events for the purposes of illustration and estimation of costs. This study provides a baseline resource for risk assessment and the development of more robust biosecurity practices, which can in turn help mitigate against and/or minimise the potential impacts of parasite-mediated disease in aquaculture.

 
John Bostock's insight:

The economic impact of aquatic animal parasites and disease is very poorly documented, so this is a major and very welcome contribution from Andy Shinn and colleagues 

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John Bostock's curator insight, December 11, 2014 3:06 PM

Congratulations to Andy Shinn and his co-authors on this massive review of the economic impact of parasites on mariculture. This should be widely read by students of aquaculture for its contribution to risk assessment and management, but also by investors and policy makers who might decide to allocate a little more resource to research and health management...

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Mutated salmon louse DNA spread throughout the North Atlantic in 11 years or less

Mutated salmon louse DNA spread throughout the North Atlantic in 11 years or less | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
A recent study has demonstrated that genetic changes giving the salmon louse partial resistance towards one of the most commonly used delousing chemicals in marine aquaculture (emamectin benzoate/Slice) have spread to salmon lice in the entire...

Via Αλιεία alieia.info, Aquaculturedirectory
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An important study which underlines the challenges faced by sealice researchers and the need for international cooperation and coordination

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9th Symposium on Diseases on Asian Aquaculture (DAA9) - Book of Abstracts

9th Symposium on Diseases on Asian Aquaculture (DAA9) - Book of Abstracts | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The programme and book of abstracts for the 9th Conference on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture is now available for download.

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Best wishes for a great conference everyone!

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Immunopathogenesis of chronic Mycobacterium marinum infection in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)

PhD Thesis: Gilta Jaeckel, University of Stirling, 2014.


Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global epidemic disease despite its discovery over 100 years ago. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which invades and replicates within macrophages, key cells of the innate immune system. The hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma which is an accumulation of Mycobacterium-infected cells surrounded by immune cells, and the containment of the bacteria is assured as long as the host immune response remains intact. Despite a well-developed immune response in the infected host, reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) may occur through the introduction of other bacterial pathogens, re-infection with M. tuberculosis or due to other immunosuppression, e.g. AIDS or cancer. The zebrafish–M. marinum model provides an ideal system for examining the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and the associated immune response of the host due to its vertebrate-like immune system, and the close phylogenetic relationship of M. marinum to M. tuberculosis. Granuloma formation and immune response to M. marinum have been investigated mainly in zebrafish embryos or larvae, which lack an adaptive immune response, and little work has been performed in adult fish. This complicates the transfer of findings in these models to chronic, latent or re-activated disease stages in humans, where adaptive immunity plays an important part. The aim of the research presented here was to investigate the immune response of the adult zebrafish to M. marinum infection, with the focus on the kidney as one of the major immune organs in fish. The results obtained support further use of the adult zebrafish-M. marinum model for human tuberculosis infections in the future.

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Important work for future medical research using zebra fish as a model species.

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Probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines, and their role as feed supplements in the control of bacterial fish diseases - Newaj-Fyzul - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases

Probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines, and their role as feed supplements in the control of bacterial fish diseases - Newaj-Fyzul - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

There is a rapidly increasing literature pointing to the success of probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines in immunomodulation, namely stimulation of the innate, cellular and/or humoral immune response, and the control of bacterial fish diseases. Probiotics are regarded as live micro-organisms administered orally and leading to health benefits. However, in contrast with the use in terrestrial animals, a diverse range of micro-organisms have been evaluated in aquaculture with the mode of action often reflecting immunomodulation. Moreover, the need for living cells has been questioned. Also, key subcellular components, including lipopolysaccharides, have been attributed to the beneficial effect in fish. Here, there is a link with immunostimulants, which may also be administered orally. Furthermore, numerous plant products have been reported to have health benefits, namely protection against disease for which stimulation of some immune parameters has been reported. Oral vaccines confer protection against some diseases, although the mode of action is usually linked to humoral rather than the innate and cellular immune responses. This review explores the relationship between probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines.

 
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An interesting review article taking a broader perspective on probiotics and immunostimulants.

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Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: A review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections

Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: A review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

David T. Gauthier - Accepted Manuscript:


Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This manuscript reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level.

John Bostock's insight:

A very useful addition to the literature on aquatic zoonoses.

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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms » Detection and surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus using real-time RT-PCR. II. Diagnostic evaluation of two protocols

Diseases of Aquatic Organisms » Detection and surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus using real-time RT-PCR. II. Diagnostic evaluation of two protocols | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Two real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays under consideration for deployment to multiple testing laboratories across the USA were evaluated for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity on tissue homogenates obtained from natural and experimental viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS)-infected fish. Estimates for diagnostic specificity using virus isolation as the reference method were similar between laboratories regardless of the assay. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.97) for Jonstrup et al. (2013)’s assay (J Fish Dis 36:9-23) exceeded the diagnostic sensitivity of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.87) for Phelps et al. (2012)’s assay (J Aquat Anim Health24:238-243). The Jonstrup rRT-PCR assay is robust as demonstrated by high sensitivity and specificity estimates across laboratories and can be used as a valuable tool for targeted surveillance and for testing of suspect VHSV samples.

 
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